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1.  In vitro activities of 11 fluoroquinolones against 816 non-typhoidal strains of Salmonella enterica isolated from Finnish patients with special reference to reduced ciprofloxacin susceptibility 
Background
The number of Salmonella strains with reduced susceptibility to fluoroquinolones has increased during recent years in many countries, threatening the value of this antimicrobial group in the treatment of severe salmonella infections.
Methods
We analyzed the in vitro activities of ciprofloxacin and 10 additional fluoroquinolones against 816 Salmonella strains collected from Finnish patients between 1995 and 2003. Special attention was focused on the efficacy of newer fluoroquinolones against the Salmonella strains with reduced ciprofloxacin susceptibility.
Results
The isolates represented 119 different serotypes. Of all 816 Salmonella strains, 3 (0.4%) were resistant to ciprofloxacin (MIC ≥ 4 μg/ml), 232 (28.4%) showed reduced susceptibility to ciprofloxacin (MIC ≥ 0.125 – 2 μg/ml), and 581 (71.2%) were ciprofloxacin-susceptible. The MIC50 and MIC90 values of ciprofloxacin for these strains were 0.032 and 0.25 μg/ml, respectively, being lower than those of the other fluoroquinolone compounds presently on market in Finland (ofloxacin, norfloxacin, levofloxacin, and moxifloxacin). For two newer quinolones, clinafloxacin and sitafloxacin, the MIC50 and MIC90 values were lowest, both 0.016 and 0.064 μg/ml, respectively. Moreover, clinafloxacin and sitafloxacin exhibited the lowest MIC50 and MIC90 values, 0.064 and 0.125 μg/ml, against the 235 Salmonella strains with reduced susceptibility and strains fully resistant to ciprofloxacin.
Conclusion
Among the registered fluoroquinolones in Finland, ciprofloxacin still appears to be the most effective drug for the treatment salmonella infections. Among the newer preparations, both clinafloxacin and sitafloxacin are promising based on in vitro studies, especially for strains showing reduced ciprofloxacin susceptibility. Their efficacy, however, has not been demonstrated in clinical investigations.
doi:10.1186/1476-0711-4-12
PMCID: PMC1208849  PMID: 16143044
2.  Mutation at the position 2058 of the 23S rRNA as a cause of macrolide resistance in Streptococcus pyogenes 
Background
In streptococci, three macrolide resistance determinants (erm(B), erm(TR) and mef(A)) have been found. In addition, certain mutations at the ribosomal 23S RNA can cause resistance to macrolides. Mutation at the position 2058 of the 23S rRNA of the Streptococcus pyogenes as a cause of macrolide resistance has not been described before.
Methods
Antibiotic resistance determinations for the clinical S. pyogenes strain ni4277 were done using the agar dilution technique. Macrolide resistance mechanisms were studied by PCR and sequencing. All six rRNA operons were amplified using operon-specific PCR. The PCR products were partially sequenced in order to resolve the sequences of different 23S rRNA genes.
Results
One clinical isolate of S. pyogenes carrying an adenine to guanine mutation at the position 2058 of the 23S rRNA in five of the six possible rRNA genes but having no other known macrolide resistance determinants is described. The strain was highly resistant to macrolides and azalides, having erythromycin and azithromycin MICs > 256 microgram/ml. It was resistant to lincosamides (clindamycin MIC 16 microgram/ml) and also MIC values for ketolides were clearly elevated. The MIC for telithromycin was 16 microgram/ml.
Conclusion
In this clinical S. pyogenes strain, a mutation at the position 2058 was detected. No other macrolide resistance-causing determinants were detected. This mutation is known to cause macrolide resistance in other bacteria. We can conclude that this mutation was the most probable cause of macrolide, lincosamide and ketolide resistance in this strain.
doi:10.1186/1476-0711-3-5
PMCID: PMC420483  PMID: 15128458

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