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1.  Fluorescent imaging of the biliary tract during laparoscopic cholecystectomy 
The introduction of laparoscopic cholecystectomy was associated with increased incidences of bile duct injury. The primary cause appears to be misidentification of the biliary anatomy. Routine intra-operative cholangiography has been recommended to reduce accidental duct injury, although in practice it is more often reserved for selected cases. There has been interest in the use of fluorescent agents excreted via the biliary system to enable real-time intra-operative imaging, to aid the laparoscopic surgeon in correctly interpreting the anatomy. The primary aim of this review is to evaluate the ability of fluorescent cholangiography to identify important biliary anatomy intra-operatively. Secondary aims are to investigate its ability to detect important intra-operative pathology such as bile leaks, identify potential alternative fluorophores, and evaluate the evidence regarding patient outcomes.
PMCID: PMC4196113  PMID: 25317203
Fluorescent cholangiography; Laparoscopic cholecystectomy; Intraoperative cholangiography; Imaging; Fluorophore
2.  Sentinel lymph node biopsy in esophageal cancer: an essential step towards individualized care 
Lymph node status is the most important prognostic factor in esophageal cancer. Through improved detection of lymph node metastases, using the sentinel lymph node concept, accurate staging and more tailored therapy may be achieved. This review article outlines two principle ways in which the sentinel lymph node concept could dramatically influence current standard of care for patients with esophageal cancer. We discuss three limitations to universal acceptance of the technique, and propose next steps for increasing enthusiasm amongst physicians and surgeons including the development of a universal tracer, and improved contrast agents with novel dual-modality ‘visibility’.
PMCID: PMC4019891  PMID: 24829610
Sentinel lymph node; Esophageal cancer; Micrometastasis; Isolated tumor cell; Endoscopic mucosal resection
3.  Device-tissue interactions: a collaborative communications system 
Medical devices, including surgical staplers, energy-based devices, and access enabling devices, are used routinely today in the majority of surgical procedures. Although these technically advanced devices have proved to be of immense benefit to both surgeons and patients, their rapid development and continuous improvement have had the unintended consequence of creating a knowledge gap for surgeons due to a lack of adequate training and educational programs. Thus, there is an unmet need in the surgical community to collect existing data on device-tissue interactions and subsequently develop research and educational programs to fill this gap in surgical training. Gathering data and developing these new programs will require collaboration between doctors, engineers, and scientists, from both clinical practice and industry. This paper presents a communications system to enable this unique collaboration that can potentially result in significantly improved patient care.
PMCID: PMC3737119  PMID: 23895104
Access-enabling device; Education; Energy device; Patient outcome; Stapler; Surgeon; Tissue
4.  Gastroduodenal artery aneurysm, diagnosis, clinical presentation and management: a concise review 
Gastroduodenal artery (GDA) aneurysms are rare but a potentially fatal condition if rupture occurs. They represent about 1.5% of all visceral artery (VAA) aneurysms and are divided into true and pseudoaneurysms depending on the etiologic factors underlying their development. Atherosclerosis and pancreatitis are the two most common risk factors. Making the diagnosis can be complex and often requires the use of Computed Tomography and angiography. The later adds the advantage of being a therapeutic option to prevent or stop bleeding. If this fails, surgery is still regarded as the standard for accomplishing a definite treatment.
PMCID: PMC3637616  PMID: 23587203
5.  Intraoperative laser angiography using the SPY system: review of the literature and recommendations for use 
Inadequate tissue perfusion is a key contributor to early complications following reconstructive procedures. Accurate and reliable intraoperative evaluation of tissue perfusion is critical to reduce complications and improve clinical outcomes. Clinical judgment is the most commonly used method for evaluating blood supply, but when used alone, is not always completely reliable. A variety of other methodologies have been evaluated, including Doppler devices, tissue oximetry, and fluorescein, among others. However, none have achieved widespread acceptance. Recently, intraoperative laser angiography using indocyanine green was introduced to reconstructive surgery. This vascular imaging technology provides real-time assessment of tissue perfusion that correlates with clinical outcomes and can be used to guide surgical decision making. Although this technology has been used for decades in other areas, surgeons may not be aware of its utility for perfusion assessment in reconstructive surgery. A group of experts with extensive experience with intraoperative laser angiography convened to identify key issues in perfusion assessment, review available methodologies, and produce initial recommendations for the use of this technology in reconstructive procedures.
PMCID: PMC3558356  PMID: 23289664
SPY; Indocyanine green; Laser angiography; Reconstructive surgery; Perfusion assessment; Flap; Near infrared; Necrosis; Flap; Microsurgery
6.  Current state of the art in laparoscopic colorectal surgery for cancer: Update on the multi-centric international trials 
Laparoscopic colectomy is now widely applied to cases of malignancy, supported by early data from several large randomized controlled trials. Long-term follow-up is now available from those trials, supporting equivalency of cancer-free and overall survival for open and laparoscopic resections. This promising data has inspired further exploration of other applications of laparoscopic techniques, including use of single incision laparoscopy. This article reviews recent reports of long-term data for colorectal cancer resection from four randomized, prospective international trials.
