PMCC PMCC

Search tips
Search criteria

Advanced
Results 1-4 (4)
 

Clipboard (0)
None
Journals
Authors
more »
Year of Publication
Document Types
1.  Early-Life Predictors of Higher Body Mass Index in Healthy Children 
Background/Aims
Childhood obesity tracks into adulthood, and may increase diabetes and cardiovascular disease risk in adulthood. Prospective analyses may better define the pathways between early life factors and greater childhood body mass index (BMI), a measure of obesity.
Methods
The Diabetes Autoimmunity Study in the Young (DAISY) prospectively follows children from birth that are at increased genetic risk for type 1 diabetes. We examined longitudinal data for 1,178 DAISY subjects (mean age at last follow-up: 6.59 years (range: 2.0–11.5 years). Birth size and diabetes exposure in utero were collected in the enrollment interview. Infant diet information was collected via interviews throughout infancy. Infant weight gain and childhood BMI were measured at clinic visits.
Results
Female gender, diabetes exposure in utero, larger size for gestational age, shorter breastfeeding duration, and more rapid infant weight gain predicted higher childhood BMI. Formal mediation analysis suggests the effect of shorter breastfeeding duration on childhood BMI may be mediated by more rapid infant weight gain. Also, the effect of diabetes exposure in utero on childhood BMI may be mediated by larger size for gestational age.
Conclusion
We identified strong interrelationships between early life factors and childhood BMI. Understanding these pathways may aid childhood obesity prevention efforts.
doi:10.1159/000261899
PMCID: PMC2855270  PMID: 19940472
Breastfeeding duration; Infant weight gain; Diabetes exposure in utero; Birth size; Mediator
2.  Association of a Common G6PC2 Variant with Fasting Plasma Glucose Levels in Non-Diabetic Individuals 
Background/Aims
Fasting plasma glucose (FPG) levels correlate with cardiovascular disease and mortality in both diabetic and non-diabetic subjects. G6PC2 encodes a pancreatic islet-specific glucose-6-phosphatase-related protein and G6pc2-null mice were reported to exhibit decreased blood glucose levels. Two recent genome-wide association studies have implicated a role for G6PC2 in regulation of FPGlevels in the general European population and reported the strongest association with the rs560887 SNP. The purpose of this study was to replicate this association in our independent epidemiological samples.
Methods
DNA samples from non-Hispanic white Americans (NHWs; n = 623), Hispanic Americans (n = 410) and black Africans (n = 787) were genotyped for rs560887 using TaqMan allelic discrimination.
Results
While no minor allele A of rs560887 was observed among blacks, its frequency was 33% in NHWs and 17.5% in Hispanics. The rs560887 minor allele was associated with reduced FPG levels in non-diabetic NHWs (p = 0.002 under an additive model). A similar trend of association was observed in non-diabetic Hispanics (p = 0.076 under a dominant model), which was more pronounced in normoglycemic subjects (p = 0.036).
Conclusions
Our results independently confirm the robust association of G6PC2/rs560887 with FPG levels in non-diabetic NHWs. The observed evidence for association in Hispanics warrants further studies in larger samples.
doi:10.1159/000268019
PMCID: PMC2855271  PMID: 20029179
Blood glucose; Plasma glucose; Fasting plasma glucose; G6PC2; Single nucleotide polymorphism; Polymorphism; rs560887
3.  Exercise Training and Dietary Glycemic Load May Have Synergistic Effects on Insulin Resistance in Older Obese Adults 
Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism  2009;55(4):326-333.
Background/Aims
The aim of this study was to assess the combined effects of exercise and dietary glycemic load on insulin resistance in older obese adults.
Methods
Eleven men and women (62 ± 2 years; 97.6 ± 4.8 kg; body mass index 33.2 ± 2.0) participated in a 12-week supervised exercise program, 5 days/week, for about 1 h/day, at 80–85% of maximum heart rate. Dietary glycemic load was calculated from dietary intake records. Insulin resistance was determined using the euglycemic (5.0 mM) hyperinsulinemic (40 mU/m2/min) clamp.
Results
The intervention improved insulin sensitivity (2.37 ± 0.37 to 3.28 ± 0.52 mg/kg/min, p < 0.004), increased VO2max (p < 0.009), and decreased body weight (p < 0.009). Despite similar caloric intakes (1,816 ± 128 vs. 1,610 ± 100 kcal/day), dietary glycemic load trended towards a decrease during the study (140 ± 10 g before, vs. 115 ± 8 g during, p < 0.04). The change in insulin sensitivity correlated with the change in glycemic load (r = 0.84, p < 0.009). Four subjects reduced their glycemic load by 61 ± 8%, and had significantly greater increases in insulin sensitivity (78 ± 11 vs. 23 ± 8%, p < 0.003), and decreases in body weight (p < 0.004) and plasma triglycerides (p < 0.04) compared to the rest of the group.
Conclusion
The data suggest that combining a low-glycemic diet with exercise may provide an alternative and more effective treatment for insulin resistance in older obese adults.
doi:10.1159/000248991
PMCID: PMC2853590  PMID: 19844089
Diabetes; Obesity; Aging; Insulin sensitivity; Physical activity; Glycemic index
4.  Influence of Early Nutritional Components on the Development of Murine Autoimmune Diabetes 
Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism  2009;54(3):208-217.
Background/Aims
Infant diet is suggested to modify autoimmune diabetes risk. The aim of this study was to determine whether infant food components affect diabetes development in the nonobese autoimmune diabetes (NOD) mouse.
Methods
A basal low-diabetogenic diet was identified by feeding litter-matched female NOD mice standardized diets with and without casein and wheat proteins after weaning. In subsequent trials, basal diet with supplements of wheat (5, 10 and 30%), gluten, wheat globulin/albumin, corn (5%), potato (5%), apple (5%) or carrot (5%) was fed to litter-matched female NOD mice after weaning. Mice were followed for diabetes development and insulin autoantibodies.
Results
A casein- and wheat-free diet was associated with the lowest rate of diabetes development (37% by age 25 weeks). Increased diabetes rates were observed when the basal diet was supplemented with 5% wheat (71% by age 25 weeks; p = 0.023) and 5% corn (57% by age 25 weeks; p = 0.05). Increasing wheat concentrations returned diabetes development to that in basal diet-fed mice. Other food supplements had no or minimal effects on diabetes development.
Conclusions
Early supplementation of a basal low-diabetogenic diet with low concentrations of the cereals wheat or corn is associated with a moderate increase in the rate of diabetes. Removal of cereals, however, does not abrogate diabetes development in NOD mice.
doi:10.1159/000220416
PMCID: PMC2814014  PMID: 19478481
Type 1 diabetes; Autoimmunity; NOD mice; Diet; Prevention; Gluten; Casein

Results 1-4 (4)