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1.  Prevalence and characterization of integrons in blood culture Enterobacteriaceae and gastrointestinal Escherichia coli in Norway and reporting of a novel class 1 integron-located lincosamide resistance gene 
Background
Class 1 integrons contain genetic elements for site-specific recombination, capture and mobilization of resistance genes. Studies investigating the prevalence, distribution and types of integron located resistance genes are important for surveillance of antimicrobial resistance and to understand resistance development at the molecular level.
Methods
We determined the prevalence and genetic content of class 1 integrons in Enterobacteriaceae (strain collection 1, n = 192) and E. coli (strain collection 2, n = 53) from bloodstream infections in patients from six Norwegian hospitals by molecular techniques. Class 1 integrons were also characterized in 54 randomly selected multiresistant E. coli isolates from gastrointestinal human infections (strain collection 3).
Results
Class 1 integrons were present in 10.9% of the Enterobacteriaceae blood culture isolates of collection 1, all but one (S. Typhi) being E. coli. Data indicated variations in class 1 integron prevalence between hospitals. Class 1 integrons were present in 37% and 34% of the resistant blood culture isolates (collection 1 and 2, respectively) and in 42% of the resistant gastrointestinal E. coli. We detected a total of 10 distinct integron cassette PCR amplicons that varied in size between 0.15 kb and 2.2 kb and contained between zero and three resistance genes. Cassettes encoding resistance to trimethoprim and aminoglycosides were most common. We identified and characterized a novel plasmid-located integron with a cassette-bound novel gene (linF) located downstream of an aadA2 gene cassette. The linF gene encoded a putative 273 aa lincosamide nucleotidyltransferase resistance protein and conferred resistance to lincomycin and clindamycin. The deduced LinF amino acid sequence displayed approximately 35% identity to the Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus faecalis nucleotidyl transferases encoded by linB and linB'
Conclusions
The present study demonstrated an overall low and stable prevalence of class 1 integron gene cassettes in clinical Enterobacteriaceae and E. coli isolates in Norway. Characterization of the novel lincosamide resistance gene extends the growing list of class 1 integron gene cassettes that confer resistance to an increasing number of antibiotics.
doi:10.1186/1476-0711-3-12
PMCID: PMC471559  PMID: 15242512
2.  DNA fingerprinting of Shiga-toxin producing Escherichia coli O157 based on Multiple-Locus Variable-Number Tandem-Repeats Analysis (MLVA) 
Background
The ability to react early to possible outbreaks of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and to trace possible sources relies on the availability of highly discriminatory and reliable techniques. The development of methods that are fast and has the potential for complete automation is needed for this important pathogen.
Methods
In all 73 isolates of shiga-toxin producing E. coli O157 (STEC) were used in this study. The two available fully sequenced STEC genomes were scanned for tandem repeated stretches of DNA, which were evaluated as polymorphic markers for isolate identification.
Results
The 73 E. coli isolates displayed 47 distinct patterns and the MLVA assay was capable of high discrimination between the E. coli O157 strains. The assay was fast and all the steps can be automated.
Conclusion
The findings demonstrate a novel high discriminatory molecular typing method for the important pathogen E. coli O157 that is fast, robust and offers many advantages compared to current methods.
doi:10.1186/1476-0711-2-12
PMCID: PMC317353  PMID: 14664722
VNTR fingerprinting; Escherichia coli; STEC; capillary electrophoresis; PFGE; AFLP

Results 1-2 (2)