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1.  Two or more enteropathogens are associated with diarrhoea in Mexican children 
Background
Diarrhoeal diseases constitute a major public health problem, particularly in the developing world, where the rate of mortality and morbidity is very high. The purpose of this study was to conduct a 2 years and 3 months study in order to determine the prevalence of five enteropathogen diarrheogenic agents in Mexico City.
Methods
Faecal samples were obtained from 300 Mexican children diagnosed as positive for diarrhoea, aged > 2 to < 12 years old, and from 80 children matched for age but with no symptoms of the disease (control group). Two multiplex PCR were used to detect Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., and Shigella spp. In addition, the two protozoan parasites Entamoeba histolytica/Entamoeba dispar and Giardia intestinalis were detected by conventional methods.
Results
All diarrhoeal samples were positive for one or more enteropathogens. The most common enteropathogens in diarrhoeal samples were E. histolytica/E. dispar (70.3%), Salmonella (ohio 28.3%; typhimurium 16.3%; infantis 8%; anatum 0.6%; Newport 0.3%), G. intestinalis (33%), E. coli (ETEC 13.3%; EPEC 9.3%; VTEC 8.6%; EIEC 1%) and Shigella spp. (flexneri 1.6%, sonnei 1%). Infections by two (24%) three (16%) and four (12%) pathogens were observed.
Conclusion
This study revealed that 52% of the patients were infected by more than one enteropathogen, notably E. histolitica/E. dispar and Salmonella ohio. These results are useful for clinicians to improve the empiric treatment used in such cases.
doi:10.1186/1476-0711-6-17
PMCID: PMC2246149  PMID: 18162140
2.  Infections caused by mycobacterium tuberculosis in patients with hematological disorders and in recipients of hematopoietic stem cell transplant, a twelve year retrospective study 
Background
Tuberculous infections in patients with hematological disorders and hematopoietic stem cell transplant vary in incidence, complications and response to treatment.
Methods and materials
A retrospective study of patients with various benign and malignant hematological disorders and recipients of hematopoietic stem cell transplant who were treated at Riyadh Armed Forces Hospital, Saudi Arabia between January 1991 and December 2002 and who developed tuberculous infections was conducted.
Results
Tuberculous infections occurred in eighteen patients with hematological disorders and hematopoietic stem cell transplant. The main associated factors were: reduced immunity due to the primary hematological disorder, age more than 50 years and the administration of cytotoxic chemotherapy, steroids or radiotherapy. These infections frequently involved the lungs and predominantly occurred in males and in patients with chronic myeloproliferative disorders, myelodysplastic syndrome and acute myeloid leukemia. In patients treated with intravenous cytotoxic chemotherapy, tuberculous infections tended to occur earlier and also tended to be more disseminated compared to infections occurring in patients treated with oral chemotherapy. Anti-tuberculous treatment was given to 16 patients and it was successful in 15 of these patients.
Conclusion
Tuberculous infections cause significant morbidity and mortality in patients with various hematological disorders and in recipients of hematopoietic stem cell transplant. The early administration of anti-tuberculous therapy and compliance with drug treatment are associated with successful outcomes while delayed management, drug resistance and the presence of miliary infections are associated with poor prognosis and high mortality rates.
doi:10.1186/1476-0711-6-16
PMCID: PMC2200647  PMID: 18021401
3.  Efficacy of eleven antimicrobials against a gregarine parasite (Apicomplexa: Protozoa) 
Background
The Apicomplexa are a diverse group of obligate protozoan parasites infesting a wide range of invertebrate and vertebrate hosts including humans. These parasites are notoriously difficult to control and many species continue to evolve resistance to commercial antibiotics. In this study, we sought to find an effective chemotherapeutic treatment against arthropod gregarines (Apicomplexa), and to identify candidate compounds for testing against other groups of protozoan parasites.
Methods
We tested eleven commercial antibiotics against a gregarine parasite of Romalea microptera grasshoppers. Infected insects were fed daily, lettuce containing known amounts of specific antibiotics. On Days 15 or 20, we measured the number of gregarines remaining in the digestive tract of each grasshopper.
