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1.  Clinical and radiological profile of Hirayama disease: A flexion myelopathy due to tight cervical dural canal amenable to collar therapy 
Background:
Hirayama disease (HD) is benign focal amyotrophy of the distal upper limbs, often misdiagnosed as motor neuron disease. Routine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is often reported normal.
Objective:
To study the clinicoradiological profile of hand wasting in young males.
Materials and Methods:
Patients presenting with insidious-onset hand wasting from March 2008 to May 2011 were evaluated electrophysiologically. Cervical MRI in neutral position was done in 11 patients and flexion contrast imaging was done in 10 patients.
Results:
All patients were males less than 25 years of age, with median age 23 years, except one patient who was 50 years old. Duration of illness was 3 months to 3 years. All (100%) had oblique amyotrophy, four (36%) cold paresis, 10 (91%) minipolymyoclonus and three (27%) had fasciculations. Regional reflexes were variably absent. Two patients (18%) had brisk reflexes of lower limbs with flexor plantars. Electromyography (EMG) showed chronic denervation in the C7-T1 myotomes. Neutral position MRI showed loss of cervical lordosis in 10/11 (91%), localized lower cervical cord atrophy in 9/11 (82%), asymmetric cord flattening in 11/11 (100%) and intramedullary hyperintensity in 2/11 (18%); flexion study showed loss of dural attachment, anterior displacement of dorsal dura, epidural flow voids in 9/10 (90%) and enhancing epidural crescent in 10/10 (100%). Clinical profile, imaging and electrophysiological findings of the patient aged 50 years will be described in detail as presentation at this age is exceptional. Collar therapy slowed progression in most cases.
Conclusion:
Clinical features of HD corroborated well with electrophysiological diagnosis of anterior horn cell disease of lower cervical cord. While dynamic contrast MRI is characteristic, routine studies have a high predictive value for diagnosis. Prompt diagnosis is important to institute early collar therapy.
doi:10.4103/0972-2327.94993
PMCID: PMC3345586  PMID: 22566723
Collar therapy; flexion magnetic resonance imaging; hand wasting; Hirayama disease; monomelic amyotrophy
3.  Idiopathic hypertrophic cranial pachymeningitis: Three biopsy-proven cases including one case with abdominal pseudotumor and review of the literature 
Hypertrophic pachymeningitis (HP) is a rare disorder of diverse etiology. It presents with headaches, cranial neuropathies and ataxia occurring alone or in combination. Dural biopsy is essential to exclude secondary causes of pachymeningitis. There is paucity of data on biopsied cases of HP. We report three biopsy-proven cases of idiopathic hypertrophic cranial pachymeningitis. All our patients had headaches and multiple cranial neuropathies; ataxia was seen in one patient. One patient had recurrent anterior and posterior cranial neuropathies, while one each had recurrent anterior and posterior cranial neuropathies. Two patients had profound irreversible mono-ocular visual loss. All of them showed prominent pachymeningeal thickening on imaging. Infarcts were seen in one patient, which have rarely been documented. All patients showed biopsy evidence of meningeal thickening and nonspecific chronic inflammation of the dura. The disease may have a remitting and relapsing course, and usually responds to steroids. Clinical improvement was excellent in two patients and modest in one on steroid therapy. All our patients required azathioprine during the course of therapy. Early institution and long-term maintenance of steroid therapy prevents neurologic sequelae. Occurrence of abdominal inflammatory pseudotumor in a patient of HP possibly as part of multifocal fibrosclerosis has not been described earlier.
doi:10.4103/0972-2327.85891
PMCID: PMC3200042  PMID: 22028532
Abdominal pseudotumor; chronic headache; dural biopsy; idiopathic hypertrophic pachymeningitis; infarcts; multifocal fibrosclerosis

Results 1-3 (3)