PMCC PMCC

Search tips
Search criteria

Advanced
Results 1-5 (5)
 

Clipboard (0)
None
Journals
Authors
more »
Year of Publication
Document Types
1.  Mycorrhizal preference promotes habitat invasion by a native Australian orchid: Microtis media 
Annals of Botany  2012;111(3):409-418.
Background and Aims
Mycorrhizal specialization has been shown to limit recruitment capacity in orchids, but an increasing number of orchids are being documented as invasive or weed-like. The reasons for this proliferation were examined by investigating mycorrhizal fungi and edaphic correlates of Microtis media, an Australian terrestrial orchid that is an aggressive ecosystem and horticultural weed.
Methods
Molecular identification of fungi cultivated from M. media pelotons, symbiotic in vitro M. media seed germination assays, ex situ fungal baiting of M. media and co-occurring orchid taxa (Caladenia arenicola, Pterostylis sanguinea and Diuris magnifica) and soil physical and chemical analyses were undertaken.
Key Results
It was found that: (1) M. media associates with a broad taxonomic spectrum of mycobionts including Piriformospora indica, Sebacina vermifera, Tulasnella calospora and Ceratobasidium sp.; (2) germination efficacy of mycorrhizal isolates was greater for fungi isolated from plants in disturbed than in natural habitats; (3) a higher percentage of M. media seeds germinate than D. magnifica, P. sanguinea or C. arenicola seeds when incubated with soil from M. media roots; and (4) M. media–mycorrhizal fungal associations show an unusual breadth of habitat tolerance, especially for soil phosphorus (P) fertility.
Conclusions
The findings in M. media support the idea that invasive terrestrial orchids may associate with a diversity of fungi that are widespread and common, enhance seed germination in the host plant but not co-occurring orchid species and tolerate a range of habitats. These traits may provide the weedy orchid with a competitive advantage over co-occurring orchid species. If so, invasive orchids are likely to become more broadly distributed and increasingly colonize novel habitats.
doi:10.1093/aob/mcs294
PMCID: PMC3579446  PMID: 23275632
Terrestrial orchid; mycorrhizal fungi; disturbed habitats; south-western Australia; invasive species; Microtis media
2.  Sympatric species of Hibbertia (Dilleniaceae) vary in dormancy break and germination requirements: implications for classifying morphophysiological dormancy in Mediterranean biomes 
Annals of Botany  2012;109(6):1111-1123.
Background and Aims
Several ecologically important plant families in Mediterranean biomes have seeds with morphophysiological dormancy (MPD) but have been poorly studied. The aim of this study was to understand the seed ecology of these species by focusing on the prominent, yet intractably dormant Australian genus Hibbertia. It was hypothesized that the slow germination in species of this genus is caused by a requirement for embryo growth inside the seed before germination, and that initiation of embryo growth is reliant upon a complex sequence of environmental cues including seasonal fluctuations in temperature and moisture, and an interplay with light and smoke. Using the results, the classification of the MPD level in species of Hibbertia is considered.
Methods
Four species of Hibbertia in winter rainfall south-western Australia were selected. These species, whilst differing in geographic distributions, are variously sympatric, and all are important understorey components of plant communities. The following aspects related to dormancy break, embryo growth and germination were investigated: temperature and moisture requirements; effects of karrikinolide, gibberellic acid and aerosol smoke; and phenology.
Key Results
Following exposure to wet/dry cycles at low or high temperatures, embryo growth and germination occurred, albeit slowly in all species at low temperatures when moisture was unlimited, corresponding to winter in south-west Australia. Photo regime influenced germination only in H. racemosa. Aerosol smoke triggered substantial germination during the 1st germination season in H. huegelii and H. hypericoides.
Conclusions
Although the study species are con-generic, sympatric and produce seeds of identical morphology, they possessed different dormancy-break and germination requirements. The physiological component of MPD was non-deep in H. racemosa but varied in the other three species where more deeply dormant seeds required >1 summer to overcome dormancy and, thus, germination was spread over time. Embryos grew during winter, but future studies need to resolve the role of cold versus warm stratification by using constant temperature regimes. To include Mediterranean species with MPD, some modifications to the current seed-dormancy classification system may need consideration: (a) wet/dry conditions for warm stratification and (b) a relatively long period for warm stratification. These outcomes have important implications for improving experimental approaches to resolve the effective use of broadcast seed for ecological restoration.
doi:10.1093/aob/mcs034
PMCID: PMC3336950  PMID: 22362661
Framework species; germination phenology; Hibbertia; karrikinolide; Mediterranean biome; morphophysiological dormancy; restoration; seeds; smoke; underdeveloped embryos
3.  Prior hydration of Brassica tournefortii seeds reduces the stimulatory effect of karrikinolide on germination and increases seed sensitivity to abscisic acid 
Annals of Botany  2010;105(6):1063-1070.
Background and Aims
The smoke-derived compound karrikinolide (KAR1) shows significant potential as a trigger for the synchronous germination of seeds in a variety of plant-management contexts, from weed seeds in paddocks, to native seeds when restoring degraded lands. Understanding how KAR1 interacts with seed physiology is a necessary precursor to the development of the compound as an efficient and effective management tool. This study tested the ability of KAR1 to stimulate germination of seeds of the global agronomic weed Brassica tournefortii, at different hydration states, to gain insight into how the timing of KAR1 applications in the field should be managed relative to rain events.
