The dominantly inherited ataxias, also known as Spino-cerebellar ataxias (SCAs), are rapidly expanding entities. New mutations are being identified at remarkable regularity. Recent awareness of molecular abnormalities in SCAs has addressed some of the long sought questions, but gaps in knowledge still exist. Three major categories of SCAs, according to molecular mechanisms, have evolved over recent few years: Polyglutamate expansion ataxia, non-coding zone repeat ataxia, and ataxia due to conventional mutation. Using the fulcrum of these mechanisms, the article provides an update of SCAs. Shared and specific clinical features, genetic abnormalities, and possible links between molecular abnormalities and cerebellar degeneration have been discussed. Emphasis has been placed on the mechanisms of polyglutamate toxicity.
Autosomal dominant cerebellar ataxia; polyglutamate; spino-cerebellar ataxia
We report a case of striatal toe in an adolescent with an infarct in lentiform nucleus and briefly discuss its differential diagnoses.
Adolescent; infarct; striatal toe
The cornerstone of diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is still the clinical criteria for probable and possible AD established by the NINCDS-ADRDA Work Group in 1984, which had survived for over 27 years. However, with the increase in people's knowledge of clinical manifestations and biology of AD, this standard is gradually proving to be insufficient; the early diagnosis of AD is thus particularly important. Therefore, in 2011, the National Institute on Aging and the Alzheimer's Association revised the criteria and integrated biomarker evidence into it. Biomarker evidence is expected to enhance the pathophysiological specificity of the diagnosis of AD. According to Consensus Report of the Working Group on Molecular and Biochemical Markers of Alzheimer's Disease, a qualified biomarker for AD should have the following abilities: It should detect a fundamental feature of neuropathology and be validated in neuropathologically confirmed cases, reliably with an sensitivity >80% for detecting AD and a specificity >80% for distinguishing other dementias; be reproducible and non-invasive; and be simple to perform and inexpensive. Alzheimer-associated neuronal thread protein (AD7c-NTP) is a member of “neuronal thread proteins” (NTPs); it can be detected in increased concentration in cortical neurons, brain-tissue extracts, cerebrospinal fluid, and urine in the early course of AD neurodegeneration, and it level is proportional to the degree of dementia, which makes it a promising biomarker for AD. In this review, we have evaluated the feasibility of developing AD7c-NTP as a biomarker for AD.
AD7c-NTP; Alzheimer's disease; biomarker; brain tissue extracts; cortical neurons; CSF; urine
Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is associated with an increased risk of developing dementia. This is clinically relevant overt dementia can be prevented if treatment strategies are devised for MCI. Neuropsychological deficits in this condition are very common and are important clinically for treatment and outcomes. We aimed to review various neuropsychological deficits in MCI. Further, we have presented the current evidence for nosological status, neuroanatomical basis, and clinical outcome of this heterogeneous construct. All published papers on the topic of neuropsychological deficits in MCI on Medline and other databases were reviewed. A wide range of memory and executive function deficits are common in MCI patients. However, several studies are limited by either improper designs or inadequate sample sizes. Several neuropsychological impairments like memory function and executive functions can be diagnosed in MCI. The evidence base for the exact neuroanatomical basis of MCI is not robust yet. However, given the wide range of outcomes, controversies and debates exist regarding the nosological significance of the deficits. Hence, more studies are needed to specifically locate the impairments and further delineate the construct of MCI.
Cognition; dementia; mild cognitive impairment
The reported prevalence of cognitive deficits within the first month of stroke ranges widely from 10% to 82%, depending primarily on the criteria used to define cognitive impairment and on the selected patient population. These cognitive defects progress toward impairment over a course of time if left untreated. Among the most common cognitive deficits are the attentional, the visuoperceptual, the memory and executive function deficits. As these impairments are being increasingly recognized in the scientific communities, more and more studies are being devoted to the outcomes of various therapies for these disorders. In this review, we focus on the outcomes of various therapies for these cognitive disorders over time. We reviewed all the possible medical databases using key words for individual cognitive deficit treatment outcomes. All the possible studies including randomized controlled trials, pre-post design studies, case series and single case reports were included in this study. On the basis of present literature review, we conclude that the evidence is definitively positive only for outcomes of attentional and visuoperceptive skill deficits. On the other hand, there have been very few studies to conclude for effectiveness of various therapies for memory and executive function outcomes.
