The professional content of sleep medicine has grown significantly over the past few decades, warranting the recognition of sleep medicine as an independent specialty. Because the practice of sleep medicine has expanded in Saudi Arabia over the past few years, a national regulation system to license and ascertain the competence of sleep medicine physicians and technologists has become essential. Recently, the Saudi Commission for Health Specialties formed the National Committee for the Accreditation of Sleep Medicine Practice and developed national accreditation criteria. This paper presents the newly approved Saudi accreditation criteria for sleep medicine physicians and technologists.
Accreditation; licensing; sleep medicine; sleep technology; technicians; technologists
This an updated guidelines for the diagnosis and management of asthma, developed by the Saudi Initiative for Asthma (SINA) group, a subsidiary of the Saudi Thoracic Society. The main objective of SINA is to have updated guidelines, which are simple to understand and easy to use by non-asthma specialists, including primary care and general practice physicians. This new version includes updates of acute and chronic asthma management, with more emphasis on the use of Asthma Control Test in the management of asthma, and a new section on “difficult-to-treat asthma.” Further, the section on asthma in children was re-written to cover different aspects in this age group. The SINA panel is a group of Saudi experts with well-respected academic backgrounds and experience in the field of asthma. The guidelines are formatted based on the available evidence, local literature, and the current situation in Saudi Arabia. There was an emphasis on patient–doctor partnership in the management that also includes a self-management plan. The approach adopted by the SINA group is mainly based on disease control as it is the ultimate goal of treatment.
Asthma; asthma control test; guidelines; Saudi Arabia
There are many health effects caused by leaked radiation from damaged reactors of a nuclear power plant. However, the effect on pulmonary system is not reported much. Focusing on the present nuclear denotation crisis in Japan, it is wise to review on the specific issue of pulmonary disorder and nuclear denotation. Several disorders of interest, including malignancy and non-malignancy disorders, are mentioned in the literature.
Disorder; nuclear denotation; pulmonary
Nitric oxide (NO) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) play important physiologic roles as mediators of signaling processes. However, high concentrations of NO and ROS result in damage to cellular and extracellular components. Excessive production of endogenous and/or exogenous ROS and NO is implicated in the pathogenesis of lung cancer. NO and its metabolites interact with ROS to generate potent nitrating agents leading to protein nitration, which is one of the several chemical modifications that occur during oxidative/nitrosative stress. Although there is considerable evidence in support of a role for NO in protein modifications and carcinogenesis, recent data suggest that NO has antagonistic cellular effects, leading to either promotion or inhibition of tumor growth. However, the role of NO in tumor biology is still poorly understood. This review demonstrates the role of NO and its metabolites as potential markers in lung cancer.
Carcinogenesis; oxidative stress; lung cancer; nitric oxide; protein modification
There is limited data about the performance of QuantiFERON-TB Gold (QFT-G) test in detecting latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) in our region. We intended to determine the performance of QFT-G compared to conventional tuberculin skin test (TST) in detecting LTBI in HIV-positive individuals in Iran.
This study was conducted in a HIV clinic in Tehran, Iran in April 2007. A total of 50 consecutive HIV-positive patients, not currently affected with active tuberculosis (TB), were recruited; 43 (86%) were male. The mean age was 38 ± 7.2 years (21–53). All had history of Bacillus Calmette Guerin (BCG) vaccination. A TST with purified protein derivative (PPD) and whole-blood interferon-gamma release assay (IGRA) in reaction to ESAT-6 and CFP-10 antigens was performed and measured by enzyme-linked immuno-sorbent assay (ELISA). The agreement between TST and QFT-G results were analyzed using Kappa test.
A total of 36 (72%) patients had negative and 14 (28%) revealed positive TST. For QFT-G, 20 (40%) tested positive, 19 (38%) tested negative, and the results in 11 cases (22%) were indeterminate. A total of 14 (28%) patients had a CD4 count of <200. Of the 14, TST + group, 12 had QFT-G +, only one case TST+/QFT-G-, and QFT-G was indeterminate in one TST positive case. Of the 36 patients with negative TST tests, 8 (22%) had positive GFT-G and 10 (28%) yielded indeterminate results. There was no association between a positive TST and receiving highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART) or absolute CD4 counts. Similarly, the association between QFT-G results and receiving HAART or CD4 counts was not significant (P = 0.06). Although TST results were not significantly different in patients with CD4 < 200 vs. CD4 >200 (P = 0.295), association between QFT-G results and CD4 cutoff of 200 reached statistical significance (P = 0.027). Agreement Kappa coefficient between TST and QFT-G was 0.54 (Kappa = 0.54, 95% CI = 38.4-69.6,P < 0.001).
