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jtitle_s:("anesti Prog")
1.  Analgesic and anti-inflammatory efficacy of tenoxicam and diclofenac sodium after third molar surgery. 
Anesthesia Progress  1996;43(4):103-107.
Tenoxicam and diclofenac sodium were compared with each other for analgesic efficacy following removal of third molars under general anesthesia. Thirty-five healthy patients between the ages of 18 and 28 yr were randomly allocated to two groups to participate in this study. Patients in Group A (n = 17) received a single intravenous injection of tenoxicam 40 mg at induction of anesthesia, followed by a 20-mg tablet given in the evening of the day of the operation and thereafter, one 20-mg tablet daily from days 2 to 7. Group B (n = 18) received a single intramuscular injection of diclofenac sodium 75 mg at induction of anesthesia, followed by a 50-mg tablet 4 to 6 hr after the operation and again, between 2100 hr and 2200 hr the same day. Thereafter, a 50-mg tablet was taken 3 times daily for the next 6 days. Pain was measured hourly for the first 4 hr postoperatively, then at 21 hr, and thereafter in the morning and the evenings on days 2 to 7. The highest pain scores were obtained 1 hr postoperatively for both trial groups. At 1 and 2 hr postoperatively, no statistical significant differences in pain scores could be shown for both groups. However, at 3 and 4 hr postoperatively, patients in the tenoxicam group experienced significantly (P < or = 0.05) less pain than those in the diclofenac sodium group. On the evening of the third postoperative day, the tenoxicam group of patients experienced significantly less pain (P < or = 0.05) than those in the diclofenac sodium group. This was again the case on the morning of the fourth postoperative day. On the fifth, sixth, and seventh postoperative days, the average pain scores for patients in the tenoxicam group were statistically significantly lower, both mornings and evenings, than those in the diclofenac sodium group of patients (P = 0.05).
PMCID: PMC2148775  PMID: 10323115
2.  Epinephrine, magnesium, and dental local anesthetic solutions. 
Anesthesia Progress  1996;43(4):99-102.
Plasma levels of magnesium were unaffected by the inclusion of epinephrine in lidocaine dental local anesthetic solutions in patients having third molar surgery under general anesthesia.
PMCID: PMC2148774  PMID: 10323114
3.  Clinically safe dosage of felypressin for patients with essential hypertension. 
Anesthesia Progress  1996;43(4):108-115.
Hemodynamic changes were evaluated in patients with essential hypertension when felypressin of various concentrations was administered. The parameters studied were systolic pressure, diastolic pressure, heart rate, left ventricular systolic phase, and endocardial viability ratio. Results showed that blood pressure tended to increase, and the value of 1/pre-ejection period2 (PEP2) tended to decrease, upon administration of 3 ml of 2% propitocaine containing 0.06 international units/ml (IU/ml) of felypressin. Significant increase of blood pressure and decrease in 1/PEP2 was noted upon administration of 3 ml of anesthetic solution containing 0.13 IU/ml of felypressin. No ischemic change of the myocardium was detected even with the highest felypressin concentration (3 ml of 2% propitocaine containing 0.25 IU/ml of felypressin). These results suggest that the clinically safe dosage of felypressin for patients with essential hypertension is approximately 0.18 IU. This amount is equivalent to 6 ml of 3% propitocaine with 0.03 IU/ml of felypressin, which is a commercially available local anesthetic for dental use. It seems that the decrease in 1/PEP2 that occurred during blood pressure increase was due to the increase in afterload caused by contraction of the arterioles. Although in the present study no ischemic change was noted, special care should be taken to prevent myocardial ischemia in patients with severe hypertension.
PMCID: PMC2148772  PMID: 10323116
4.  Prolonged diplopia following a mandibular block injection. 
Anesthesia Progress  1996;43(4):116-117.
A case is presented in which a 14-yr-old girl developed diplopia after injection of the local anesthetic Xylotox E 80 A (2% lidocaine with 1:80,000 epinephrine). Since the complication had a relatively slow onset and lasted for 24 hr, the commonly suggested explanations based on vascular, lymphatic, and neural route theories do not adequately fit the observations. No treatment, other than reassurance, was necessary, and the patient recovered fully.