Results
Treatment with metronidazole and griseofulvin in host insects significantly reduced gregarine counts, whereas, gregarine counts of insects fed, albendazole, ampicillin, chloramphenicol, fumagillin, quinine, streptomycin, sulfadimethoxine, thiabendazole or tetracycline, were not significantly different from the controls. However, albendazole produced a strong, but non-significant reduction in gregarine count, and streptomycin exhibited a non-significant antagonistic trend.
Conclusion
Our results confirm that gregarine infections are difficult to control and suggest the possibility that streptomycin might aggravate gregarine infection. In addition, the insect system described here, provides a simple, inexpensive, and effective method for screening antibiotics.
doi:10.1186/1476-0711-6-15
PMCID: PMC2214726  PMID: 17997852
4.  Factors affecting antimicrobial activity of MUC7 12-mer, a human salivary mucin-derived peptide 
Background
MUC7 12-mer (RKSYKCLHKRCR), a cationic antimicrobial peptide derived from the human low-molecular-weight salivary mucin MUC7, possesses potent antimicrobial activity in vitro. In order to evaluate the potential therapeutic application of the MUC7 12-mer, we examined the effects of mono- and divalent cations, EDTA, pH, and temperature on its antimicrobial activity.
Methods
Minimal Inhibitory Concentrations (MICs) were determined using a liquid growth inhibition assay in 96-well microtiter plates. MUC7 12-mer was added at concentrations of 1.56–50 μM. MICs were determined at three endpoints: MIC-0, MIC-1, and MIC-2 (the lowest drug concentration showing 10%, 25% and 50% of growth, respectively). To examine the effect of salts or EDTA, a checkerboard microdilution technique was used. Fractional inhibitory concentration index (FICi) was calculated on the basis of MIC-0. The viability of microbial cells treated with MUC7 12-mer in the presence of sodium or potassium was also determined by killing assay or flow cytometry.
Results
The MICs of MUC7 12-mer against organisms tested ranged from 6.25–50 μM. For C. albicans, antagonism (FICi 4.5) was observed for the combination of MUC7 12-mer and calcium; however, there was synergism (FICi 0.22) between MUC7 12-mer and EDTA, and the synergism was retained in the presence of calcium at its physiological concentration (1–2 mM). No antagonism but additivity or indifference (FICi 0.55–2.5) was observed for the combination of MUC7 12-mer and each K+, Na+, Mg2+, or Zn2+. MUC7 12-mer peptide (at 25 μM) also exerted killing activity in the presence of NaCl, (up to 25 mM for C. albicans and up to 150 mM for E. coli, a physiological concentration of sodium in the oral cavity and serum, respectively) and retained candidacidal activity in the presence of KCl (up to 40 mM). The peptide exhibited higher inhibitory activity against C. albicans at pH 7, 8, and 9 than at pH 5 and 6, and temperature up to 60°C did not affect the activity.
Conclusion
MUC7 12-mer peptide is effective anticandidal agent at physiological concentrations of variety of ions in the oral cavity. These results suggest that, especially in combination with EDTA, it could potentially be applied as an alternative therapeutic agent for the treatment of human oral candidiasis.
doi:10.1186/1476-0711-6-14
PMCID: PMC2211505  PMID: 17996119
5.  Impact of reduced vancomycin susceptibility on the therapeutic outcome of MRSA bloodstream infections 
Background
The aim of this study was to determine whether clinical outcome of patients with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) bacteraemia was correlated with vancomycin susceptibility of the corresponding strains.
Methods
A retrospective study on MRSA bacteraemia was performed at a teaching hospital between January 1998 and October 2005 by linking vancomycin susceptibility profiles of patients' isolates with hospitalization data.