PMCID: PMC3444362  PMID: 22846394
Laparoscopy; Colorectal cancer; Cost; Classic; Color
7.  Vascular clamping in liver surgery: physiology, indications and techniques 
This article reviews the historical evolution of hepatic vascular clamping and their indications. The anatomic basis for partial and complete vascular clamping will be discussed, as will the rationales of continuous and intermittent vascular clamping.
Specific techniques discussed and described include inflow clamping (Pringle maneuver, extra-hepatic selective clamping and intraglissonian clamping) and outflow clamping (total vascular exclusion, hepatic vascular exclusion with preservation of caval flow). The fundamental role of a low Central Venous Pressure during open and laparoscopic hepatectomy is described, as is the difference in their intra-operative measurements. The biological basis for ischemic preconditioning will be elucidated. Although the potential dangers of vascular clamping and the development of modern coagulation devices question the need for systemic clamping; the pre-operative factors and unforseen intra-operative events that mandate the use of hepatic vascular clamping will be highlighted.
PMCID: PMC2857838  PMID: 20346153
8.  Fibrin glue in the treatment of anal fistula: a systematic review 
New sphincter-saving approaches have been applied in the treatment of perianal fistula in order to avoid the risk of fecal incontinence. Among them, the fibrin glue technique is popular because of its simplicity and repeatability. The aim of this review is to compare the fibrin glue application to surgery alone, considering the healing and complication rates.
We performed a systematic review searching for published randomized and controlled clinical trials without any language restriction by using electronic databases. All these studies were assessed as to whether they compared conventional surgical treatment versus fibrin glue treatment in patients with anal fistulas, in order to establish both the efficacy and safety of each treatment. We used Review Manager 5 to conduct the review.
The healing rate is higher in those patients who underwent the conventional surgical treatment (P = 0,68), although the treatment with fibrin glue gives no evidence of anal incontinence (P = 0,08). Furthermore two subgroup analyses were performed: fibrin glue in combination with intra-adhesive antibiotics versus fibrin glue alone and anal fistula plug versus fibrin glue. In the first subgroup there were not differences in healing (P = 0,65). Whereas in the second subgroup analysis the healing rate is statistically significant for the patients who underwent the anal fistula plug treatment instead of the fibrin glue treatment (P = 0,02).
In literature there are only two randomized controlled trials comparing the conventional surgical management versus the fibrin glue treatment in patients with anal fistulas. Although from our statistical analysis we cannot find any statistically significant result, the healing rate remains higher in patients who underwent the conventional surgical treatment (P = 0,68), and the anal incontinence rate is very low in the fibrin glue treatment group (P = 0,08). Anyway the limited collected data do not support the use of fibrin glue. Moreover, in our subgroup analysis the use of fibrin glue in combination with intra-adhesive antibiotics does not improve the healing rate (P = 0.65), whereas the anal fistula plug treatment compared to the fibrin glue treatment shows good results (P = 0,02), although the poor number of patients treated does not lead to any statistically evident conclusion. This systematic review underlines the need of new RCTs upon this issue.
PMCID: PMC2784785  PMID: 19912660
9.  The etiology and prevention of feeding intolerance paralytic ileus – revisiting an old concept 
Gastro-intestinal (G-I) motility is impaired ("paralytic ileus") after abdominal surgery. Premature feeding attempts delay recovery by inducing "feeding intolerance," especially abdominal distention that compromises respiration. Controlled studies (e.g., from Sloan-Kettering Memorial Hospital) have lead to recommendations that patients not be fed soon after major abdominal surgery to avoid this complication.
We postulate that when total fluid inflow of feedings, digestive secretions, and swallowed air outstrip peristaltic outflow from the feeding site, fluid accumulates. This localized stagnation triggers G-I vagal reflexes that further slow the already sluggish gut, leading to generalized abdominal distention. Similarly, vagal cardiovascular reflexes in susceptible subjects could account for the 1:1,000 incidence of unexplained bowel necrosis reported with enteral feeding.
We re-evaluated our data, which supports this postulated mechanism for the induction of "feeding intolerance." We had focused our efforts on postoperative enteral nutrition, with the largest reported series of immediate feeding of at least 100 kcal/hour after major surgery. We found that this complication can be avoided consistently by monitoring inflow versus peristaltic outflow, immediately removing any potential excess from the feeding site.
We fed intraduodenally immediately following "open" surgery for 31 colectomy and 160 consecutive cholecystectomy patients. The duodenum was aspirated simultaneously just proximal to the feeding site, efficiently removing all swallowed air and excess feedings. To salvage digestive secretions, the degassed aspirate was re-introduced manually (and later automatically) via a separate feeding channel.
Hourly assays were performed for nitrogen balance, serum amino acids, and for the presence of removed feedings in the aspirate. The colectomy patients had X-ray motility studies initiated 5 – 17 hours after surgery.
Clinically normal motility and absorption resumed within two hours. Fed BaSO4 traversed secure anastomoses, to exit in bowel movements within 24–48 hours of colectomy. All patients were in positive protein balance within 2 – 24 hours, with elevated serum amino acids levels and without adverse G-I effects.
Limiting inflow to match peristaltic outflow from the feeding site consistently prevented "feeding intolerance." These patients received immediate full enteral nutrition, with the most rapid resolution of postoperative paralytic ileus, to date.
PMCID: PMC2678143  PMID: 19374754

Results 1-9 (9)