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jtitle_s:("anesti Prog")
2.  Clinical recovery time from conscious sedation for dental outpatients. 
Anesthesia Progress  2002;49(4):124-127.
For dental outpatients undergoing conscious sedation, recovery from sedation must be sufficient to allow safe discharge home, and many researchers have defined "recovery time" as the time until the patient was permitted to return home after the end of dental treatment. But it is frequently observed that patients remain in the clinic after receiving permission to go home. The present study investigated "clinical recovery time," which is defined as the time until discharge from the clinic after a dental procedure. We analyzed data from 61 outpatients who had received dental treatment under conscious sedation at the Hiroshima University Dental Hospital between January 1998 and December 2000 (nitrous oxide-oxygen inhalation sedation [n = 35], intravenous sedation with midazolam [n = 10], intravenous sedation with propofol [n = 16]). We found that the median clinical recovery time was 40 minutes after nitrous oxide-oxygen sedation, 80 minutes after midazolam sedation, and 52 minutes after propofol sedation. The clinical recovery time was about twice as long as the recovery time described in previous studies. In a comparison of the sedation methods, clinical recovery time differed (P = .0008), being longer in the midazolam sedation group than in the nitrous oxide-oxygen sedation group (P = .018). These results suggest the need for changes in treatment planning for dental outpatients undergoing conscious sedation.
PMCID: PMC2007416  PMID: 12779113
3.  Pharmacokinetics of oral tramadol drops for postoperative pain relief in children aged 4 to 7 years--a pilot study. 
Anesthesia Progress  2002;49(4):109-112.
Tramadol hydrochloride is an analgesic with mu receptor activity suitable for administration to children as oral drops. As the serum concentration profile and pharmacokinetic parameters in young children are not known via this route, we studied 24 healthy ASA 1 children to determine those parameters. The children's mean age was 5.3 +/- 1.1 years and their mean weight was 17.8 +/- 3.1 kg. They underwent general anesthesia with sevoflurane for dental surgery. The mean duration of anesthesia was 27.9 +/- 10.1 minutes. Tramadol 1.5 mg/kg (this dose was chosen because we have previously shown it to be effective in providing analgesia following pediatric dental surgery) was administered as oral drops 30 minutes before anesthesia. Venous blood samples were taken following the tramadol at 30-minute intervals for 4 hours, every 2 hours for 6 hours, and every 4 hours for 12 hours. The samples were centrifuged and the serum stored at -20 degrees C, and nonstereoselective gas chromatography was used to determine the concentration of (+) and (-) tramadol enantiomers plus their o-demethyltramadol (M1) metabolite concentrations. The tramadol absorption was rapid, the maximum measured serum concentration present occurring before the first sample at 30 minutes. That first sample had a concentration of 352 +/- 83.4 ng/mL. The concentration remained above the 100 ng/mL analgesic level until 6.8 +/- 0.9 hours. The elimination half-life was 3.6 +/- 1.1 hours, the serum clearance 5.6 +/- 2.7 mL/kg/min, and the volume of distribution 4.1 +/- 1.2 L/kg. The (+) enantiomer concentration was 14.2 +/- 4.9% greater than that of the (-) enantiomer. The M1 metabolites had a (-) enantiomer concentration 92.3 +/- 75.1% greater than the (+) enantiomer. From the peak concentration at 4.5 +/- 1.5 hours, the concentration of the metabolite was approximately one third that of the parent drug. The M1 elimination half-life was 5.8 +/- 1.7 hours. Apart from the rapid rise in the serum concentration, these kinetic parameters are similar to those seen in healthy young adults. The concentration profile supports an effective clinical duration in the region of 7 hours.
PMCID: PMC2007413  PMID: 12779111
4.  Investigation of previously reported mucosal swellings after injection with Citanest Forte. 
Anesthesia Progress  2002;49(4):113-123.
The purpose of this study was to determine the reason for an apparent increase in the number of mucosal swellings after maxillary infiltration with Citanest Forte (prilocaine HCl 4% solution with epinephrine 1:200,000), 2 years after its introduction in 1971 by Astra Pharmaceutical Co (now AstraZeneca) in the United States. Approximately 70% of these reported reactions were from California, where less than 11% of all cartridges were sold. Comparison with New York State, with 27% of total sales but less than 1% of the reactions, suggested that possible differences in practice characteristics were responsible for the swellings. On the basis of the Bureau of Economic Research and Statistics Survey of Dental Practice, dentists in the Far West (eg, California) were found to schedule appointments with a median length of approximately twice that of their Mid-East colleagues, the implication being that more anesthetic solution was injected per office visit. Follow-up telephone interviews of dentists reporting such reactions at that time verified that they administered more than the recommended 1.8-mL dose. The most important epidemiologic information was that prilocaine HCl 4% solution with epinephrine 1:200,000 had been on sale in Canada 4 years before it was introduced in the US market, with little or no evidence of drug-related effects. Comparison of the US and Canadian prilocaine HCl with epinephrine 1:200,000 specifications revealed that NaCl was added to an already hypertonic prilocaine solution in the US but not in Canada. Comparison of the responses to intradermal injection of US and Canadian prilocaine solutions into the backs of rabbits with follow-up studies of dose-related NaCl injections demonstrated that the added NaCl was responsible for the onset and duration of irritation from the initially marketed US Citanest solutions.