Results
A total of 20 out of 209 MRSA bacteraemia patients were treated with vancomycin for at least 5 days with adequate trough levels, and fulfilled the study's inclusion and exclusion criteria. Twenty-two S. aureus isolates from these patients' blood cultures were identified as MRSA, including two hetero-VISA from separate patients and two VISA with vancomycin MIC of 4 mg/L from one patient. Between patients who showed 'good' vancomycin response and patients who did not, there was a significant difference (p < 0.01) in their corresponding MRSAs' vancomycin susceptibility expressed by 'area under curve' (AUC) of population analysis. Significant correlations were found between AUC and initial vancomycin therapeutic response parameters of 'days till afebrile' (r = 0.828, p < 0.01) and 'days till CRP ≦ 30% of maximum' (r = 0.627, p < 0.01)
Conclusion
Our study results caution healthcare personnel that early consideration should be given to cases with a poor vancomycin treatment response that could signify the involvement of MRSA with reduced susceptibility to vancomycin.
doi:10.1186/1476-0711-6-13
PMCID: PMC2148052  PMID: 17967199
6.  Central venous catheter infection with Bacillus pumilus in an immunocompetent child: a case report 
Background
Bacillus organisms are common laboratory contaminants. The majority of Bacillus bacteraemias are transient and not clinically significant. Clinically significant infection due to Bacillus species is rare and mostly due to Bacillus cereus infections in immuno-compromised hosts.
Case presentation
We report a case of central venous catheter infection with Bacillus pumilus in an immunocompetent child with tufting enteropathy on long-term parenteral nutrition (PN). There were three episodes of central venous catheter infection with Bacillus pumilus in three months. Despite adequate and appropriate use of intravenous antibiotics, the infection failed to clear resulting in the need for removal of the catheter for complete cure.
Conclusion
Bacillus species can cause clinically significant central venous catheter infection, even in an immunocompetent host. Despite adequate antibiotic treatment, the central venous catheter may need removal for complete cure.
doi:10.1186/1476-0711-6-12
PMCID: PMC2169249  PMID: 17967173
7.  A pharmacodynamic analysis of resistance trends in pathogens from patients with infection in intensive care units in the United States between 1993 and 2004 
Background
Increasing nosocomial pathogen resistance to available antimicrobial agents is of growing concern. While higher MICs can diminish antimicrobial effectiveness, dose adjustments often mitigate this effect. This study's objective was to ascertain whether MICs among major pathogens in the ICU to several commonly used agents have increased enough to significantly impact their ability to achieve bactericidal effect.
Methods
Cefepime, ceftriaxone, imipenem and piperacillin-tazobactam MICs were determined with 74,394 Gram-negative bacilli obtained from ICU patients with various infections in the US between 1993 and 2004. Results were grouped into four 3-year periods. The predicted cumulative fraction of response (CFR) was estimated based on patient-derived pharmacokinetic values and Monte Carlo simulation. Trends in CFR over the four study periods were assessed using the Cochran-Armitage test. The primary analysis included all organisms combined; Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter species were also evaluated individually.
Results
In the primary analysis, imipenem 500 mg q6h showed CFRs from 87% to 90% across all four study periods, with a trend toward slightly improved bactericidal target attainment (p < 0.01). CFRs for cefepime 2 g q12h and piperacillin-tazobactam 4.5 g q6h both declined by 2% (p < 0.01 and p < 0.05, respectively), reflecting upward shifts in the underlying MIC distributions. Ceftriaxone had <52% CFR for all regimens in all periods, with no significant trend. Against P. aeruginosa, significant declines in CFR were seen for (range, p-value): imipenem 1 g q8h (82%–79%, p < 0.01), cefepime 1 g q12h (70%–67%, p < 0.01), cefepime 2 g q12h (84%–82%, p < 0.05), piperacillin-tazobactam 3.375 g q6h (76%–73%, p < 0.01), piperacillin-tazobactam 4.5 g q8h (71%–68%, p < 0.01), and piperacillin-tazobactam 4.5 g q6h (80%–77%, p < .01). Against Acinetobacter spp., all regimens of imipenem, cefepime and piperacillin-tazobactam showed significant declines in CFR over time (p < 0.01).
