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1.  Aiming for a negative fluid balance in patients with acute lung injury and increased intra-abdominal pressure: a pilot study looking at the effects of PAL-treatment 
Annals of Intensive Care  2012;2(Suppl 1):S15.
Achievement of a negative fluid balance in patients with capillary leak is associated with improved outcome. We investigated the effects of a multi-modal restrictive fluid strategy aiming for negative fluid balance in patients with acute lung injury (ALI).
In this retrospective matched case-control study, we included 114 mechanically ventilated (MV) patients with ALI. We compared outcomes between a group of 57 patients receiving PAL-treatment (PAL group) and a matched control group, abstracted from a historical cohort. PAL-treatment combines high levels of positive end-expiratory pressure, small volume resuscitation with hyperoncotic albumin, and fluid removal with furosemide (Lasix®) or ultrafiltration. Effects on extravascular lung water index (EVLWI), intra-abdominal pressure (IAP), organ function, and vasopressor therapy were recorded during 1 week. The primary outcome parameter was 28-day mortality.
At baseline, no significant intergroup differences were found, except for lower PaO2/FIO2 and increased IAP in the PAL group (174.5 ± 84.5 vs 256.5 ± 152.7, p = 0.001; 10.0 ± 4.2 vs 8.0 ± 3.7 mmHg, p = 0.013, respectively). After 1 week, PAL-treated patients had a greater reduction of EVLWI, IAP, and cumulative fluid balance (-4.2 ± 5.6 vs -1.1 ± 3.7 mL/kg, p = 0.006; -0.4 ± 3.6 vs 1.8 ± 3.8 mmHg, p = 0.007; -1,451 ± 7,761 vs 8,027 ± 5,254 mL, p < 0.001). Repercussions on cardiovascular and renal function were limited. PAL-treated patients required fewer days of intensive care unit admission and days on MV (23.6 ± 15 vs 37.1 ± 19.9 days, p = 0.006; 14.6 ± 10.7 vs 25.5 ± 20.2 days, respectively) and had a lower 28-day mortality (28.1% vs 49.1%, p = 0.034).
PAL-treatment in patients with ALI is associated with a negative fluid balance, a reduction of EVLWI and IAP, and improved clinical outcomes without compromising organ function.
PMCID: PMC3390296  PMID: 22873416
abdominal pressure; extravascular lung water; fluid balance; fluid management; capillary leak; organ failure; treatment; conservative late fluid management; albumin; PEEP.
2.  Fluid management in critically ill patients: the role of extravascular lung water, abdominal hypertension, capillary leak, and fluid balance 
Annals of Intensive Care  2012;2(Suppl 1):S1.
Capillary leak in critically ill patients leads to interstitial edema. Fluid overload is independently associated with poor prognosis. Bedside measurement of intra-abdominal pressure (IAP), extravascular lung water index (EVLWI), fluid balance, and capillary leak index (CLI) may provide a valuable prognostic tool in mechanically ventilated patients.
We performed an observational study of 123 mechanically ventilated patients with extended hemodynamic monitoring, analyzing process-of-care variables for the first week of ICU admission. The primary outcome parameter was 28-day mortality. ΔmaxEVLWI indicated the maximum difference between EVLWI measurements during ICU stay. Patients with a ΔmaxEVLWI <−2 mL/kg were called 'responders'. CLI was defined as C-reactive protein (milligrams per deciliter) over albumin (grams per liter) ratio and conservative late fluid management (CLFM) as even-to-negative fluid balance on at least two consecutive days.
CLI had a biphasic course. ΔmaxEVLWI was lower if CLFM was achieved and in survivors (−2.4 ± 4.8 vs 1.0 ± 5.5 mL/kg, p = 0.001; −3.3 ± 3.8 vs 2.5 ± 5.3 mL/kg, p = 0.001, respectively). No CLFM achievement was associated with increased CLI and IAPmean on day 3 and higher risk to be nonresponder (odds ratio (OR) 2.76, p = 0.046; OR 1.28, p = 0.011; OR 5.52, p = 0.001, respectively). Responders had more ventilator-free days during the first week (2.5 ± 2.3 vs 1.5 ± 2.3, p = 0.023). Not achieving CLFM and being nonresponder were strong independent predictors of mortality (OR 9.34, p = 0.001 and OR 7.14, p = 0.001, respectively).
There seems to be an important correlation between CLI, EVLWI kinetics, IAP, and fluid balance in mechanically ventilated patients, associated with organ dysfunction and poor prognosis. In this context, we introduce the global increased permeability syndrome.
PMCID: PMC3390304  PMID: 22873410
abdominal pressure; extravascular lung water; fluid balance; fluid management; capillary leak; organ failure; prognosis

Results 1-2 (2)