Cognition; interventions; neuropsychological outcome; stroke
This cross-sectional case control study included subjects aged between 18 and 65 years with diagnosis of myasthenia gravis (MG) in Osserman's Stage I and Stage IIa and those in remission with positive and negative acetylcholine receptor antibody (AChRAb). They were evaluated for heart rate variability (HRV) and other conventional autonomic functions. Patients with co-morbidities that can affect autonomic nervous system were excluded. Repetitive nerve stimulation test (RNST), nerve conduction test, AChRAb assay, and computerized tomography (CT) of chest were done in all the patients. All patients of MG who fulfilled the inclusion criteria had a minimum drug-free period of 6 h which was followed by HRV and other conventional tests. Thirty subjects fulfilling study criteria and an equal number of age and gender-matched healthy subjects were enrolled as controls. Autonomic function tests revealed significant changes in HRV (both time and frequency domain) parameters suggestive of parasympathetic deficiency as well as shifting of sympathovagal balance towards raised sympathetic tone. With regards to conventional autonomic function tests, there was statistically significant decrease in values of heart rate-based tests as well as blood pressure-based test (isometric handgrip test) in study group compared with controls, again indicative of significant parasympathetic deficiency and minimal sympathetic deficiency. We conclude that in MG, cholinergic transmission is affected more diffusely than previously thought.
Blood pressure changes; cholinergic function; heart rate variability; myasthenia gravis; receptors
Several population based studies have demonstrated an association between hypo-or hyperthyroidism and dementia in last two decades. As a consequence, thyroid stimulating hormone has become part of the screening laboratory test for dementia.
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the association between thyroid function and Alzheimer's disease (AD) and vascular dementia (VaD) and to determine the risk of AD and VaD in clinically euthyroid patients.
Materials and Methods:
A cross-sectional hospital based study was carried out in subjects diagnosed with AD/VaD and were assessed for thyroid status as routine screening test.
Free T3, free T4 and TSH were studied in 114 AD patients (mean age: 65 years), 35 VaD patients (mean age: 62 years) and 105 control subjects (mean age: 62 years). In AD group, TSH levels were significantly lower than controls (P = 0.00) and for each unit increase in TSH level, the odds of having dementia decreased by 37.1%. No such relation was seen in VaD.
The results suggest a consistent association of subclinical hyperthyroidism and AD.
Alzheimer's disease; Dementia; thyroid status; thyroid stimulating hormone; vascular dementia
Congenital myasthenia syndrome (CMS) is a rare, heterogeneous group of genetically determined, disorder of neuromuscular transmission. They have a varied presentation and progression and very few studies have addressed the natural history. Aim of the present study is to describe the clinical profile and natural history of patients with CMS.
Materials and Methods:
Study includes patients with CMS who attended comprehensive-neuromuscular-clinic (CNMC) during the period January, 2000-2008 with a minimum follow-up of 2 years, with inclusion criteria: (1) Onset in infancy or childhood with fluctuating ocular, bulbar, respiratory or limb muscle weakness (2) Acetylcholine receptor antibody negative (3) normal computed tomography (CT) thymus (4) Abnormal repetitive nerve stimulation (RNS) testing (5) Exclusion of other autoimmune disorders.
Out of 314 patients with myasthenia who attended the CNMC during study period, 15 (4.8%) were with CMS (8 boys, 7 girls). Patients were divided as infantile and childhood onset. The mean age of onset and diagnosis in infantile and childhood onset groups were 5.5 months/3.1 years and 3.6 years/6.5 years respectively. Eleven patients had ptosis and 4 had generalized presentation. Most common site of decremental response was over facial nerve in 12 (75%) patients. All patients showed good response to treatment with acetyl cholinesterase inhibitor with stable course on follow-up without exacerbations. Mean dose for neostigmine was 28 mg/day and for pyridostigmine was 153 mg/day.
Ptosis is most common symptom at onset in CMS, emphasing importance of RNS of the facial nerve, in the absence of molecular diagnosis of CMS. Our CMS cohort had relatively stable course without intermittent exacerbations with fair response to acetyl cholinesterase inhibitor.
Acetylcholine receptor deficiency; congenital myasthenia syndrome; ocular myasthenia
Oral motor dysfunction is a common issue in children with cerebral palsy (CP). Drooling, difficulties with sucking, swallowing, and chewing are some of the problems often seen. In this study, we aimed to research the effect of oral motor therapy on pediatric CP patients with feeding problems.
