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1.  Recognition and management of abdominal compartment syndrome among German pediatric intensivists: results of a national survey 
Annals of Intensive Care  2012;2(Suppl 1):S8.
Introduction
Several decades ago, the beneficial effects of goal-directed therapy, which include decompressive laparotomy (DL) and open abdomen procedures in cases of intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) in children, were proven in the context of closures of abdominal wall defects and large-for-size organ transplantations. Different neonatologic and pediatric disease patterns are also known to be capable of increasing intra-abdominal pressure (IAP). Nevertheless, a considerable knowledge transfer regarding such risk factors has hardly taken place. When left undetected and untreated, IAH threatens to evolve into abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS), which is accompanied by a mortality rate of up to 60% in children. Therefore, the present study looks at the recognition and knowledge of IAH/ACS among German pediatric intensivists.
Methods
In June 2010, a questionnaire was mailed to the heads of pediatric intensive care units of 205 German pediatric hospitals.
Results
The response rate was 62%. At least one case of IAH was reported by 36% of respondents; at least one case of ACS, by 25%. Compared with adolescents, younger critically ill children appeared to develop IAH/ACS more often. Routine measurements of IAP were said to be performed by 20% of respondents. Bladder pressure was used most frequently (96%) to assess IAP. Some respondents (17%) only measured IAP in cases of organ dysfunction and failure. In 2009, the year preceding this study, 21% of respondents claimed to have performed a DL. Surgical decompression was indicated if signs of organ dysfunction were present. This was also done in cases of at least grade III IAH (IAP > 15 mmHg) without organ impairment.
Conclusions
Although awareness among pediatricians appears to have been increasing over the last decade, definitions and guidelines regarding the diagnosis and management of IAH/ACS are not applied uniformly. This variability could express an ever present lack of awareness and solid prospective data.
doi:10.1186/2110-5820-2-S1-S8
PMCID: PMC3390295  PMID: 22873424
intra-abdominal pressure; intra-abdominal hypertension; abdominal compartment syndrome; children; intensive care unit; questionnaire; decompressive laparotomy.
2.  Recognition and management of abdominal compartment syndrome among German anesthetists and surgeons: a national survey 
Annals of Intensive Care  2012;2(Suppl 1):S7.
Background
Abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) is a life threatening condition that may affect any critically ill patient. Little is known about the recognition and management of ACS in Germany.
Methods
A questionnaire was mailed to departments of surgery and anesthesia from German hospitals with more than 450 beds.
Results
Replies (113) were received from 222 eligible hospitals (51%). Most respondents (95%) indicated that ACS plays a role in their clinical practice. Intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) is not measured at all by 26%, while it is routinely done by 30%. IAP is mostly (94%) assessed via the intra-vesical route. Of the respondents, 41% only measure IAP in patients expected to develop ACS; 64% states that a simpler, more standardized application of IAP measurement would lead to increased use in daily clinical practice.
Conclusions
German anesthesiologists and surgeons are familiar with ACS. However, approximately one fourth never measures IAP, and there is considerable uncertainty regarding which patients are at risk as well as how often IAP should be measured in them.
doi:10.1186/2110-5820-2-S1-S7
PMCID: PMC3390300  PMID: 22873423
abdominal compartment syndrome; intra-abdominal pressure; intra-abdominal hypertension; intensive care unit; survey; questionnaire; bladder pressure; intra-vesical pressure measurement.
3.  Influence of two different levels of intra-abdominal hypertension on bacterial translocation in a porcine model 
Annals of Intensive Care  2012;2(Suppl 1):S17.
Background
The purpose of the present study was to quantify bacterial translocation to mesenteric lymph nodes due to different levels of intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH; 15 vs. 30 mmHg) lasting for 24 h in a porcine model.
Methods
We examined 18 anesthetized and intubated pigs (52.3 ± 4.7 kg) which were randomly allocated to three experimental groups (each n = 6) and studied over a period of 24 h. After preparation and establishing a steady state, the intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) was increased stepwise to 30 mmHg in six animals using a carbon dioxide (CO2) insufflator (IAP-30 group). In the second group, IAP was increased to 15 mmHg (IAP-15 group), while IAP remained unchanged in another six pigs (control group). Using a pulse contour cardiac output (PiCCO®) monitoring system, hemodynamic parameters as well as blood gases were recorded periodically. Moreover, peripheral and portal vein blood samples were taken for microbiological examinations. Lymph nodes from the ileocecal junction were sampled during an intra-vital laparotomy at the end of the observational period. After sacrificing the animals, bowel tissue samples and corresponding mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN) were extracted for histopathological and microbiological analyses.
Results
Cardiac output decreased in all groups. In IAP-30 animals, volumetric preload indices significantly decreased, while those of IAP-15 pigs did not differ from those of controls. Under IAH, the mean arterial pressure (MAP) in the IAP-30 group declined, while MAP in the IAP-15 group was significantly elevated (controls unchanged). PO2 and PCO2 remained unchanged. The grade of ischemic damage of the intestines (histopathologically quantified using the Park score) increased significantly with different IAH levels. Accordingly, the amount of translocated bacteria in intestinal wall specimens as well as in MLN significantly increased with the level of IAH. Lymph node cultures confirmed the relation between bacterial translocation (BT) and IAP. The most often cultivated species were Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus, Clostridium, Pasteurella, and Streptococcus. Bacteremia was detected only occasionally in all three groups (not significantly different) showing gut-derived bacteria such as Proteus, Klebsiella, and E. coli spp.
Conclusion
In this porcine model, a higher level of ischemic damage and more BT were observed in animals subjected to an IAP of 30 mmHg when compared to animals subjected to an IAP of 15 mmHg or controls.
doi:10.1186/2110-5820-2-S1-S17
PMCID: PMC3390291  PMID: 22873417
abdominal compartment syndrome; intra-abdominal hypertension; pneumoperitoneum; bacterial translocation; bowel; ischemia; histologic; mesenteric lymph node; pig; animal.

Results 1-3 (3)