Conclusion
Our observations suggest that as a result of increasing antimicrobial resistance among ICU pathogens in the US, drug effectiveness, assessed as a function of individual agents' ability to attain pharmacodynamic targets, has declined, especially with P. aeruginosa and Acinetobacter spp. Cefepime 2 g q8h and imipenem were the most potent agents against these species, respectively. More aggressive dosing of all of the agents characterized could preserve their clinical utility, but this must be balanced with safety and tolerability issues by the physician.
doi:10.1186/1476-0711-6-11
PMCID: PMC2134929  PMID: 17908321
8.  Antiherpevirus activity of Artemisia arborescens essential oil and inhibition of lateral diffusion in Vero cells 
Background
New prophylactic and therapeutic tools are needed for the treatment of herpes simplex virus infections. Several essential oils have shown to possess antiviral activity in vitro against a wide spectrum of viruses.
Aim
The present study was assess to investigate the activities of the essential oil obtained from leaves of Artemisia arborescens against HSV-1 and HSV-2
Methods
The cytotoxicity in Vero cells was evaluated by the MTT reduction method. The IC50 values were determined by plaque reduction assay. In order to characterize the mechanism of action, yield reduction assay, inhibition of plaque development assay, attachment assay, penetration assay and post-attachment virus neutralization assay were also performed.
Results
The IC50 values, determined by plaque reduction assay, were 2.4 and 4.1 μg/ml for HSV-1 and HSV-2, respectively, while the cytotoxicity assay against Vero cells, as determined by the MTT reduction method, showed a CC50 value of 132 μg/ml, indicating a CC50/IC50 ratio of 55 for HSV-1 and 32.2 for HSV-2. The antiviral activity of A. arborescens essential oil is principally due to direct virucidal effects. A poor activity determined by yield reduction assay was observed against HSV-1 at higher concentrations when added to cultures of infected cells. No inhibition was observed by attachment assay, penetration assay and post-attachment virus neutralization assay. Furthermore, inhibition of plaque development assay showed that A. arborescens essential oil inhibits the lateral diffusion of both HSV-1 and HSV-2.
Conclusion
This study demonstrates the antiviral activity of the essential oil in toto obtained from A. arborescens against HSV-1 and HSV-2. The mode of action of the essential oil as antiherpesvirus agent seems to be particularly interesting in consideration of its ability to inactivate the virus and to inhibit the cell-to-cell virus diffusion.
doi:10.1186/1476-0711-6-10
PMCID: PMC2099429  PMID: 17894898
9.  A multi-center blinded study on the efficiency of phenotypic screening methods to detect glycopeptide intermediately susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (GISA) and heterogeneous GISA (h-GISA) 
Backgrounds
To determine the true incidence of hGISA/GISA and its consequent clinical impact, methods must be defined that will reliably and reproducibly discriminate these resistant phenotypes from vancomycin susceptible S. aureus (VSSA).
Methods
This study assessed and compared the ability of eight Dutch laboratories under blinded conditions to discriminate VSSA from hGISA/GISA phenotypes and the intra- and inter-laboratory reproducibility of agar screening plates and the Etest method. A total of 25 blinded and unique strains (10 VSSA, 9 hGISA and 6 GISA) were categorized by the PAP-AUC method and PFGE typed to eliminate clonal duplication. All strains were deliberately added in quadruplets to evaluate intra-laboratory variability and reproducibility of the methods. Strains were tested using three agar screening methods, Brain Heart Infusion agar (BHI) + 6 μg/ml vancomycin, Mueller Hinton agar (MH) + 5 μg/ml vancomycin and MH + 5 μg/ml teicoplanin) and the Etest macromethod using a 2 McFarland inoculum.