Materials and Methods:
Included in this single centered, randomized, prospective study were 81 children aged 12-42 months who had been diagnosed with CP, had oral motor dysfunction and were observed at the Pediatric Neurology outpatient clinic of the Children's Health and Diseases Department, Istanbul Medical Faculty, Istanbul University. Patients were randomized into two groups: The training group and the control group. One patient from the training group dropped out of the study because of not participating regularly. Following initial evaluation of all patients by a blinded physiotherapist and pedagogue, patients in the training group participated in 1 h oral motor training sessions with a different physiotherapist once a week for 6 months. All patients kept on routine physiotherapy by their own physiotherapists. Oral motor assessment form, functional feeding assessment (FFA) subscale of the multidisciplinary feeding profile (MFP) and the Bayley scales of infant development (BSID-II) were used to evaluate oral motor function, swallowing, chewing, the gag reflex, the asymmetrical tonic neck reflex, tongue, jaw, and mouth function, severity of drooling, aspiration, choking, independent feeding and tolerated food texture during the initial examination and 6 months later.
When the initial and post-therapy FFA and BSID-II scores received by patients in the training and the study group were compared, the training group showed a statistically significant improvement (P < 0.05).
Oral motor therapy has a beneficial effect on feeding problems in children with CP.
Cerebral palsy; feeding; oral motor function
The prevalence and incidence of epilepsy is higher in developing countries than in developed countries. Understanding pattern and risk factors of seizure cases will help in suggesting appropriate preventive measures.
This study was carried out to assess the pattern of seizure, its management and compliance with treatment.
Materials and Methods:
Data from medical records of seizure cases in three tertiary care hospitals of Mangalore city in south India admitted from January 2006 to December 2011 were collected and analyzed.
Nearly half (44.4%) of the 196 cases belonged to productive age group (15-45 years) and 2/3rd (60.7%) were males. Majority (>80% cases) were unskilled workers and of low socio-economic status groups. Family history of seizures was present in 8.4% cases. Mean age of onset of seizure was found to be 19.9 years. Proportion of generalized tonic clonic seizure cases was 78.1%. Secondary seizures were seen in 66 (33.7%) cases with the most common cause being trauma to the head (24.2%). Refractory seizures were present in 2.7% cases. Monotherapy was the most commonly followed treatment regimen and phenytoin was the most popular anti-epileptic drug (AED) used. Non-compliance with AEDs was seen in 18.1% cases and was more among patients on polytherapy (P = 0.032).
Seizure manifestations and treatment compliance vary widely in the studied population. In depth analysis of each seizure type will give more information about the factors associated with it.
Compliance; hospital based; risk factors; seizures; treatment
Therapeutic relevance of computed tomography (CT) in children with partial seizures is reported to be remarkably low (1-2%). However, in the developing countries where infections involving the nervous system are common, routine CT scan of brain may help in finding treatable causes of seizures.
Aim of this study was to evaluate the significance of CT scan of brain in the management of children with partial seizures.
Materials and Methods:
Children with partial epilepsy, whose predominant seizure type was focal motor seizures, were included in the study. CT scan of brain was done in all children aged between 1 month and 12 years with partial seizures of unknown etiology prospectively. The clinical findings of these children were noted along with the CT findings.
Between August 2001 and July 2002, of the 200 children with seizure disorder 50 children who satisfied the inclusion criteria were included in the study. CT scan of brain was normal in 16 children (32%) and was abnormal in 34 children (68%). Twenty children (~60% of abnormal scan) had potentially correctable lesions: Tuberculoma (n = 13), neurocysticercosis (n = 3), and brain abscess (n = 4). Five children had changes representing static pathology that did not influence patient management. The clinical features correlated with CT findings in 78% children.
Children with partial motor seizures have high probability of having abnormal findings on CT scan of brain, especially, neuro-infections which are potentially treatable. Therefore, CT scan brain should be carried out in all children with partial motor seizures especially, in developing countries.
Children; computed tomography scan; partial seizures
Epilepsy is a chronic neurological disorder with major psychosocial correlates. Most epilepsy patients in developing countries are untreated or inadequately treated. It is essential to understand the pathway, to care taken by epilepsy patients in a community, to be able to target appropriate services to them.
