Background and Aims
Research on manganese (Mn) toxicity and tolerance indicates that Mn toxicity develops apoplastically through increased peroxidase activities mediated by phenolics and Mn, and Mn tolerance could be conferred by sequestration of Mn in inert cell compartments. This comparative study focuses on Mn-sensitive barley (Hordeum vulgare) and Mn-tolerant rice (Oryza sativa) as model organisms to unravel the mechanisms of Mn toxicity and/or tolerance in monocots.
Bulk leaf Mn concentrations as well as peroxidase activities and protein concentrations were analysed in apoplastic washing fluid (AWF) in both species. In rice, Mn distribution between leaf compartments and the leaf proteome using 2D isoelectic focusing IEF/SDS–PAGE and 2D Blue native BN/SDS–PAGE was studied.
The Mn sensitivity of barley was confirmed since the formation of brown spots on older leaves was induced by low bulk leaf and AWF Mn concentrations and exhibited strongly enhanced H2O2-producing and consuming peroxidase activities. In contrast, by a factor of 50, higher Mn concentrations did not produce Mn toxicity symptoms on older leaves in rice. Peroxidase activities, lower by a factor of about 100 in the rice leaf AWF compared with barley, support the view of a central role for these peroxidases in the apoplastic expression of Mn toxicity. The high Mn tolerance of old rice leaves could be related to a high Mn binding capacity of the cell walls. Proteomic studies suggest that the lower Mn tolerance of young rice leaves could be related to Mn excess-induced displacement of Mg and Fe from essential metabolic functions.
The results provide evidence that Mn toxicity in barley involves apoplastic lesions mediated by peroxidases. The high Mn tolerance of old leaves of rice involves a high Mn binding capacity of the cell walls, whereas Mn toxicity in less Mn-tolerant young leaves is related to Mn-induced Mg and Fe deficiencies.