Methods
Seeds of B. tournefortii were brought to five different hydration states [equilibrated at 15 % relative humidity (RH), 47 % RH, 96 % RH, fully imbibed, or re-dried to 15 % RH following maximum imbibition] then exposed to 1 nm or 1 µm KAR1 for one of five durations (3 min, 1 h, 24 h, 14 d or no exposure).
Key Results
Dry seeds with no history of imbibition were the most sensitive to KAR1; sensitivity was lower in seeds that were fully imbibed or fully imbibed then re-dried. In addition, reduced sensitivity to KAR1 was associated with an increased sensitivity to exogenously applied abscisic acid (ABA).
Conclusions
Seed water content and history of imbibition were found to significantly influence whether seeds germinate in response to KAR1. To optimize the germination response of seeds, KAR1 should be applied to dry seeds, when sensitivity to ABA is minimized.
doi:10.1093/aob/mcq061
PMCID: PMC2876004  PMID: 20348089
Karrikinolide; karrikins; butenolide; smoke; germination stimulant; seed water content; abscisic acid; ABA; gibberellin; weed; Brassica tournefortii
4.  A new type of specialized morphophysiological dormancy and seed storage behaviour in Hydatellaceae, an early-divergent angiosperm family 
Annals of Botany  2010;105(6):1053-1061.
Background and Aims
Recent phylogenetic analysis has placed the aquatic family Hydatellaceae as an early-divergent angiosperm. Understanding seed dormancy, germination and desiccation tolerance of Hydatellaceae will facilitate ex situ conservation and advance hypotheses regarding angiosperm evolution.
Methods
Seed germination experiments were completed on three species of south-west Australian Hydatellaceae, Trithuria austinensis, T. bibracteata and T. submersa, to test the effects of temperature, light, germination stimulant and storage. Seeds were sectioned to examine embryo growth during germination in T. austinensis and T. submersa.
Key Results
Some embryo growth and cell division in T. austinensis and T. submersa occurred prior to the emergence of an undifferentiated embryo from the seed coat (‘germination’). Embryo differentiation occurred later, following further growth and a 3- to 4-fold increase in the number of cells. The time taken to achieve 50 % of maximum germination for seeds on water agar was 50, 35 and 37 d for T. austinensis, T bibracteata and T. submersa, respectively.
Conclusions
Seeds of Hydatellaceae have a new kind of specialized morphophysiological dormancy in which neither root nor shoot differentiates until after the embryo emerges from the seed coat. Seed biology is discussed in relation to early angiosperm evolution, together with ex situ conservation of this phylogenetically significant group.
doi:10.1093/aob/mcq062
PMCID: PMC2876005  PMID: 20338953
Hydatellaceae; morphophysiological dormancy; embryo; desiccation; seed; evolution; Trithuria submersa; Trithuria austinensis; Trithuria bibracteata
5.  Terrestrial orchid conservation in the age of extinction 
Annals of Botany  2009;104(3):543-556.
Background
Conservation through reserves alone is now considered unlikely to achieve protection of plant species necessary to mitigate direct losses of habitat and the pervasive impact of global climate change. Assisted translocation/migration represent new challenges in the face of climate change; species, particularly orchids, will need artificial assistance to migrate from hostile environments, across ecological barriers (alienated lands such as farmlands and built infrastructure) to new climatically buffered sites. The technology and science to underpin assisted migration concepts are in their infancy for plants in general, and orchids, with their high degree of rarity, represent a particularly challenging group for which these principles need to be developed. It is likely that orchids, more than any other plant family, will be in the front-line of species to suffer large-scale extinction events as a result of climate change.
Scope
The South West Australian Floristic Region (SWAFR) is the only global biodiversity hotspot in Australia and represents an ideal test-bed for development of orchid conservation principles. Orchids comprise 6 % of all threatened vascular plants in the SWAFR, with 76 out of the 407 species known for the region having a high level of conservation risk. The situation in the SWAFR is a portent of the global crisis in terrestrial orchid conservation, and it is a region where innovative conservation solutions will be required if the impending wave of extinction is to be averted. Major threatening processes are varied, and include land clearance, salinity, burning, weed encroachment, disease and pests. This is compounded by highly specialized pollinators (locally endemic native invertebrates) and, in the most threatened groups such as hammer orchids (Drakaea) and spider orchids (Caladenia), high levels of mycorrhizal specialization. Management and development of effective conservation strategies for SWAFR orchids require a wide range of integrated scientific approaches to mitigate impacts that directly influence ecological traits critical for survival.
Conclusions
In response to threats to orchid species, integrated conservation approaches have been adopted (including ex situ and translocation principles) in the SWAFR with the result that a significant, multidisciplinary approach is under development to facilitate conservation of some of the most threatened taxa and build expertise to carry out assisted migration to new sites. Here the past two decades of orchid conservation research in the SWAFR and the role of research-based approaches for managing effective orchid conservation in a global biodiversity hotspot are reviewed.
doi:10.1093/aob/mcp025
PMCID: PMC2720663  PMID: 19218582
Orchids; pollination; mycorrhiza; integrated conservation; terrestrial; threats; ex situ conservation; in situ conservation

Results 1-5 (5)