PMCID: PMC2148771  PMID: 10323117
6.  The relationship between pH and concentrations of antioxidants and vasoconstrictors in local anesthetic solutions. 
Anesthesia Progress  1996;43(3):85-91.
pH affects the efficacy of local anesthetics by determining the percentage of the lipid-soluble base form of the anesthetic available for diffusion and penetration of the nerve sheath. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between pH and the concentrations of antioxidant and vasoconstrictor in dental local anesthetic solutions over real-time and after accelerated aging. Several batches of lidocaine and mepivacaine with vasoconstrictors were tested. Results showed that, immediately upon receipt from the manufacturers, three batches were below the USP pH limit (pH 3.3), and two batches contained less than the minimum limit of vasoconstrictors (90%). Real-time tests on batches that were within normal limits revealed that solutions were stable past 4 yr. Accelerated aging tests revealed a strong correlation between a decrease in pH and loss of antioxidants and vasoconstrictors. In conclusion, a quality batch of local anesthetic should remain efficacious long past the manufacturer's stated shelf life; a batch that is less than optimal, or one that is exposed to environmental stresses, will degrade rapidly, and efficacy may be affected by decreases in pH and loss of vasoconstrictor. pH may be an inexpensive, readily available screening test for efficacy of local anesthetics.
PMCID: PMC2148769  PMID: 10323112
7.  Effectiveness of preoperative analgesics on postoperative dental pain: a study. 
Anesthesia Progress  1996;43(3):92-96.
Patients undergoing extractions of third molar teeth under general anesthesia were given a placebo, diclofenac (a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug) 100 mg, or methadone (an opiate) 10 mg 60 to 90 min prior to surgery, and their pain scores and postoperative medication requirements were measured for 3 days. All patients received local anesthetic blocks and analgesic drugs during the perioperative period. There were no significant differences between the three groups in the pain scores and medication requirements during the period of study. It was concluded that preoperative use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and opiates may not offer a preemptive analgesic effect in patients who have had adequate analgesia during the surgery. Continued use of analgesic drugs during the postoperative period is perhaps more useful for this purpose. There appears to be a higher incidence of vomiting following opiates (methadone), precluding its clinical use in day-care patients.
PMCID: PMC2148768  PMID: 10323113
9.  The interaction between pindolol and epinephrine contained in local anesthetic solution to the left ventricular diastolic filling velocity in normal subjects. 
Anesthesia Progress  1996;43(3):78-84.
To evaluate the interaction between the nonselective beta-blocker, pindolol, and epinephrine contained in a local anesthetic solution, the left ventricular diastolic filling velocity was examined with pulsed Doppler echocardiography. Arterial blood pressure (BP), the R-R interval on the electrocardiogram (RR), and Doppler echo-cardiographic measurements were recorded in seven healthy volunteers after 45 micrograms of epinephrine contained in lidocaine (L-E) was injected in the maxilla after pretreatment with 5 mg of pindolol. The administration of L-E caused the elevation of BP and an increase in RR interval. Peak early (E) and peak atrial (A) filling velocities decreased, whereas isovolumic relaxation time (IVRT) and diastolic filling period (DFP) were prolonged. Although the ratio of E to A (E/A) remained unchanged, E/A/DFP was reduced. In contrast, when L-E was given without pindolol pretreatment, RR interval was shortened and BP was unchanged. The increase of both E and A velocities and the shortening of both IVRT and DFP were observed. E/A remained unchanged but E/A/DFP was increased. These results suggested that L-E caused opposite effects on the left ventricular filling velocity in the presence or absence of pindolol. We conclude that epinephrine activates the left ventricular relaxation rate but impairs it in the presence of pindolol.
PMCID: PMC2148763  PMID: 10323111
10.  Editorial 
Anesthesia Progress  1996;43(3):ii.
