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1.  Ligation and mucopexy for prolapsing hemorrhoids – a ten year experience 
Objective
The aim of this study is to clinically test the efficacy of author's approach of suture ligation and mucopexy for patients having symptomatic and prolapsing hemorrhoids.
Materials and methods
616 patients (255 females) complaining of symptoms of hemorrhoids were included in the study. The hemorrhoids were suture ligated with an absorbable suture material under vision. Operating time, postoperative complications, time to return to work, and outcome of the procedure were analyzed. Follow-up was planned following discharge after 1 month, 6 months and after at least 1 year. Patient satisfaction was also assessed.
Results
The mean procedure time was 8 ± 0 minutes (range, 6–15 minutes), and the total admission period was 12 ± 4 Hours. Perianal thrombosis and skin tags were the commonest post-operative complications. The mean total analgesic dose and duration of pain control using analgesics was 19 ± 4 tablets, and 9 ± 3 days respectively.
The postoperative follow up after 4 weeks revealed therapeutic success in 589 patients (95.6%), who presented with hemorrhoidal bleeding. Prolapse was no longer observed in 98% of patients and 96% patients experienced no pain after defecation. 93% patients completed the one-year follow-up and 89 percent of them were asymptomatic. The patient satisfaction scoring was 8.2% on visual analogue scale.
Conclusion
Suture ligation and mucopexy of hemorrhoids is an easy-to-perform technique that is well accepted by patients and has good results for prolapsing hemorrhoids.
doi:10.1186/1750-1164-2-5
PMCID: PMC2607292  PMID: 19038061
2.  Computed tomography of the shoulders in patients with obstetric brachial plexus injuries: a retrospective study 
Background
Scapular hypoplasia, elevation, and rotation (SHEAR) deformity and posterior subluxation of the humeral head are common tertiary sequelae of obstetric brachial plexus injuries (OBPI). Interpretations of images from bilateral computed tomography (CT) scans of the upper extremities are critical to the diagnosis and treatment plan for patients with these bony deformities resulting from OBPI.
Methods
We conducted a retrospective study to investigate the accuracy of radiologic reports in the diagnosis of SHEAR or posterior subluxation of the humeral head in OBPI patients. CT studies from 43 consecutive patients over a 33-month period were used in the study. For each patient, we compared the results from the radiologic report to those from a clinical examination given by the attending surgeon and to measurements taken from the CT studies by biomedical researchers.
Results
A comparison of SHEAR measured from the 3-D CT images to the diagnoses from the radiologists, revealed that only 40% of the radiological reports were accurate. However, there was a direct correlation between the use of the 3-D CT images and an accurate SHEAR diagnosis by the radiologists (p < 0.0001). When posterior subluxation was measured in the affected and contralateral shoulders, 93% of the patients that had greater than a 10% difference between the two shoulders did not have their deformity diagnosed. The radiological reports diagnosed 17% of these patients with a 'normal' shoulder. Only 5% of the reports were complete, accurately diagnosing SHEAR in addition to posterior subluxation.
Conclusion
Due to the low incidence rate of OBPI, many radiologists may be unfamiliar with the sequelae of these injuries. It is therefore critical that radiologists are made aware of the importance of an accurate measurement and diagnosis of the SHEAR deformity. Due to their lack of completeness, the radiological reports in this study did not significantly contribute to the clinical care of the patients. In order for OBPI patients to receive the highest standard of care, the final diagnosis from their radiological imaging should be deferred to a brachial plexus specialist who is experienced with these types of injuries.
doi:10.1186/1750-1164-2-4
PMCID: PMC2588615  PMID: 18992150
3.  Laparoscopic partial gastric transection and devascularization in order to enhance its flow 
Background
Esophagogastric fistula following an esophagectomy for cancer is very common. One of the most important factors that leads to its development is gastric isquemia. We hypothesize that laparoscopic gastric devascularization and partial transection is a safe operation that will enhance the vascular flow of the fundus of the stomach.
Method
Our study included eight pigs. Each animal had two operations. In the first one, a laparoscopic gastric devascularization and mobilization took place. Vascular flow was measured previous to the procedure and immediately after it with a laser doppler (endoscopic probe). After three weeks, a second operation took place. We re-measured the vascular flow and sent a sample of gastric fundus for histopathologic evaluation.
Results
The gastric fundus showed signs of neovascularization after both macroscopic and microscopic evaluation. These findings correlated with laser doppler measurements.
Conclusion
Laparoscopic gastric devascularization and partial transection is a safe procedure that increases the vascular flow of the stomach in a three week period. This finding can have a positive impact in terms of decreasing fistula formation.
doi:10.1186/1750-1164-2-3
PMCID: PMC2478649  PMID: 18606017
4.  Safety of carboxymethylcellulose/polyethylene oxide for the prevention of adhesions in lumbar disc herniation – consecutive case series review 
Background
Epidural fibrosis is regarded as a cause of failed back surgery syndrome (FBSS) when excessive adhesional/fibrotic scar tissue causes compression, pain or discomfort by tethering of nerve tissue to the surrounding muscle or bone. Fibrosis inhibitors could therefore increase the success rate of spinal surgery and decrease the need for reoperations. In recent years, bio-resorbable gels or films for the prevention of peridural fibrosis and post-operative adhesions have been developed that look clinically promising. This included a 100% synthetic, sterile, absorbable gel combinations of carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) and polyethylene oxide (PEO) used to coat the dura to reduce scarring after discectomy which became available in Europe in 2002. However, given the burden of the problem and unfavorable experience with other types of adhesion-reduction agents, our unit decided to evaluate the safety of CMC/PEO in a large population of patients undergoing spinal microdiscectomy for herniation.
Methods
To determine the safety and assess efficacy of carboxymethylcellulose/polyethylene oxide (CMC/PEO) gel as an anti-adhesion gel, a consecutive series of 396 patients undergoing lumbar discectomy performed by one surgeon had CMC/PEO gel administered at the end of surgery. The patients were followed up in accordance with standard clinical practice and records reviewed for side effects, such as skin reactions, general reactions or local fluid collections. Reoperations for recurrent herniation included an evaluation of fibrosis reduction.
Results
No product related complications were observed. Five patients needed reoperations for recurrent herniation. Significant but subjective reduction in fibrosis was observed in these patients.
Conclusion
The findings provide confidence that CMC/PEO gel is well tolerated as an agent to achieve reduction of fibrosis in lumbar disc surgery. Further formal prospective study is recommended in this area of unmet need.
doi:10.1186/1750-1164-2-2
PMCID: PMC2423360  PMID: 18513413
5.  Surgical impact on brain tumor invasion: A physical perspective 
It is conventional strategy to treat highly malignant brain tumors initially with cytoreductive surgery followed by adjuvant radio- and chemotherapy. However, in spite of all such efforts, the patients' prognosis remains dismal since residual glioma cells continue to infiltrate adjacent parenchyma and the tumors almost always recur. On the basis of a simple biomechanical conjecture that we have introduced previously, we argue here that by affecting the 'volume-pressure' relationship and minimizing surface tension of the remaining tumor cells, gross total resection may have an inductive effect on the invasiveness of the tumor cells left behind. Potential implications for treatment strategies are discussed.
doi:10.1186/1750-1164-2-1
PMCID: PMC2359755  PMID: 18384681

Results 1-5 (5)