Results and Discussion
The ability to detect the hGISA/GISA phenotypes varied significantly between methods and phenotypes. BHI vancomycin and MH vancomycin agar screens lacked the ability to detect hGISA. The MH teicoplanin agar screen was more sensitive but still inferior to Etest that had a sensitivity of 98.5% and 99.5%, for hGISA and GISA, respectively. Intra- and inter-laboratory reproducibility varied between methods with poorest performance seen with BHI vancomycin.
Conclusion
This is the first multi-center blinded study to be undertaken evaluating various methods to detect GISA and hGISA. These data showed that the ability of clinical laboratories to detect GISA and hGISA varied considerably, and that screening plates with vancomycin have a poor performance in detecting hGISA.
doi:10.1186/1476-0711-6-9
PMCID: PMC2034580  PMID: 17892555
10.  Comparison of disc diffusion, Etest and broth microdilution for testing susceptibility of carbapenem-resistant P. aeruginosa to polymyxins 
Background
Considering the increasing use of polymyxins to treat infections due to multidrug resistant Gram-negative in many countries, it is important to evaluate different susceptibility testing methods to this class of antibiotic.
Methods
Susceptibility of 109 carbapenem-resistant P. aeruginosa to polymyxins was tested comparing broth microdilution (reference method), disc diffusion, and Etest using the new interpretative breakpoints of Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute.
Results
Twenty-nine percent of isolates belonged to endemic clone and thus, these strains were excluded of analysis. Among 78 strains evaluated, only one isolate was resistant to polymyxin B by the reference method (MIC: 8.0 μg/mL). Very major and major error rates of 1.2% and 11.5% were detected comparing polymyxin B disc diffusion with the broth microdilution (reference method). Agreement within 1 twofold dilution between Etest and the broth microdilution were 33% for polymyxin B and 79.5% for colistin. One major error and 48.7% minor errors were found comparing polymyxin B Etest with broth microdilution and only 6.4% minor errors with colistin. The concordance between Etest and the broth microdilution (reference method) was respectively 100% for colistin and 90% for polymyxin B.
Conclusion
Resistance to polymyxins seems to be rare among hospital carbapenem-resistant P. aeruginosa isolates over a six-year period. Our results showed, using the new CLSI criteria, that the disc diffusion susceptibility does not report major errors (false-resistant results) for colistin. On the other hand, showed a high frequency of minor errors and 1 very major error for polymyxin B. Etest presented better results for colistin than polymyxin B. Until these results are reproduced with a large number of polymyxins-resistant P. aeruginosa isolates, susceptibility to polymyxins should be confirmed by a reference method.
doi:10.1186/1476-0711-6-8
PMCID: PMC2018696  PMID: 17697363
11.  Mechanisms, molecular and sero-epidemiology of antimicrobial resistance in bacterial respiratory pathogens isolated from Japanese children 
Background
The clinical management of community-acquired respiratory tract infections (RTIs) is complicated by the increasing worldwide prevalence of antibacterial resistance, in particular, β-lactam and macrolide resistance, among the most common causative bacterial pathogens. This study aimed to determine the mechanisms and molecular- and sero-epidemiology of antibacterial resistance among the key paediatric respiratory pathogens in Japan.
Methods
Isolates were collected at 18 centres in Japan during 2002 and 2003 from children with RTIs as part of the PROTEKT surveillance programme. A proportion of Haemophilus influenzae isolates was subjected to sequencing analysis of the ftsI gene; phylogenetic relatedness was assessed using multilocus sequence typing. Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates were screened for macrolide-resistance genotype by polymerase chain reaction and serotyped using the capsular swelling method. Susceptibility of isolates to selected antibacterials was performed using CLSI methodology.