PMCID: PMC2148764  PMID: 19598711
11.  Emergency medical training for dental students. 
Anesthesia Progress  1996;43(2):37-40.
Twenty-four of the thirty-two German universities that have dental schools replied to a questionnaire survey that showed that all the schools responding held lectures on the topic "Medical Emergencies" although this is not mandatory for registration. All of the universities in the former East Germany also offered practical training sessions as part of the curriculum. The proportion of West German universities offering such courses is only 60%. The basic essentials of the theory and practice of emergency medicine should only be taught in courses with mandatory participation.
PMCID: PMC2148788  PMID: 10323124
12.  Possible theophylline toxicity during anesthesia. 
Anesthesia Progress  1996;43(2):67-72.
Asthmatic patients who undergo outpatient anesthesia are typically prescribed one or more drugs for treatment. Some of these agents have narrow therapeutic ranges and are associated with potentially serious adverse reactions, toxic effects, or drug interactions. Various clinical signs of toxicity may be first uncovered during routine monitoring of an office anesthetic. The case reported here demonstrates the need for proper understanding of the asthmatic patient's medical history and an appreciation for the medications used to control the disease. A sudden cardiovascular event possibly related to drug toxicity is witnessed and treated in an asthmatic patient during intravenous sedation. A possible drug interaction with a non-asthmatic medication taken concomitantly by the patient is implicated and discussed. In addition to the case report, the broad classification of drugs employed for bronchial asthma and their effects is reviewed.
PMCID: PMC2148786  PMID: 10323129
13.  Intranasal midazolam plasma concentration profile and its effect on anxiety associated with dental procedures. 
Anesthesia Progress  1996;43(2):52-57.
The objectives of this study were to describe the serum concentration time profile for midazolam following intranasal administration to adult dental surgery patients and to ascertain the effect of midazolam on anxiety. Six female patients received a single 20 mg (0.32 to 0.53 mg/kg) dose of midazolam. Blood samples were collected at 5, 10, 20, 30, 45, and 60 min following dose administration. Midazolam plasma concentrations were determined by gas chromatography. Anxiety was evaluated using a 100-mm visual analogue scale. The maximum concentration of midazolam was reached 25.8 min (range 18 to 35 min) following dose administration. Maximum concentrations were variable. However, there was no relationship between the weight-adjusted dose and maximal concentration. Patients experiencing baseline anxiety exhibited a trend toward reduction in their measured anxiety score (P = 0.06). Plasma concentrations above the hypothesized minimum effective concentration for sedative effects were attained when midazolam was administered intranasally to adult dental patients.
PMCID: PMC2148785  PMID: 10323126
14.  Pulmonary edema: a complication following dental treatment under general anesthesia. 
Anesthesia Progress  1996;43(2):61-63.
This article describes pulmonary edema in two young, physically healthy individuals following routine intensive dental treatment under general anesthesia. The etiology, diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment are discussed. This paper demonstrates that young, healthy patients may develop pulmonary edema in the perianesthesia period or even during anesthesia itself. Obstructive events, which occur especially in the post extubation period, may trigger this condition, as may other well-known phenomena. Early diagnosis and intensive treatment are mandatory in order to effectively resolve the situation.
PMCID: PMC2148783  PMID: 10323128
15.  Increased success of blind nasotracheal intubation through the use of nasogastric tubes as a guide. 
Anesthesia Progress  1996;43(2):58-60.
We were able to improve the success rate of blind nasotracheal intubation by using nasogastric tubes as a guide during intubation, first, for passing the endotracheal tube through the nasal cavity, and second, passing it from the pharynx to the larynx. By adding both sedation by modified neuroleptanalgesia (NLA) and topical and transtracheal administration of lidocaine, our technique became safer and smoother. We have completed 36 cases without accident, with an average time for intubation of 8.25 min. The Rüsh spiral tube was thought to be the most suited to this form of intubation because of the 90 degrees cut of its tip, its high-volume cuff, and its flexibility in all directions. These features are useful for hearing breath sounds, raising the tip of the tube by inflation of the cuff, and advancing the tube in a turning motion.