PMCID: PMC2007412  PMID: 12779112
6.  The relationship of placement accuracy and insertion times for the laryngeal mask airway to the training of inexperienced dental students. 
Anesthesia Progress  2002;49(1):9-13.
Any health care professional can be faced with a medical emergency in which the patient needs ventilatory support. Bag-valve-mask ventilation with the assistance of an oropharyngeal airway that uses 100% oxygen is currently the preferred method for artificial ventilation. This procedure is generally performed ineffectively by most dentists inexperienced in airway management. We examined whether a short and simple period of training by dental students inexperienced in airway management would increase the speed and accuracy of the placement of the laryngeal mask airway (LMA), which may be a superior airway device to the bag-valve-mask and oropharyngeal airway. Thirty-five dental students inexperienced in airway management were divided into 3 groups. The first group received only a demonstration on how to use the LMA. The second and third groups received the demonstration plus practiced inserting the LMA 5 and 10 times, respectively. A dental anesthesiologist graded the placement of the LMA with a tracheobroncho-fiberscope (fiberoptic bronchoscope). Those who practiced inserting the LMA 5 times faired better than those who received no training; however, those who practiced 10 times did not do any better than the second group. The LMA can be inserted rapidly and effectively by dentists inexperienced in airway management after a short period of simple training that may be critical when personnel experienced in intubation are not readily available.
PMCID: PMC2007408  PMID: 12779108
9.  A comparison study between ketamine and ketamine-promethazine combination for oral sedation in pediatric dental patients. 
Anesthesia Progress  2002;49(1):14-18.
This study compared the incidence of vomiting and the sedative effectiveness of ketamine to a ketamine-prornethazine combination in pediatric dental patients. Twenty-two patients with American Society of Anesthesiologists' classification I physical status who were between the ages of 21 and 43 months were randomly divided into 2 groups. The control group received 10 mg/kg of ketamine orally, whereas the experimental group received 10 mg/kg of ketamine and 1.1 mg/kg of promethazine orally. Nitrous oxide in oxygen was supplemented between 35 and 50%. Each patient received 1 or 2 quadrants of restoration by one operator. Heart rate, blood pressure, and oxygen saturation were monitored and recorded during the treatment. Crying, alertness, movement, and overall general behavior were rated using the scale by Houpt et al. A dentist-anesthesiologist conducted the vital sign monitoring and behavioral assessment. Ketamine combined with promethazine eliminated the incidence of vomiting. A 2 x 2 chi-square contingency table showed a statistical difference between the 2 groups at P < .05 (control group, 27%; experimental group, 0%). Ketamine alone yielded better sedations than the combined agents as shown by the Mann-Whitney U statistical analysis (P < .05). Ketamine and a ketamine-promethazine combination are effective in the sedation of pediatric dental patients.
PMCID: PMC2007405  PMID: 12779109
10.  Erratum 
Anesthesia Progress  2002;49(1):i.
PMCID: PMC2007404
13.  Dental anesthesiology--a most noble profession. 
Anesthesia Progress  2002;49(1):1-2.
PMCID: PMC2007400  PMID: 12779106
14.  Should a mucoadhesive patch (DentiPatch) be used for gingival anesthesia in children? 
Anesthesia Progress  2002;49(1):3-8.
A local anesthetic-impregnated mucosal adhesive patch (DentiPatch) was compared with topical anesthetic (Hurricaine Dry Handle Swab) for gingival anesthesia before rubber dam clamp placement in children. Twenty-eight children needing sealants on their posterior teeth were enrolled in this study. Topical anesthesia was provided using either the mucoadhesive patch (20% lidocaine) or topical anesthetic (20% benzocaine). Subjects were randomized using a split mouth model. Either the patch or topical anesthetic was applied to the gingiva for 5 minutes or 1 minute, respectively. Subjects used a visual analog scale to describe their pain during the procedure. Linear regression and mixed linear models were used for data analysis. The visual analog scale results (pain scores) showed no significant difference between treatments. The mean per-child patch-sticking fraction was 29.7%. Patch adherence to oral mucosa increased with age in girls (P = .0045), but not in boys. The DentiPatch is as effective as, although not superior to, the Hurricaine Dry Handle Swab for gingival anesthesia before rubber dam clamp placement in children. These study results would not support the use of the DentiPatch for gingival anesthesia in children because of poor adherence to oral mucosa and the extra time necessary to apply and retain the device.
