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1.  Biomarkers for early diagnosis of AKI in the ICU: ready for prime time use at the bedside? 
Because of its still rising incidence and high mortality rate in intensive care unit (ICU) patients, early recognition of acute kidney injury (AKI) remains a critical issue. Surprisingly, effective biomarkers for early detection and hence appropriate and timely therapy of AKI have not yet entered the clinical arena. We performed a systematic search of the literature published between 1999 and 2011 on potential early biomarkers for acute renal failure/kidney injury in an at-risk adult and pediatric population following the Quorum Guidelines. Based on this review, recommendations for the clinical use of these biomarkers were proposed. In general, kidney biomarkers may aid to direct early aggressive treatment strategies for AKI thereby decreasing the associated high mortality. To date, however, sensitivity and specificity of individual biomarker assays are low and do not sustain their routine clinical use. “Kits” containing a combination of established biomarkers, in conjunction with measured glomerular filtration rate, may enhance diagnostic and prognostic accuracy in the future.
PMCID: PMC3475083  PMID: 22747706
Hemofiltration; Biomarkers; Early diagnosis; Sepsis; Septic shock; SIRS, Acute kidney injury; Acute tubular apoptosis; Sepsis modulation; Blood purification; Dialysis; CRRT; Review
2.  Septic AKI in ICU patients. diagnosis, pathophysiology, and treatment type, dosing, and timing: a comprehensive review of recent and future developments 
Evidence is accumulating showing that septic acute kidney injury (AKI) is different from non-septic AKI. Specifically, a large body of research points to apoptotic processes underlying septic AKI. Unravelling the complex and intertwined apoptotic and immuno-inflammatory pathways at the cellular level will undoubtedly create new and exciting perspectives for the future development (e.g., caspase inhibition) or refinement (specific vasopressor use) of therapeutic strategies. Shock complicating sepsis may cause more AKI but also will render treatment of this condition in an hemodynamically unstable patient more difficult. Expert opinion, along with the aggregated results of two recent large randomized trials, favors continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) as preferential treatment for septic AKI (hemodynamically unstable). It is suggested that this approach might decrease the need for subsequent chronic dialysis. Large-scale introduction of citrate as an anticoagulant most likely will change CRRT management in intensive care units (ICU), because it not only significantly increases filter lifespan but also better preserves filter porosity. A possible role of citrate in reducing mortality and morbidity, mainly in surgical ICU patients, remains to be proven. Also, citrate administration in the predilution mode appears to be safe and exempt of relevant side effects, yet still requires rigorous monitoring. Current consensus exists about using a CRRT dose of 25 ml/kg/h in non-septic AKI. However, because patients should not be undertreated, this implies that doses as high as 30 to 35 ml/kg/h must be prescribed to account for eventual treatment interruptions. Awaiting results from large, ongoing trials, 35 ml/kg/h should remain the standard dose in septic AKI, particularly when shock is present. To date, exact timing of CRRT is not well defined. A widely accepted composite definition of timing is needed before an appropriate study challenging this major issue can be launched.
PMCID: PMC3224527  PMID: 21906387
Hemofiltration; Acute Kidney Injury; Pathphysiology; Dosing; Timing; Diagnosis; Review; CRRT; Dialysis; Septic Acute Kidney Injury; Sepsis; SIRS
3.  Retrospective evaluation of possible renal toxicity associated with continuous infusion of vancomycin in critically ill patients 
Continuous infusion of vancomycin is increasingly preferred as an alternative to intermittent administration in critically ill patients. Intermittent vancomycin treatment is associated with an increased occurrence of nephrotoxicity. This study was designed to determine the incidence and risk factors of acute kidney injury (AKI) during continuous infusion of vancomycin.
This was a retrospective, observational, two-center, cohort study in patients with microbiologically documented Gram-positive pneumonia and/or bacteremia and normal baseline renal function. Vancomycin dose was adjusted daily aiming at plateau concentrations of 15-25 μg/mL. AKI was defined as an increase in serum creatinine of 0.3 mg/dL or a 1.5 to 2 times increase from baseline on at least 2 consecutive days after the initiation of vancomycin. Primary data analysis compared patients with AKI with patients who did not develop AKI. A binary logistic regression analysis using the forward stepwise method was used to assess the risk factors associated with AKI.
A total of 129 patients were studied of whom 38 (29.5%) developed AKI. Patients with AKI had higher body weight (77.3 ± 15 vs. 70.5 ± 15.2 kg; p = 0.02), more diabetes (79% vs. 54%; p = 0.01), and a higher vasopressor need (87% vs. 59%; p = 0.002). Serum vancomycin levels, body weight, and SAPS 3 score were identified as variables contributing to AKI. The incidence of AKI increased substantially when treatment duration was prolonged (14.9 ± 9.8 vs. 9.2 ± 4.9 days; p = 0.05) and plasma levels exceeded 30 μg/mL.
AKI is frequently observed during continuous vancomycin infusion, particularly when conditions that cause acute (shock) or chronic (diabetes) renal dysfunction are present and vancomycin levels above target range are achieved. Although this study challenges the concept that continuous vancomycin infusion might alleviate the risk of nephrotoxicity in critically ill patients, a direct relationship between vancomycin and nephrotoxicity remains to be proven.
PMCID: PMC3224465  PMID: 21906376

Results 1-3 (3)