Materials and Methods:
A community based study was conducted on all epilepsy patients in an urban slum in Northern India to study their pathways to care. A list of persons suffering from epilepsy was generated by house to house visits, snowballing, and key informant contacts. In-depth interview and Medical Record Review were used to document their pathway to care.
Thirteen of the twenty two patients had contacted a health-care provider for their first episode. The most common first link of care for the patients was secondary level Government hospitals. The next common was private practitioners, followed by Tertiary Care Hospitals, and registered medical practitioners. Eleven out of twenty two patients had to contact a Tertiary Level Center for seeking care. The number of health-care facilities consulted before arriving at their latest point of care ranged from 0 to 5. Traditional or faith healers were consulted at some point of time for cure.
There is a need to focus on strengthening and capacity building of the primary care settings for managing epilepsy to enable their better utilization. This shall prevent unnecessary referrals and hence the load on the already burdened higher facilities.
Care seeking; epilepsy; pathway to care; primary level care
Quality of life (QoL) dwells in a person's overall well-being. Recently, QoL measures have become critical and relevant in stroke survivors. Instruments measuring QoL of individuals with aphasia are apparently rare in the Indian context. The present study aimed to develop a Kannada instrument to measure the QoL of people with aphasia. Study objectives were to validate Stroke and aphasia quality of life-39 (SAQOL-39) into Kannada, to measure test–retest reliability and internal consistency.
Materials and Methods:
The original English instrument was modified considering socio-cultural differences among native English and Kannada speakers. Cross-linguistic adaptation of SAQOL-39 into Kannada was carried out through forward–backward translation scheme. The scale was administered on 32 people from Karnataka (a state in India) having aphasia. For a direct understanding of the subject's QoL, scores were categorized into QoL severity levels. Item reliability of the Kannada version was examined by measuring Cronbach's alpha. Test–retest reliability was examined by calculating the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC).
Kannada SAQOL-39 showed good acceptability with minimum missing data and excellent test–retest reliability (ICC = 0.8). Value of Cronbach's α observed for four items modified in the original version was 0.9 each and the mean α of all Kannada items was 0.9, demonstrating high internal consistency.
The present study offers a valid, reliable tool to measure QoL in Kannada-speaking individuals with aphasia. This tool is useful in a cross-center, cross-national comparison of QoL data from people with aphasia. This instrument also permits direct translation into other Indian languages as the items are culturally validated to the Indian population. This study promotes future research using the Kannada SAQOL-39.
Aphasia; Kannada; quality of life; stroke and aphasia quality of life-39; stroke
Hypokalemic paralysis is characterized by episodes of acute muscle weakness associated with hypokalemia. In this study, we evaluated the possible etiological factors in patients of hypokalemic paralysis.
Materials and Methods:
We reviewed the records of 29 patients who were admitted with a diagnosis of hypokalemic paralysis. Modified Guillain-Barre´ Syndrome disability scale was used to grade the disability.
In this study, 15 (51.7%) patients had secondary causes of hypokalemic paralysis and 14 patients (42.3%) had idiopathic hypokalemic paralysis. Thyrotoxicosis was present in six patients (20.6%), dengue infection in four patients (13.7%), distal renal tubular acidosis in three patients (10.3%), Gitelman syndrome in one patient (3.4%), and Conn's syndrome in one patient (3.4%). Preceding history of fever and rapid recovery was seen in dengue infection-induced hypokalemic paralysis. Approximately 62% patients had elevated serum creatinine phosphokinase. All patients had recovered completely following potassium supplementation. Patients with secondary causes were older in age, had significantly more disability, lower serum potassium levels, and took longer time to recover.
In conclusion, more than half of patients had secondary causes responsible for hypokalemic paralysis. Dengue virus infection was the second leading cause of hypokalemic paralysis, after thyrotoxicosis. Presence of severe disability, severe hypokalemia, and a late disease onset suggested secondary hypokalemic paralysis.
Acute flaccid paralysis; dengue virus; hypokalemia; hypokalemic paralysis
To study the prevalence of language delay and to examine its socio-economic correlates in children less than 3 years.
Materials and Methods:
Participants were 130 children (males = 56%) aged 12-35 months (mean age = 1.81 years, SD = 0.58), from an urban center in north India. The language quotient (LQ) of the child was measured by the Clinical Linguistic Auditory Milestone Scale (CLAMS). Children with an LQ score of less than 70 were considered language delayed.
