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1.  Sleep medicine: Present and future 
Annals of Thoracic Medicine  2012;7(3):113-114.
doi:10.4103/1817-1737.98841
PMCID: PMC3425040  PMID: 22924066
2.  Saudi regulations for the accreditation of sleep medicine physicians and technologists 
The professional content of sleep medicine has grown significantly over the past few decades, warranting the recognition of sleep medicine as an independent specialty. Because the practice of sleep medicine has expanded in Saudi Arabia over the past few years, a national regulation system to license and ascertain the competence of sleep medicine physicians and technologists has become essential. Recently, the Saudi Commission for Health Specialties formed the National Committee for the Accreditation of Sleep Medicine Practice and developed national accreditation criteria. This paper presents the newly approved Saudi accreditation criteria for sleep medicine physicians and technologists.
doi:10.4103/1817-1737.105710
PMCID: PMC3573555  PMID: 23440260
Accreditation; licensing; sleep medicine; sleep technology; technicians; technologists
3.  Sleep estimation using BodyMedia's SenseWear™ armband in patients with obstructive sleep apnea 
Annals of Thoracic Medicine  2013;8(1):53-57.
OBJECTIVES:
We aimed to evaluate the validity of the BodyMedia's SenseWear™ Armband (BSA) device in estimating total sleep time (TST) in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA).
METHODS:
Simultaneous overnight recordings of in-laboratory polysomnography (PSG) and BSA were performed on (1) 107 OSA patients (mean age of 45.2 ± 14.3 years, mean apnea hypopnea index of 43 ± 35.7/hr and (2) 30 controls matched with OSA patients for age and body mass index. An agreement analysis between the PSG and BSA scoring results was performed using the Bland and Altman method.
RESULTS:
There was no significant difference in OSA patients between BSA and PSG with regard to TST, total wake time, and sleep efficiency. There was also no significant difference in the controls between BSA and PSG with regard to TST, total wake time, and sleep efficiency. Bland Altman plots showed strong agreement between TST, wake time, and sleep efficiency for both OSA and the controls. The intraclass correlation coefficients revealed perfect agreement between BSA and PSG in different levels of OSA severity and both genders.
CONCLUSION:
The current data suggest that BSA is a reliable method for determining sleep in patients with OSA when compared against the gold standard test (PSG). BSA can be a useful tool in determining sleep in patients with OSA and can be combined with portable sleep studies to determine TST.
doi:10.4103/1817-1737.105720
PMCID: PMC3573559  PMID: 23440703
Actigraphy; armband; polysomnography; portable monitoring; sleep apnea; sleep duration; sleep-disordered breathing; type 4 sleep study
4.  Sleep architecture of consolidated and split sleep due to the dawn (Fajr) prayer among Muslims and its impact on daytime sleepiness 
Annals of Thoracic Medicine  2012;7(1):36-41.
BACKGROUND:
Muslims are required to wake up early to pray (Fajr) at dawn (approximately one and one-half hours before sunrise). Some Muslims wake up to pray Fajr and then sleep until it is time to work (split sleep), whereas others sleep continuously (consolidated sleep) until work time and pray Fajr upon awakening.
AIM:
To objectively assess sleep architecture and daytime sleepiness in consolidated and split sleep due to the Fajr prayer.
SETTING AND DESIGN:
A cross-sectional, single-center observational study in eight healthy male subjects with a mean age of 32.0 ± 2.4 years.
METHODS:
The participants spent three nights in the Sleep Disorders Center (SDC) at King Khalid University Hospital, where they participated in the study, which included (1) a medical checkup and an adaptation night, (2) a consolidated sleep night, and (3) a split-sleep night. Polysomnography (PSG) was conducted in the SDC following the standard protocol. Participants went to bed at 11:30 PM and woke up at 7:00 AM in the consolidated sleep protocol. In the split-sleep protocol, participants went to bed at 11:30 PM, woke up at 3:30 AM for 45 minutes, went back to bed at 4:15 AM, and finally woke up at 7:45 AM. PSG was followed by a multiple sleep latency test to assess the daytime sleepiness of the participants.
RESULTS:
There were no differences in sleep efficiency, the distribution of sleep stages, or daytime sleepiness between the two protocols.
