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1.  Panel Discussion 
Anesthesia Progress  1988;35(6):233-237.
PMCID: PMC2167858
4.  Summary of the Scientific Literature for Pain and Anxiety Control in Dentistry: Journal Literature, January 1986-December 1987 
Anesthesia Progress  1988;35(6):247-265.
This bibliography contains both foreign (in brackets) and English language citations obtained from Index to Dental Literature, Index Medicus, and Psychological Abstracts for the period January 1986 to December 1987. Although a careful search of these indexes was performed, every relevant citation may not be included. Comments or suggestions regarding this bibliography are welcomed by the author.
PMCID: PMC2167771  PMID: 12487126
5.  Reflex Bronchospasm-Induced Acute Massive Pulmonary Collapse 
Anesthesia Progress  1988;35(6):244-246.
Acute massive pulmonary collapse following reflex bronchospasm is described in a patient undergoing general anesthesia. The authors suggest that a chest radiograph should be taken as routine procedure after the onset of airway constriction during anesthesia.
PMCID: PMC2167770  PMID: 3270991
8.  Tort reform is needed. 
Anesthesia Progress  1988;35(6):224-226.
PMCID: PMC2167766  PMID: 3270986
12.  Use of "smart technology" in dentistry and medicine. 
Anesthesia Progress  1988;35(6):238-243.
PMCID: PMC2167769  PMID: 3270990
13.  Assessment and Management of Cardiovascular Urgencies and Emergencies: Cognitive and Technical Considerations 
Anesthesia Progress  1988;35(5):212-217.
Cardiovascular emergencies represent the most feared complications in dental practice. Not only do they present the greatest possibility for morbidity and mortality, but their pathogenesis and treatment are poorly understood. This article reviews fundamental physiologic and pathological concepts that will guide the clinician toward a more cognitive approach to patient assessment and management. The treatment algorithms presented develop rationally from these fundamental scientific principles.
PMCID: PMC2167870  PMID: 3074673
14.  Diazepam Enhances Fentanyl and Diminishes Meperidine Antinociception 
Anesthesia Progress  1988;35(5):190-194.
A rabbit tooth pulp antinociceptive model was used to investigate the effect of prior administration of diazepam or muscimol on the potency and duration of fentanyl and meperidine Potency experiments compared ED50 values in all-or-none dose-response assays between both muscimol (0.25 mg/kg) and saline, and diazepam (1.5 mg/kg) and propylene glycol vehicle. An all-or-none effect was defined as doubling of voltage threshold to elicit a lick/chew evoked response. Duration experiments compared time (minutes) to 50% maximum possible effect (MPE) of an ED90 dose of fentanyl (0.04 mg/kg) and to 50% and 20% MPE of an ED98 dose of meperidine (17 mg/kg) 10 minutes after pretreatment with diazepam (1.5 mg/kg). Prior (10 minutes) injection of diazepam (1.5 mg/kg) increased the ED50 value for meperidine (3.06 mg/kg) compared with its control (1.48 mg/kg), indicating a decrease in antinociceptive potency. The same dose of diazepam decreased the ED50 value for fentanyl (1.1 μg/kg) compared with its control (13.1 μg/kg), indicating an increase in antinociceptive potency. Muscimol also had a similar effect on fentanyl (ED50, 1.8 μg/kg) compared with saline control (ED50, 13.8 μg/kg). Diazepam, vehicle, and muscimol by themselves had no effect on voltage thresholds to elicit a lick/chew response. Time to 50% MPE for diazepam-fentanyl was 38 minutes vs. 25 minutes for vehicle-fetanyl; time to 20% MPE for diazepam-meperidine was 38 minutes vs. 54 minutes for vehicle-meperidine (maximum percentage of MPE produced by diazepam-meperidine was 40% compared with 100% MPE for vehicle-meperidine). Percentages of MPE for diazepam-meperidine were significantly lower than those for vehicle-meperidine at all time intervals, whereas percentages of MPE for diazepam-fentanyl were significantly greater than those for vehicle-fentanyl over time.
PMCID: PMC2167869  PMID: 3250278
15.  Drugs Used for Parenteral Sedation in Dental Practice 
Anesthesia Progress  1988;35(5):199-205.
The relative efficacy and safety of drugs and combinations used clinically in dentistry as premedicants to alleviate patient apprehension are largely unsubstantiated. To evaluate the efficacy and safety of agents used for parenteral sedation through controlled clinical trials, it is first necessary to identify which drugs, doses, and routes of administration are actually used in practice. A survey instrument was developed to characterize the drugs used clinically for anesthesia and sedation by dentists with advanced training in pain control. A random sample of 500 dentists who frequently use anesthesia and sedation in practice was selected from the Fellows of the American Dental Society of Anesthesiology. The first mailing was followed by a second mailing to nonrespondents after 30 days. The respondents report a variety of parenteral sedation techniques in combination with local anesthesia (the response categories are not mutually exclusive): nitrous oxide (64%), intravenous conscious sedation (59%), intravenous “deep” sedation (47%), and outpatient general anesthesia (27%). Drugs most commonly reported for intravenous sedation include diazepam, methohexital, midazolam, and combinations of these drugs with narcotics. A total of 82 distinct drugs and combinations was reported for intravenous sedation and anesthesia. Oral premedication and intramuscular sedation are rarely used by this group. Most general anesthesia reported is done on an outpatient basis in private practice. These results indicate that a wide variety of drugs is employed for parenteral sedation in dental practice, but the most common practice among dentists with advanced training in anesthesia is local anesthesia supplemented with intravenous sedation consisting of a benzodiazepine and an opioid or a barbiturate.