PMCID: PMC2148780  PMID: 10323127
16.  Electromagnetic interference of an external temporary pacemaker during maxillofacial and neck surgery. 
Anesthesia Progress  1996;43(2):64-66.
Indirect inhibition of an external temporary pacemaker by electrocautery is reported. Before induction of general anesthesia for a hemimaxillectomy and radical neck dissection, a temporary transvenous demand pacemaker was inserted into a patient with a first-degree atrioventricular block and complete left bundle-branch block. Although we provided common precautions to prevent electromagnetic interference by electrocautery, pacing failure still occurred. It was thought to be caused by current dispersing from the active electrocautery electrode. This case suggests that occipital placement of the electrocautery ground plate should be considered during neck surgery in a patient requiring a temporary pacemaker.
PMCID: PMC2148779  PMID: 10336403
17.  The effects of the hypothalamus on hemodynamic changes elicited by vagal nerve stimulation. 
Anesthesia Progress  1996;43(2):41-51.
To investigate the means by which neurogenic shock or syncope occur in dentistry, we determined the hemodynamic response to the activation of vagal tone in cats while they were under emotional stress. The hypothalamus and the vagal nerve were electrically stimulated to produce emotional stress and to activate vagal tone, respectively. Hemodynamic changes were recorded during vagal stimulation (Va group) and during vagal stimulation preceded by hypothalamic stimulation (AH + Va group). Although blood pressure decreased in both groups, the degree of hypotensive response in the AH + Va group was greater than the response in the Va group. Total peripheral resistance (TPR) was reduced in the AH + Va group but was increased in the Va group. The blood flow to the skeletal muscles in the AH + Va group was greater than that of the Va group. Reduced TPR, which could be due to vasodilation in the skeletal muscles, was the cause of intensified hypotension in the AH + Va group. Clearly, the hypotension produced by vagal stimulation was worsened when it was preceded by hypothalamic stimulation; this occurrence could be related to the tendency of blood to flow to the skeletal muscles.
PMCID: PMC2148778  PMID: 10323125
18.  Editorial 
Anesthesia Progress  1996;43(2):ii.
PMCID: PMC2148784  PMID: 19598710
19.  Dental treatment of handicapped patients using endotracheal anesthesia. 
Anesthesia Progress  1996;43(1):20-23.
Dental treatment using endotracheal anesthesia is indicated where acute odontogenic infections, accidental injuries, or multiple caries and periodontitis marginalis require surgical and/or restorative treatment. It is also indicated where it is not possible to use psychological support during local anesthesia or during premedication or analgosedation. Dental treatment of handicapped patients using endotracheal anesthesia is described, along with indication and frequency of such treatment. The state of the dentition is illustrated, along with its relationship to the oral hygiene the handicapped patients receive. The main points of the intraoperative dental procedures and the follow-up of patient care are reported. Postoperative dental or general medical complications have not occurred within the patient population under study.
PMCID: PMC2153453  PMID: 10323121
20.  Anesthetic considerations of two sisters with Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome. 
Anesthesia Progress  1996;43(1):24-28.
Anesthetic considerations of 21-mo-old and 4-yr-old sisters with Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome during surgical repair of cleft palate and reduction of macroglossia are presented and discussed. This syndrome is characterized by exomphalos, macroglossia, gigantism, hypoglycemia in infancy, and many other clinical features. This syndrome is also known as exomphalos, macroglossia, and gigantism (EMG) syndrome. Principal problems associated with anesthetic management in this syndrome are hypoglycemia and macroglossia. Careful intraoperative plasma glucose monitoring is particularly important to prevent the neurologic sequelae of unrecognized hypoglycemia. It is expected that airway management would be complicated by the macroglossia, which might cause difficult bag/mask ventilation and endotracheal intubation following the induction of anesthesia and muscle paralysis, so preparations for airway difficulty (e.g., awake vocal cord inspection) should be considered before induction. A nasopharyngeal airway is useful in relieving postoperative airway obstruction.