CONCLUSION:
No differences were detected in sleep architecture or daytime sleepiness in the consolidated and split-sleep schedules when the total sleep duration was maintained.
doi:10.4103/1817-1737.91560
PMCID: PMC3277040  PMID: 22347349
Consolidated sleep; daytime sleepiness; Fajr prayer; sleep architecture; split sleep
5.  Sleep from an Islamic perspective 
Annals of Thoracic Medicine  2011;6(4):187-192.
Sleep medicine is a relatively new scientific specialty. Sleep is an important topic in Islamic literature, and the Quran and Hadith discuss types of sleep, the importance of sleep, and good sleep practices. Islam considers sleep as one of the signs of the greatness of Allνh (God) and encourages followers to explore this important sign. The Quran describes different types of sleep, and these correspond with sleep stages identified by modern science. The Quran discusses the beneficial effects of sleep and emphasizes the importance of maintaining a pattern of light and darkness. A mid-day nap is an important practice for Muslims, and the Prophet Muhammad peace be upon him (pbuh) promoted naps as beneficial. In accordance with the practice and instructions of Muhammad (pbuh), Muslims have certain sleep habits and these sleep habits correspond to some of the sleep hygiene rules identified by modern science. Details during sleep include sleep position, like encouraging sleep on the right side and discouraging sleep in the prone position. Dream interpretation is an established science in the Islamic literature and Islamic scholars have made significant contributions to theories of dream interpretation. We suggest that sleep scientists examine religious literature in general and Islamic literature in particular, to understand the views, behaviors, and practices of ancient people about the sleep and sleep disorders. Such studies may help to answer some unresolved questions in sleep science or lead to new areas of inquiry.
doi:10.4103/1817-1737.84771
PMCID: PMC3183634  PMID: 21977062
Circadian rhythm; dreams; Islam; Quran; sleep
6.  Sleep medicine in Saudi Arabia: Current problems and future challenges 
Annals of Thoracic Medicine  2011;6(1):3-10.
Sleep medicine is a relatively new specialty in the medical community. The practice of sleep medicine in Saudi Arabia (KSA) began in the mid to late nineties. Since its inception, the specialty has grown, and the number of specialists has increased. Nevertheless, sleep medicine is still underdeveloped in the KSA, particularly in the areas of clinical service, education, training and research. Based on available data, it appears that sleep disorders are prevalent among Saudis, and the demand for sleep medicine service is expected to rise significantly in the near future. A number of obstacles have been defined that hinder the progress of the specialty, including a lack of trained technicians, specialists and funding. Awareness about sleep disorders and their serious consequences is low among health care workers, health care authorities, insurance companies and the general public. A major challenge for the future is penetrating the educational system at all levels to demonstrate the high prevalence and serious consequences of sleep disorders. To attain adequate numbers of staff and facilities, the education and training of health care professionals at the level of sleep medicine specialists and sleep technologists is another important challenge that faces the specialty. This review discusses the current position of sleep medicine as a specialty in the KSA and the expected challenges of the future. In addition, it will guide clinicians interested in setting up new sleep medicine services in the KSA or other developing countries through the potential obstacles that may face them in this endeavor.
doi:10.4103/1817-1737.74269
PMCID: PMC3023868  PMID: 21264164
Developing countries; Saudi Arabia; sleep; sleep centers; sleep disordered breathing; sleep laboratories; sleep medicine
7.  Obesity hypoventilation syndrome 
Annals of Thoracic Medicine  2009;4(2):41-49.
Obesity is becoming a major medical concern in several parts of the world, with huge economic impacts on health- care systems, resulting mainly from increased cardiovascular risks. At the same time, obesity leads to a number of sleep-disordered breathing patterns like obstructive sleep apnea and obesity hypoventilation syndrome (OHS), leading to increased morbidity and mortality with reduced quality of life. OHS is distinct from other sleep- related breathing disorders although overlap may exist. OHS patients may have obstructive sleep apnea/hypopnea with hypercapnia and sleep hypoventilation, or an isolated sleep hypoventilation. Despite its major impact on health, this disorder is under-recognized and under-diagnosed. Available management options include aggressive weight reduction, oxygen therapy and using positive airway pressure techniques. In this review, we will go over the epidemiology, pathophysiology, presentation and diagnosis and management of OHS.
doi:10.4103/1817-1737.49411
PMCID: PMC2700483  PMID: 19561923
Obesity hypoventilation syndrome; positive pressure ventilation; sleep-disordered breathing

Results 1-7 (7)