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2.  Rabies viral encephalitis with proable 25 year incubation period! 
We report a case of rabies viral encephalitis in a 48-year-old male with an unusually long incubation period, historically suspected to be more than 20 years. The case was referred for histological diagnosis following alleged medical negligence to the forensic department. The histology and immunocytochemical demonstration of rabies viral antigen established the diagnosis unequivocally. The case manifested initially with hydrophobia and aggressive behavior, although he suddenly went to the bathroom and drank a small amount of water. History of dog bite 25 years back was elicited retrospectively following clinical suspicion. There was no subsequent history to suggest nonbite exposure to a rabid dog to consider recent event causing the disease, although this cannot be totally excluded.
PMCID: PMC3424805  PMID: 22919200
Long incubation period; Negri bodies; rabies; viral antigen
3.  Temporal arteritis: A case series from south India and an update of the Indian scenario 
To study the clinical, pathological and prognostic profile of patients with temporal arteritis in India.
Materials and Methods:
The study was conducted in a tertiary care center from south India from 2005 to 2010 in the departments of neurology and medicine. The details of all patients that satisfied the ACR 1990 criteria for diagnosis of temporal arteritis were reviewed. The clinical presentation, laboratory parameters and biopsy findings of the patients were analyzed and compared with other studies from India done over the last decade.
A total of 15 patients were diagnosed with temporal arteritis. The male:female ratio was 1.5:1. The mean age of onset was 67.58 years. Mean time for detection after onset of symptoms was 2.56 months. Typical manifestations included headache (100%), temporal artery tenderness (100%), jaw claudication (20%), polymyalgia rheumatica (53%) and visual manifestations (20%). The erythrocyte sedimentation rate was elevated in all patients. Biopsy was done in 13 patients, with 11 of them being positive. All patients responded to steroids well, with most patients being symptom-free within the first 48 h of treatment.
Temporal arteritis seems to be underdiagnosed in India, with all patients previously misdiagnosed, and with a mean time from symptom onset to diagnosis of 2.5 months. The clinical presentation of temporal arteritis in India appears to be similar to that of the West, with no gender preference and a slightly younger age group.
PMCID: PMC3299067  PMID: 22412269
Blindness; giant cell arteritis; headache
4.  Utility of molecular and serodiagnostic tools in cerebral toxoplasmosis with and without tuberculous meningitis in AIDS patients: A study from South India 
Antemortem diagnosis of cerebral toxoplasmosis, the second most common opportunistic infection (OI) in HIV-infected individuals in developing countries is a challenge.
Materials and Methods:
Toxoplasma gondii (T.gondii) -specific serology and nested polymerase chain reaction (nPCR) were evaluated in sera and ventricular/lumbar cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of 22 autopsy confirmed cases of cerebral toxoplasmosis with HIV and 17 controls. Frequency of concomitant T.gondii infection was investigated in 17 cases of HIV-associated tuberculous meningitis (TBM).
The sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of T. gondii IgG on CSF (ventricular and lumbar) and sera was 100% in histology proven cerebral toxoplasmosis (concentrations: 258 ± 50, 231 ± 36, and 646 ± 243 IU/mL, respectively); majority (94%) being high avidity type, suggesting reactivation/reinfection. The sensitivity of B1 nPCR was 100% on ventricular CSF, whereas it was only 77% on lumbar CSF. Based on histology, nPCR, and IgG serology, T. gondii co-infection with TBM was observed in 65% (11/17) of cases.
Discussion and Conclusion:
CSF IgG serology and nPCR are tests with high sensitivity and specificity for the diagnosis of cerebral toxoplasmosis. TBM and cerebral toxoplasmosis can coexist and should be considered in the background of HIV infection in developing countries.
PMCID: PMC3021929  PMID: 21264134
B1 gene; cerebral toxoplasmosis; human immunodeficiency virus; T. gondii IgG; Toxoplasma gondii; tuberculous meningitis
6.  Heidenhain variant of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease: An autopsy study from India 
Prion diseases are rare, progressive and fatal neurodegenerative diseases characterized by long incubation period and short clinical course. We present a rare case of Heidenhain variant of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, occurring in a 55-year-old lady presenting with dementia, cortical blindness, and myoclonic jerks. She succumbed to the disease within 8 weeks of onset of symptoms. MRI revealed hyperintense signals on T2WI and fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) images in basal ganglia and fronto-temporal and parietal cortex, sparing thalamus, striate cortex and globus pallidum. Abundant abnormal prion protein deposits (PrPsc) were detected in caudate, putamen, thalamus, cingulate and striate cortex, in comparison to frontal and parietal cortex while no deposits were found in globus pallidum. MRI changes did not correlate with degree of spongy change, gliosis or prion protein deposition. The cause for abnormal signal changes in MRI and FLAIR images remains unclear.
PMCID: PMC2811980  PMID: 20151011
Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease; MR imaging; immunostaining; prion protein (PrPsc)
7.  Fabry's disease: An ultrastructural study of nerve biopsy 
Fabry's disease, an X linked recessive disorder caused by the deficiency of α-galactosidase A (α-gal A), leads to progressive accumulation of glycosphingolipids. We report this rare disease in a 19-year-old boy who presented with angiokeratomas, paresthesia and corneal opacities, and nerve biopsy revealed by electron microscopy lamellated inclusions in the smooth muscle, perineurial and endothelial cells characteristic of Fabry's disease.
PMCID: PMC2771983  PMID: 19893666
Angiokeratomas; Fabry's disease; lamellated inclusions

Results 1-7 (7)