Overall, 6.2% of the children were language delayed with a higher prevalence found for girls (7%) than for boys (5.5%), although the difference was not statistically significant. Several significant correlations between socio-economic and demographic variables and the LQ of the child were found. Stepwise multiple regression analysis revealed that 31.4% of the variance in the LQ scores of girls was accounted for by income (F = 23.80, P = 0.000) and 18.1% of the variance in the LQ scores of boys was accounted for by education of the mother and income (F = 15.67, P = 0.000).
Developmental problems in early years are often precursors of problems in later life and early intervention can facilitate favorable outcomes among children with multiple risks. The high prevalence of language difficulties in young children underscores the need to target language delay in early years, to reduce the likelihood of adverse outcomes and thus optimize chances of improvement.
Children; language delay; socio-economic correlates
Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is an immune-mediated inflammatory demyelinating disorder of the central nervous system with a predilection for the optic nerves and the spinal cord. Immunopathological evidence suggests that the target antigen of the disease is aquaporin-4. An IgG antibody against this protein has been explored as a molecular marker for the disease and as a diagnostic tool due to its high sensitivity and specificity in various populations.
To assess the value of NMO-IgG testing in Indian patients with clinical and magnetic resonance imaging features consistent with NMO and longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis (LETM).
Materials and Methods:
Forty-five patients with clinical and magnetic resonance imaging features consistent with NMO, LETM, and MS were tested for serum NMO-IgG. Of these patients, 22 patients satisfied revised (2006) Wingerchuk criteria for NMO (excluding NMO-IgG status) and 11 patients had LETM. Twelve patients satisfied the revised (2010) McDonald criteria for multiple sclerosis (MS).
Of the 21 patients, satisfying the criteria for NMO and for whom the test results were available, 17 were positive for NMO-IgG (80.9%), and of the 11 patients having LETM, 6 (54.5%) were positive for NMO-IgG. In one patient with NMO, the test result was not available. None of the 12 patients satisfying McDonald criteria for MS showed NMO-IgG seropositivity.
Our study suggests that it is worthwhile to pursue NMO-IgG testing as a diagnostic tool for patients with clinical and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) features consistent with NMO and LETM in the Indian population.
Anti-aquaporin-4 seropositivity; neuromyelitis optica; neuromyelitis optica-Immunoglobulin G seropositivity; transverse myelitis
Ischemic stroke (IS) is a prevalent disease causing a body disability, the third leading cause of death in Taiwan. It shows that the level of intercellular adhesion molecular-1 (ICAM-1) in IS patients is higher than control subjects.
This study is to investigate the possible association of ICAM-1 (G1548A) polymorphism in IS patients.
Materials and Methods:
A total of 646 subjects were enrolled in this study, including 312 IS patients, and 334 controls without a history of symptomatic IS. The ICAM-1 (G1548A) polymorphism was analyzed by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism. Clinical factors were also determined.
The frequencies of the ICAM-1 (G1548A) polymorphism for G/G, G/A, and A/A were 74.8%, 23.9%, and 0.3%, respectively, in healthy controls, and 62.8%, 32.1%, and 5.1%, respectively, in patients. The frequency of the ICAM-1 (G1548A) A allele (21.2% versus 13.2%, respectively; P = 0.007) and the carriers of the ICAM-1 (G1548A) A allele (37.2% versus 25.2%; P = 0.019, OR 1.76, 95% CI 1.1-2.83) are great in IS patients compared with healthy controls. There is a higher risk of IS associated with homozygosity for the ICAM-1 (G1548A) A allele (AA genotype) compared with the control population (5.1% vs. 0.3%, respectively, P = 0.04; OR 5.1, 95% CI 1.19-21.66). We also observed both hypertension and diabetes has shown a positive association with IS.
The ICAM-1 (G1548A) polymorphism was associated with independent risk factor for the development of IS.
Allele; intercellular adhesion molecular-1; ischemic stroke; polymorphism
The Korean version of Mini-Mental Status Examination (K-MMSE) and the Korean version of Addenbrooke Cognitive Examination (K-ACE) have been validated as quick neuropsychological tests for screening dementia in various clinical settings. Medial temporal atrophy (MTA) is an early pathological characteristic of Alzheimer's disease (AD). We aimed to assess the diagnostic validity of the fusion of the neuropsychological test and visual rating scale (VRS) of MTA in AD.