Results and Discussion
Of the 557 H. influenzae isolates collected, 30 (5.4%) were β-lactamase-positive [BL+], 115 (20.6%) were BL-nonproducing ampicillin-resistant (BLNAR; MIC ≥ 4 mg/L) and 79 (14.2%) were BL-nonproducing ampicillin-intermediate (BLNAI; MIC 2 mg/L). Dabernat Group III penicillin binding protein 3 (PBP3) amino acid substitutions in the ftsI gene were closely correlated with BLNAR status but phylogenetic analysis indicated marked clonal diversity. PBP mutations were also found among BL+ and BL-nonproducing ampicillin-sensitive isolates. Of the antibacterials tested, azithromycin and telithromycin were the most active against H. influenzae (100% and 99.3% susceptibility, respectively). A large proportion (75.2%) of the 468 S. pneumoniae isolates exhibited macrolide resistance (erythromycin MIC ≥ 1 mg/L); erm(B) was the most common macrolide resistance genotype (58.8%), followed by mef(A) (37.2%). The most common pneumococcal serotypes were 6B (19.7%), 19F (13.7%), 23F (13.5%) and 6A (12.8%). Telithromycin and amoxicillin-clavulanate were the most active antibacterials against S. pneumoniae (99.8% and 99.6% susceptibility, respectively).
Conclusion
Approximately one-third of H. influenzae isolates from paediatric patients in Japan are BLNAI/BLNAR, mainly as a result of clonally diverse PBP3 mutations. Together with the continued high prevalence of pneumococcal macrolide resistance, these results may have implications for the clinical management of paediatric RTIs in Japan.
doi:10.1186/1476-0711-6-7
PMCID: PMC2020463  PMID: 17697316
12.  Ertapenem susceptibility of extended spectrum beta-lactamase-producing organisms 
Background
Infections caused by multiply drug resistant organisms such as extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae are increasing. Carbapenems (imipenem and meropenem) are the antibiotics commonly used to treat these agents. There is limited clinical data regarding the efficacy of the newest carbapenem, ertapenem, against these organisms. Ertapenem susceptibility of ESBL-producing E. coli and K. pneumoniae clinical isolates were evaluated and compared to imipenem to determine if imipenem susceptibility could be used as a surrogate for ertapenem susceptibility.
Methods
100 ESBL isolates (n = 34 E. coli and n = 66 K. pneumoniae) collected from 2005–2006 clinical specimens at WRAMC were identified and tested for susceptibility by Vitek Legacy [bioMerieux, Durham, NC]. Ertapenem susceptibility was performed via epsilometer test (E-test) [AB Biodisk, Solna, Sweden].
Results
100% of ESBL isolates tested were susceptible to ertapenem. 100% of the same isolates were also susceptible to imipenem.
Conclusion
These results, based on 100% susceptibility, suggest that ertapenem may be an alternative to other carbapenems for the treatment of infections caused by ESBL-producing E. coli and K. pneumoniae. Clinical outcomes studies are needed to determine if ertapenem is effective for the treatment of infection caused by these organisms. However, due to lack of resistant isolates, we are unable to conclude whether imipenem susceptibility accurately predicts ertapenem susceptibility.
doi:10.1186/1476-0711-6-6
PMCID: PMC1894638  PMID: 17553151
13.  In vitro activities of 18 antimicrobial agents against Staphylococcus aureus isolates from the Institut Pasteur of Madagascar 
Background
Staphylococcus aureus, one of the most frequently isolated pathogens in both hospitals and the community, has been particularly efficient at developing resistance to antimicrobial agents. In developed countries, as methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) has prevailed and, furthermore, as S. aureus with reduced susceptibility to vancomycin has emerged, the therapeutic options for the treatment of S. aureus infections have become limited. In developing countries and especially African countries very little is known concerning the resistance of S. aureus to antibiotics. In Madagascar no data exist concerning this resistance.
Objective
To update the current status of antibiotic resistance of S. aureus in Antananarivo, Madagascar.
Methods
Clinical S. aureus isolates were collected from patients at the Institut Pasteur of Madagascar from January 2001 to December 2005. Susceptibility tests with 18 antibiotics were performed by the disk diffusion method.