PMCID: PMC2167868  PMID: 3250279
16.  Survey of Anesthetic Choice among Fellows of the American Dental Society of Anesthesiology 
Anesthesia Progress  1988;35(5):206-207.
Two hundred and fifty Fellows of the American Dental Society of Anesthesiology were surveyed concerning their personal preference of anesthetic technique, regional versus general anesthesia, through the use of two scenarios. Those surveyed preferred regional anesthesia as opposed to general anesthesia in both emergency and elective scenarios. These results are consistent with similar studies of anesthesiologists and nurse anesthetists, although these groups demonstrated an even greater bias toward regional anesthetic techniques.
PMCID: PMC2167867  PMID: 3250280
17.  Principles of pharmacotherapy: III. Drug allergy. 
Anesthesia Progress  1988;35(5):178-189.
PMCID: PMC2167865  PMID: 3074672
18.  Issues in anesthesia and sedation in dentistry. 
Anesthesia Progress  1988;35(5):175-177.
PMCID: PMC2167863  PMID: 3250277
19.  Typical and Atypical Presentation of Malignant Hyperpyrexia in Nonwhite Patients 
Anesthesia Progress  1988;35(5):208-211.
Two cases are presented of malignant hyperthermia in black patients. One patient developed signs of malignant hyperthermia during general anesthesia that was successfully treated with dantrolene sodium and cooling. A second patient was retrospectively diagnosed as having an atypical variant of malignant hyperthermia secondary to heat stroke and general anesthesia; this patient subsequently died. These cases illustrate that malignant hyperthermia can occur in blacks despite the very low incidence of this syndrome in nonwhite patients.
PMCID: PMC2167859  PMID: 3250281
20.  Evaluation of Low-Intensity Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation in Combination with Aspirin for Reduction of Controlled Thermal Sensation 
Anesthesia Progress  1988;35(5):195-198.
Reductions in cutaneous thermal sensation produced by placebo, aspirin, transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation, and transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation plus aspirin were compared in 60 normal volunteers. The combination of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation plus aspirin produced a statistically significant reduction as compared with placebo. The results suggest this treatment combination may provide levels of analgesia useful for completion of minor dental procedures.
PMCID: PMC2167860  PMID: 3266912
21.  Management of a Perforated Endotracheal Tube During Orthognathic Surgery 
Anesthesia Progress  1988;35(4):158-159.
Oral and maxillofacial procedures require nasotracheal intubation that often obscures the anesthesiologist's direct vision of the surgical field. Premature extubation of a damaged endotracheal tube frequently requires replacement and poses a potential risk to the patient. This case illustrates a technique for replacing a damaged endotracheal tube using a nasogastric tube inserted within the damaged tube to suction secretions, insufflate oxygen, and serve as a guide for placement of a new endotracheal tube.
PMCID: PMC2167961  PMID: 3166353
22.  Propofol as an Intravenous Agent in General Anesthesia and Conscious Sedation 
Anesthesia Progress  1988;35(4):147-151.
Propofol has been shown in clinical studies to be a safe, effective, hypnotic, and amnesic anesthetic agent at induction doses of 2-2.5 mg/kg and maintenance doses of approximately 9mg/kg per hour. Significant post-induction hypotension reported earlier can be reduced to a all in MAP of less than 25% when the drug is used alone (without nitrous oxide or narcotic premedication). Post-induction apnea is minimized by avoidance of pre-induction hyperventilation. Acute and long term venous tolerance is acceptable. Emergence from anesthesia induced and maintained with propofol is rapid, predictable and relatively free of postoperative complications. Incidence of drug interaction is low. Propofol causes no adrenocortical suppression and is not potentiated by ethanol, diazepam, amitriptyline or phenelzine. Preliminary investigation of propofol as an intravenous sedative agent at subanesthetic doses has been favorable.
PMCID: PMC2167960  PMID: 3046442
23.  An Experimental Study of the Control of the Gag Reflex with Nitrous Oxide 
Anesthesia Progress  1988;35(4):155-157.
Gagging represents a management problem during dental procedures. A controlled, double blind experiment on human volunteers evaluated the efficacy of nitrous oxide for suppressing experimentally-induced gagging. The ability of the subjects to tolerate palatal and oropharyngeal stimulation was evaluated by measuring the distance of the anatomic palatal and oropharyngeal structure which produce gagging. It was observed that under N2O/O2 inhalation subjects tolerated a significantly more intrusive (deeper) oropharyngeal stimulation than under control conditions.
PMCID: PMC2167959  PMID: 3166352
25.  Anterograde Amnesia as a Possible Postoperative Complication of Midazolam as an Agent for Intravenous Conscious Sedation 
Anesthesia Progress  1988;35(4):160-162.
Anterograde amnesia is often considered to be a beneficial effect of intravenous conscious sedation. The recently introduced benzodiazepine, midazolam, has associated with its administration a significant anterograde amnesic period. In the case presented here, a healthy young female presented for third molar extraction under midazolam conscious sedation and local anesthesia. After uncomplicated removal of the teeth and clinically adequate recovery from sedation, it was noted that the patient had swallowed the postsurgical gauze packs. Efforts at recovery of the gauze packs were futile. Follow-up discussion with the patient revealed a complete lack of recall of all events occurring for up to an hour or more after the administration of intravenous midazolam. The need for written and oral postoperative instructions to both the patient and his/her escort is emphasized.
PMCID: PMC2167955  PMID: 3166354

Results 1-25 (50)