Materials and Methods:
A total of fifty subjects (25 AD, 25 controls) were included. The neuropsychological tests used were the K-MMSE and the K-ACE. T1 axial imaging visual rating scale (VRS) was applied for assessing the grade of MTA. We calculated the fusion score with the difference of neuropsychological test and VRS of MTA. The receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve was used to determine optimal cut-off score, sensitivity and specificity of the fusion scores in screening AD.
No significant differences in age, gender and education were found between AD and control group. The values of K-MMSE, K-ACE, CDR, VRS and cognitive function test minus VRS were significantly lower in the AD group than control group. The AUC (Area under the curve), sensitivity and specificity for K-MMSE minus VRS were 0.857, 84% and 80% and for K-ACE minus VRS were 0.884, 80% and 88%, respectively. Those for K-MMSE only were 0.842, 76% and 72% and for K-ACE only were 0.868, 80% and 88%, respectively.
The fusion of the neuropsychological test and VRS suggested clinical usefulness in their easy and superiority over neuropsychological test only. However, this study failed to find any difference. This may be because of small numbers in the study or because there is no true difference.
Alzheimer's disease; neuropsychological test; visual rating scale
As with most neurologic conditions, stroke involves impairment of the swallowing mechanism. This could be a spectrum of issues, the worst of which is aspiration. At the same time, the prolonged presence of a naso-gastric tube (NGT) has its own morbidity. Flexible endoscopic evaluation of swallowing (FEES) is one reliable method to assess the structural and functional status of the oropharynx and larynx, during the swallowing process.
To study the utility of FEES in decision-making with respect to resumption of oral intake in stroke patients. To document the findings of FEES in stroke patients, and to look for correlations between these and the site of stroke.
Materials and Methods:
Protocol insertion of naso-gastric tube in all stroke patients, at presentation. Initial assessment by a neurologist and swallowing therapist, depending on cognitive status of the patient. All patients underwent MRI Brain with diffusion weighted sequences. After detailed clinical examination, they underwent swallow exercises under the supervision of a trained swallowing therapist. The decision to remove NGT was taken clinically by the combined decision of neurologist and swallowing therapist. Then all patients underwent FEES by the ENT surgeon. The final decision for NGT removal was taken as per the FEES findings.
Sixteen stroke patients underwent the FEES procedure during a period of six months. The oropharyngeal and laryngeal findings varied depending on the area of stroke involvement. Of these, change in decision regarding swallowing rehabilitation or NGT removal was needed in four patients, following the FEES findings.
FEES is an easy, efficient and reliable method to evaluate the swallowing status in stroke patients. In combination with good bedside clinical examination and swallow exercises, it can be a good tool in assessing patients with post- stroke dysphagia. Post-stroke rehabilitation and prevention of aspiration pneumonia can be effectively done with the help of FEES.
Dysphagia; flexible endoscopic evaluation of swallowing; stroke
We evaluated progressive changes in excitability of motor cortex following ischemic stroke using Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS).
Materials and Methods:
Thirty-one patients (24 men, 7 women; age 37.3 ± 8.2 years) were recruited and TMS was performed using Magstim 200 stimulator and a figure-of-eight coil. Resting motor threshold (RMT) was recorded from affected and unaffected hemispheres and motor evoked potential (MEP) was recorded from contralateral FDI muscle. Central motor conduction time (CMCT) was calculated using F wave method. All measurements were done at baseline (2nd), 4th, and 6th week of stroke.
Results: Affected hemisphere:
MEP was recordable in 3 patients at baseline (all had prolonged CMCT). At 4 weeks, MEP was recordable in one additional patient and CMCT remained prolonged. At 6 weeks, CMCT normalized in one patient. RMT was recordable (increased) in 3 patients at baseline, in one additional patient at 4 weeks, and reduced marginally in these patients at 6 weeks.
MEP was recordable in all patients at baseline, and reduced significantly over time (2nd week 43.52 ± 9.60, 4th week 38.84 ± 7.83, and 6th week 36.85 ± 7.27; P < 0.001). The CMCT was normal and remained unchanged over time.
The increase in excitability of the unaffected motor cortex suggests plasticity in the post-stroke phase.
Central motor conduction time; cortical excitability; ischemic stroke; plasticity; resting motor threshold; transcranial magnetic stimulation