Results
Among a total of 574 isolates, 506 were from community-acquired infections and 68 from nosocomial infections. There was no significant difference in the methicillin resistance rate between community-acquired strains (33 of 506; 6.5%) and nosocomial strains (3 of 68, 4.4%). Many MRSA isolates were resistant to multiple classes of antibiotics. Resistance to tetracyclin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and erythromycin was more common. Among MRSA isolates resistance rates to rifampicin, fusidic acid, gentamicin and ciprofloxacin were lower than that observed with other drugs easily available in Madagascar. No isolates were resistant to glycopeptides.
Conclusion
The rate of methicillin-resistant S. aureus is not different between community-acquired and nosocomial infections and is still rather low in Madagascar.
doi:10.1186/1476-0711-6-5
PMCID: PMC1891307  PMID: 17521424
14.  Etiology and antibiotic resistance patterns of community-acquired urinary tract infections in J N M C Hospital Aligarh, India 
Background
Urinary tract infections (UTIs) remain the common infections diagnosed in outpatients as well as hospitalized patients. Current knowledge on antimicrobial susceptibility pattern is essential for appropriate therapy. Extended-Spectrum beta-Lactamase (ESBL) producing bacteria may not be detected by routine disk diffusion susceptibility test, leading to inappropriate use of antibiotics and treatment failure. The aim of this study was to determine the distribution and antibiotic susceptibility patterns of bacterial strains isolated from patients with community acquired urinary tract infections (UTIs) at Aligarh hospital in India as well as identification of ESBL producers in the population of different uropathogens.
Methods
Urinary isolates from symptomatic UTI cases attending to the JN Medical College and hospital at Aligarh were identified by conventional methods. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed by Kirby Bauer's disc diffusion method. Isolates resistant to third generation cephalosporin were tested for ESBL production by double disk synergy test method.
Results
Of the 920 tested sample 100 samples showed growth of pathogens among which the most prevalent were E. coli (61%) followed by Klebsiella spp (22%). The majority (66.66%) of the isolates were from female while the remaining were from male. Among the gram-negative enteric bacilli high prevalence of resistance was observed against ampicillin and co-trimoxazole. Most of the isolates were resistant to 4 or more number of antibiotics. Forty two percent of isolates were detected to produce ESBL among which 34.42 % were E. coli isolates.
Conclusion
This study revealed that E. coli was the predominant bacterial pathogen of community acquired UTIs in Aligarh, India. It also demonstrated an increasing resistance to Co-trimoxazole and production of extended spectrum β-lactamase among UTI pathogens in the community. This study is useful for clinician in order to improve the empiric treatment.
doi:10.1186/1476-0711-6-4
PMCID: PMC1852324  PMID: 17378940
15.  Pseudomonas aeruginosa contamination of mouth swabs during production causing a major outbreak 
Background
In 2002 we investigated an outbreak comprising 231 patients in Norway, caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa and linked to the use of contaminated mouth swabs called Dent-O-Sept. Here we describe the extent of contamination of the swabs, and identify critical points in the production process that made the contamination possible, in order to prevent future outbreaks.
Methods
Environmental investigation with microbiological examination of production, ingredients and product, molecular typing of bacteria and a system audit of production.
Results
Of the 1565 swabs examined from 149 different production batches the outbreak strain of P. aeruginosa was detected in 76 swabs from 12 batches produced in 2001 and 2002. In total more than 250 swabs were contaminated with one or more microbial species. P. aeruginosa was detected from different spots along the production line. The audit revealed serious breeches of production regulations. Health care institutions reported non-proper use of the swabs and weaknesses in their purchasing systems.
Conclusion
Biofilm formation in the wet part of the production is the most plausible explanation for the continuous contamination of the swabs with P. aeruginosa over a period of at least 30 weeks. When not abiding to production regulations fatal consequences for the users may ensue. For the most vulnerable patient groups only documented quality-controlled, high-level disinfected products and items should be used in the oropharynx.
doi:10.1186/1476-0711-6-3
PMCID: PMC1831477  PMID: 17355630
16.  Evaluating antibiotics for use in medicine using a poloxamer biofilm model 
Background
Wound infections, due to biofilms, are a constant problem because of their recalcitrant nature towards antibiotics. Appropriate antibiotic selection for the treatment of these biofilm infections is important. The traditional in vitro disc diffusion method for antibiotic selection uses bacterial cultures grown on agar plates. However, the form of bacterial growth on agar is not representative of how bacteria grow in wounds and other tissue sites as here bacteria grow naturally in a biofilm. The aim of this research was to test a more appropriate method for testing antimicrobial efficacy on biofilms and compare with the standard methods used for antibiotic sensitivity testing.