PMCID: PMC2153451  PMID: 10323122
21.  A pilot study of the efficacy of oral midazolam for sedation in pediatric dental patients. 
Anesthesia Progress  1996;43(1):1-8.
Oral midazolam is being used for conscious sedation in dentistry with little documentation assessing its efficacy. In order to accumulate preliminary data, a randomized, double-blind, controlled, crossover, multi-site pilot study was conducted. The objective was to determine if 0.6 mg/kg of oral midazolam was an equally effective or superior means of achieving conscious sedation in the uncooperative pediatric dental patient, compared with a commonly used agent, 50 mg/kg of oral chloral hydrate. Twenty-three children in three clinics who required dentistry with local anesthetic and were determined to exhibit behavior rated as "negative" or "definitely negative" based on the Frankl scale were assessed. They were evaluated with respect to acceptance of medication; initial level of anxiety at each appointment; level of sedation prior to and acceptance of local anesthetic; movement and crying during the procedure; and overall behavior. The results showed that the group randomly assigned to receive midazolam had a significantly greater initial level of anxiety for that appointment (P < 0.02), a finding that could clearly confound further determination of the efficacy of these drugs. Patients given oral midazolam had an increased level of sedation prior to the administration of local anesthetic compared with those given chloral hydrate (P < 0.015). No statistically significant differences were noted in any of the other parameters. The age of the patient was found to have no correlation with the difference in overall behavior (r = -0.09). These preliminary data warrant further clinical trials.
PMCID: PMC2153450  PMID: 10323118
23.  Efficacy of mandibular topical anesthesia varies with the site of administration. 
Anesthesia Progress  1996;43(1):14-19.
This study compared the threshold of pain sensitivity in the anterior mandibular mucobuccal fold with the posterior. This was followed by a comparison of the reduction of needle insertion pain in the anterior mucobuccal fold and the pterygo-temporal depression by either topical anesthesia or nitrous oxide inhalation. The pain threshold was determined by an analgometer, a pain-measuring device that depends on pressure readings; additionally, pain caused by a needle inserted by a normal technique was assessed using a visual analog scale (VAS). The threshold of pain was significantly lower in the incisor and canine regions than in the premolar and the molar regions (P < 0.001). Compared to a placebo, topical anesthesia significantly reduced the pain from needle insertion in the mucobuccal fold adjacent to the mandibular canine (P < 0.001), but did not significantly reduce pain in the pterygotemporal depression. The addition of 30% nitrous oxide did not significantly alter pain reduction compared to a control of 100% oxygen. These results suggest that topical anesthesia application may be effective in reducing the pain of needle insertion in the anterior mandibular mucobuccal fold, but may not be as effective for a standard inferior alveolar nerve block. The addition of 30% nitrous oxide did not lead to a significant improvement.
PMCID: PMC2153448  PMID: 10323120
24.  Comparison of recovery of propofol and methohexital sedation using an infusion pump. 
Anesthesia Progress  1996;43(1):9-13.
Two sedative anesthetic agents administered by an infusion pump were compared during third molar surgery. Forty American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) class I or II volunteers were randomly allocated to two groups. All subjects received supplemental oxygen via a nasal hood, fentanyl (0.0007 mg/kg intravenous [i.v.] bolus), and midazolam (1 mg/2 min) titrated to effect. Patients then received either 0.3 mg/kg of methohexital or 0.5 mg/kg of propofol via an infusion pump. Upon completion of the bolus, a continuous infusion of 0.05 mg/kg/min methohexital or 0.066 mg/kg/min propofol was administered throughout the procedure. Hemo-dynamic and respiratory parameters and psychomotor performance were compared for the two groups and no significant differences were found. The continuous infusion method maintained a steady level of sedation. Patients receiving propofol had a smoother sedation as judged by the surgeon and anesthetist.
PMCID: PMC2153445  PMID: 10323119
25.  Editorial 
Anesthesia Progress  1996;43(1):ii.
PMCID: PMC2153452  PMID: 19598709

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