Detecting LTBI in HIV-positive individuals showed moderate agreement between QFT-G and LTBI in our study. Interestingly, our findings revealed that nontuberculous mycobacteria and prior BCG vaccination have minimal influence on TST results in HIV patients in Iran.
Diagnosis; Iran; smoking; tobacco; tuberculosis
The Saudi Initiative for Asthma (SINA) provides up-to-date guidelines for healthcare workers managing patients with asthma. SINA was developed by a panel of Saudi experts with respectable academic backgrounds and long-standing experience in the field. SINA is founded on the latest available evidence, local literature, and knowledge of the current setting in Saudi Arabia. Emphasis is placed on understanding the epidemiology, pathophysiology, medications, and clinical presentation. SINA elaborates on the development of patient-doctor partnership, self-management, and control of precipitating factors. Approaches to asthma treatment in SINA are based on disease control by the utilization of Asthma Control Test for the initiation and adjustment of asthma treatment. This guideline is established for the treatment of asthma in both children and adults, with special attention to children 5 years and younger. It is expected that the implementation of these guidelines for treating asthma will lead to better asthma control and decrease patient utilization of the health care system.
Asthma; guidelines; Saudi Arabia
To evaluate the role of smoking as a risk factor for the development of pulmonary tuberculosis.
MATERIALS AND METHODS:
A total of 111 sputum smear—positive patients of pulmonary tuberculosis and 333 controls matched for age and sex were interviewed according to a predesigned questionnaire.
The adjusted odd ratio of the association between tobacco smoking and pulmonary tuberculosis was 3.8 (95% confidence interval, 2.0 to 7.0; P value, <.0001). A positive relationship between pack years, body mass index and socioeconomic class was also observed.
There is a positive association between tobacco smoking and pulmonary tuberculosis.
Diagnosis; India; smoking; tobacco; tuberculosis
This is part II of two series review of reading chest radiographs in the critically ill. Conventional chest radiography remains the cornerstone of day to day management of the critically ill occasionally supplemented by computed tomography or ultrasound for specific indications. In this second review we discuss radiographic findings of cardiopulmonary disorders common in the intensive care patient and suggest guidelines for interpretation based not only on imaging but also on the pathophysiology and clinical grounds.
Chest x-ray; intensive care unit; cardiopulmonary disorders
Primary mediastinal malignancies are uncommon. They can originate from any mediastinal organ or tissue but most commonly arise from thymic, neurogenic, lymphatic, germinal or mesenchymal tissues.
The aim of this study was to review the clinical presentations, diagnostic methods adopted, the histologies and the treatment outcomes of this rare subset of tumors.
MATERIALS AND METHODS:
Case records of 91 patients in the period 1993-2006 at our institute were retrospectively analyzed. Patients with primary mediastinal mass and supraclavicular nodes were included for the analysis. Patients with primary, extrathoracic disease of the lung and peripheral adenopathy were excluded. Actuarial method was used for calculating the disease-free survival and overall survival.
Primary mediastinal tumors were seen commonly in males with mean age of 37.48 ± 17.04 years. As many as 97% of patients were symptomatic at presentation. Superior venacaval obstruction (SVCO) was seen in 28% of the patients. As many as 50% of the patients were diagnosed by a fine-needle aspiration or Trucut biopsy, while 28% of the patients required thoracotomy for a diagnosis. Majority of the tumors had anterior mediastinal presentation. Pleural effusion was seen in 20% of the patients, but diagnosis was obtained in only 1%. In adults, thymoma (39%), lymphoma (30%) and germ cell tumor (15%) were the common tumors. In the pediatric population, lymphoma, PNET and neuroblastoma were the common tumors. The 5-year DFS and OS are 50% and 55%, respectively.
Primary mediastinal tumors are a challenge to the treating physician because of their unique presentation in the form of medical emergencies, like superior venacaval obstruction and stridor. Diagnosis may require invasive procedures like thoracotomy. Treatment and outcome depend on the histologic subtypes.
Germ cell tumor; lymphoma; primary mediastinal tumor; thymoma