Methods
Outer Membrane Protein analysis was performed on E.coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus mirabilis and Acinetobacter juni when grown on Mueller Hinton agar ('quasi-biofilm state') and 30% Poloxamer hydrogel ('true- biofilm state). Susceptibility to antibiotics on 28 clinical isolates was determined using the modified Kirby Bauer disc diffusion method, on agar and 30% Poloxamer.
Results
Similar outer membrane proteins [OMPs] were identified in bacteria grown in a biofilm state and on a 30% poloxamer hydrogel, which were very different to the OMPs identified in bacteria grown on Mueller-Hinton agar and broth. There was a significant difference between the means of the clearance zones around the antibiotic discs on standard agar and poloxamer gels [P < 0.05]. The zones of clearance were generally smaller for poloxamer-grown bacteria than those grown on standard agar. Diffusion distances of various antibiotics through agar and 30% poloxamer showed no significant difference [P > 0.05].
Conclusion
The findings of this experiment suggest that poloxamer gel could be used as an appropriate medium on which to conduct biofilm antibiotic susceptibility tests as it enables bacteria to be grown in a state representative of the infected surface from which the culture was taken.
doi:10.1186/1476-0711-6-2
PMCID: PMC1804279  PMID: 17302978
17.  Low-cost rapid detection of rifampicin resistant tuberculosis using bacteriophage in Kampala, Uganda 
Background
Resistance to anti-tuberculosis drugs is a serious public health problem. Multi-drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB), defined as resistance to at least rifampicin and isoniazid, has been reported in all regions of the world. Current phenotypic methods of assessing drug susceptibility of M. tuberculosis are slow. Rapid molecular methods to detect resistance to rifampicin have been developed but they are not affordable in some high prevalence countries such as those in sub Saharan Africa. A simple multi-well plate assay using mycobacteriophage D29 has been developed to test M. tuberculosis isolates for resistance to rifampicin. The purpose of this study was to investigate the performance of this technology in Kampala, Uganda.
Methods
In a blinded study 149 M. tuberculosis isolates were tested for resistance to rifampicin by the phage assay and results compared to those from routine phenotypic testing in BACTEC 460. Three concentrations of drug were used 2, 4 and 10 μg/ml. Isolates found resistant by either assay were subjected to sequence analysis of a 81 bp fragment of the rpoB gene to identify mutations predictive of resistance. Four isolates with discrepant phage and BACTEC results were tested in a second phenotypic assay to determine minimal inhibitory concentrations.
Results
Initial analysis suggested a sensitivity and specificity of 100% and 96.5% respectively for the phage assay used at 4 and 10 μg/ml when compared to the BACTEC 460. However, further analysis revealed 4 false negative results from the BACTEC 460 and the phage assay proved the more sensitive and specific of the two tests. Of the 39 isolates found resistant by the phage assay 38 (97.4%) were found to have mutations predictive of resistance in the 81 bp region of the rpoB gene. When used at 2 μg/ml false resistant results were observed from the phage assay. The cost of reagents for testing each isolate was estimated to be 1.3US$ when testing a batch of 20 isolates on a single 96 well plate. Results were obtained in 48 hours.
Conclusion
The phage assay can be used for screening of isolates for resistance to rifampicin, with high sensitivity and specificity in Uganda. The test may be useful in poorly resourced laboratories as a rapid screen to differentiate between rifampicin susceptible and potential MDR-TB cases.
doi:10.1186/1476-0711-6-1
PMCID: PMC1779803  PMID: 17212825

Results 1-17 (17)