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1.  Evolution of oil-producing trichomes in Sisyrinchium (Iridaceae): insights from the first comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of the genus 
Annals of Botany  2011;107(8):1287-1312.
Background and Aims
Sisyrinchium (Iridaceae: Iridoideae: Sisyrinchieae) is one of the largest, most widespread and most taxonomically complex genera in Iridaceae, with all species except one native to the American continent. Phylogenetic relationships within the genus were investigated and the evolution of oil-producing structures related to specialized oil-bee pollination examined.
Phylogenetic analyses based on eight molecular markers obtained from 101 Sisyrinchium accessions representing 85 species were conducted in the first extensive phylogenetic analysis of the genus. Total evidence analyses confirmed the monophyly of the genus and retrieved nine major clades weakly connected to the subdivisions previously recognized. The resulting phylogenetic hypothesis was used to reconstruct biogeographical patterns, and to trace the evolutionary origin of glandular trichomes present in the flowers of several species.
Key Results and Conclusions
Glandular trichomes evolved three times independently in the genus. In two cases, these glandular trichomes are oil-secreting, suggesting that the corresponding flowers might be pollinated by oil-bees. Biogeographical patterns indicate expansions from Central America and the northern Andes to the subandean ranges between Chile and Argentina and to the extended area of the Paraná river basin. The distribution of oil-flower species across the phylogenetic trees suggests that oil-producing trichomes may have played a key role in the diversification of the genus, a hypothesis that requires future testing.
PMCID: PMC3101146  PMID: 21527419
Oil-bee pollination; glandular trichomes; elaiophores; lipids; phylogeography; Sisyrinchieae; Olsynium; Solenomelus
2.  Multiple colonizations from Madagascar and converged acquisition of dioecy in the Mascarene Dombeyoideae (Malvaceae) as inferred from chloroplast and nuclear DNA sequence analyses 
Annals of Botany  2010;106(2):343-357.
Background and Aims
In the Mascarenes, a young oceanic archipelago composed of three main islands, the Dombeyoideae (Malvaceae) have diversified extensively with a high endemism rate. With the exception of the genus Trochetia, Mascarene Dombeyoideae are described as dioecious whereas Malagasy and African species are considered to be monocline, species with individuals bearing hermaphrodite/perfect flowers. In this study, the phylogenetic relationships were reconstructed to clarify the taxonomy, understand the phylogeographic pattern of relationships and infer the evolution of the breeding systems for the Mascarenes Dombeyoideae.
Parsimony and Bayesian analysis of four DNA markers (ITS, rpl16 intron and two intergenic spacers trnQ-rsp16 and psbM-trnD) was used. The molecular matrix comprised 2985 characters and 48 taxa. The Bayesian phylogeny was used to infer phylogeographical hypotheses and the evolution of breeding systems.
Key Results
Parsimony and Bayesian trees produced similar results. The Dombeyoideae from the Mascarenes are polyphyletic and distributed among four clades. Species of Dombeya, Trochetia and Ruizia are nested in the same clade, which implies the paraphyly of Dombeya. Additionally, it is shown that each of the four clades has an independent Malagasy origin. Two adaptive radiation events have occurred within two endemic lineages of the Mascarenes. The polyphyly of the Mascarene Dombeyoideae suggests at least three independent acquisitions of dioecy.
This molecular phylogeny highlights the taxonomic issues within the Dombeyoideae. Indeed, the limits and distinctions of the genera Dombeya, Trochetia and Ruizia should be reconsidered. The close phylogeographic relationships between the flora of the Mascarenes and Madagascar are confirmed. Despite their independent origins and a distinct evolutionary history, each endemic clade has developed a different breeding systems (dioecy) compared with the Malagasy Dombeyoideae. Sex separation appears as an evolutionary convergence and may be the consequence of selective pressures particular to insular environments.
PMCID: PMC2908169  PMID: 20562131
Dombeyoideae; Mascarene archipelago; Dombeya; Ruizia; Trochetia; dioecy; Indian Ocean; biogeography; ITS; rpl16 intron; psbM-trnD; trnQ-rps16

Results 1-2 (2)