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1.  Impact of physical incompatibility on drug mass flow rates: example of furosemide-midazolam incompatibility 
Background
Patients in intensive care units receive many drugs simultaneously but through limited venous accesses. Several intravenous therapies have to be administered through the same catheter, thus increasing the risk of physicochemical incompatibility. The purpose of this work was to assess and to quantify the impact of physical incompatibility on the mass flow rates of drugs infused simultaneously to the patient, through an in vitro study.
Methods
Furosemide-midazolam incompatibility was used to assess the impact of physical incompatibility on drug mass flow rates. Furosemide, midazolam, and saline were simultaneously infused. A filter was added at the end of the infusion line to retain visible particles. Two infusion conditions were tested with and without visible particles. A partial least square method on UV spectra was used to determine simultaneously the concentrations of the two drugs at the egress of the terminal extension line. The drug mass flow rate (expressed as mg/h) was calculated as the product of drug concentration versus total flow rate. Observed/theoretical mass flow rate ratios for each drug (%) were determined per infusion condition.
Results
Even in the absence of visible particles, precipitation of furosemide led to a drug loss estimated at between 10% and 15%. Furosemide is more impacted by interaction because the pH of the mixture is acid and this form is poorly soluble in an aqueous solution.
Conclusions
Physical incompatibility between furosemide and midazolam leads to a significant reduction in drug delivered to the patient and may result in treatment failure.
doi:10.1186/2110-5820-2-28
PMCID: PMC3407719  PMID: 22794308
Intravenous drug; Drug incompatibility; Visible particle; Mass flow rate; Drug loss
2.  Benefits of an early cooling phase in continuous renal replacement therapy for ICU patients 
Background
Lowering the temperature setting in the heating device during continuous venovenous hemofiltration (CVVH) is an option. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects on body temperature and hemodynamic tolerance of two different temperature settings in the warming device in patients treated with CVVH.
Methods
Thirty patients (mean age: 66.5 years; mean SAPS 2: 55) were enrolled in a prospective crossover randomized study. After a baseline of 2 h at 38°C, the heating device was randomly set to 38°C (group A) and 36°C (group B) for 6 h. Then, the temperatures were switched to 36°C in group A and to 38°C in group B for another 6 h. Hemodynamic parameters and therapeutic interventions to control the hemodynamics were recorded.
Results
There was no significant change in body temperature in either group. During the first 6 h, group B patients showed significantly increased arterial pressure (p = 0.01) while the dosage of catecholamine was significantly decreased (p = 0.04). The number of patients who required fluid infusion or increase in catecholamine dosage was similar. During the second period of the study, hemodynamic parameters were unchanged in both groups.
Conclusions
In patients undergoing CVVH, warming of the substitute over 36°C had no impact on body temperature. We showed that setting the fluid temperature at 36°C for a period of time early in the procedure is beneficial in terms of increased mean arterial pressure and decreased catecholamine infusion dosage.
doi:10.1186/2110-5820-2-40
PMCID: PMC3488546  PMID: 22913879
Renal replacement therapy; Hemofiltration; Hemodynamic; Rewarming device; Temperature

Results 1-2 (2)