PMCID: PMC2007396  PMID: 12779107
15.  Paradoxical reactions to benzodiazepines in intravenous sedation: a report of 2 cases and review of the literature. 
Anesthesia Progress  2002;49(4):128-132.
Paradoxical reactions to benzodiazepines have been thoroughly reported since the introduction of this type of drug. The mechanism of benzodiazepine action is through the gamma-aminobutyric acid receptors. Properties of benzodiazepine include sedation, anxiolysis, amnesia, anticonvulsion, and muscle relaxation. Unfortunately, adverse paradoxical reactions can be stimulated by benzodiazepines and are difficult to predict and diagnose. Two cases of paradoxical reactions associated with the use of intravenous midazolam are presented, and the management of this complication and its different etiologies are reviewed. The relationship of the paradoxical reaction to alteration of the cholinergic homeostasis, serotonin levels, the role of genetics, and gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor configuration is discussed.
PMCID: PMC2007411  PMID: 12779114
19.  Average recovery time from a standardized intravenous sedation protocol and standardized discharge criteria in the general dental practice setting. 
Anesthesia Progress  2002;49(3):77-81.
Intravenous sedation has been used in dentistry for many years because of its perceived advantages over general anesthesia, including shorter recovery times. However, there is limited literature available on recovery from intravenous dental sedation, particularly in the private general practice setting. The aim of this study was to describe the recovery times when sedation was conducted in private dental practice and to consider this in relation to age, weight, procedure type, and procedure time. The data were extracted from the intravenous sedation records available with 1 general anesthesia-trained dental practitioner who provides ambulatory sedation services to a number of private general dental practices in the Perth, Western Australia Metropolitan Area. Standardized intravenous sedation techniques as well as clear standardized discharge criteria were utilized. The sedatives used were fentanyl, midazolam, and propofol. Results from 85 patients produced an average recovery time of 19 minutes. Recovery time was not associated with the type or length of dental procedures performed.
PMCID: PMC2007342  PMID: 15384295
20.  Pain relief by stellate ganglion block in a case with trigeminal neuralgia caused by a cerebellopontine angle tumor. 
Anesthesia Progress  2002;49(3):88-91.
A 29-year-old woman with symptoms suggestive of trigeminal neuralgia is presented. Because of her age, an intracranial tumor was suspected, but images of a brain computerized tomography scan revealed nothing in particular. A magnetic resonance imaging was scheduled 2 weeks later. However, as the pain increased and occurred more frequently, the patient returned to the hospital 2 days later. After a stellate ganglion block with transient nausea and dizziness, the pain was noticeably relieved. Using magnetic resonance scanning, a tumor in the cerebellopontine angle was discovered, and at surgical resection was diagnosed as an epidermoid tumor. Stellate ganglion block may provide pain relief to some patients who are suspected to have symptomatic trigeminal neuralgia.
PMCID: PMC2007341  PMID: 15384297
21.  Pharmacokinetics of lidocaine delivered from a transmucosal patch in children. 
Anesthesia Progress  2002;49(3):82-87.
The DentiPatch lidocaine transoral delivery system (Noven Pharmaceuticals) is indicated for mild topical anesthesia of mucosal membranes in the mouth. The DentiPatch is a mucoadhesive patch containing 46.1 mg of lidocaine (20% concentration). Current studies in adults report that DentiPatch application produces very low plasma concentrations of lidocaine. However, it is not known what plasma levels are obtained when the same dosage is used in children. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the plasma lidocaine concentrations generated by the DentiPatch are within a safe range for children. The sample in this study was 11 children aged 2-7 years requiring general anesthesia for comprehensive dental care. A lidocaine DentiPatch was placed on the buccal mucosa above the maxillary incisors for 5 minutes. Blood samples were drawn before placing the DentiPatch and at various time intervals after removing it. Blood samples were analyzed by fluorescence polarization immunoassay to determine the plasma concentrations of lidocaine and its major metabolite, monoethylglycinexylidide. The lidocaine and monoethylglycinexylidide absorbed from the DentiPatch did not reach toxic plasma levels in children. However, plasma concentrations were much higher than in adults and were high enough to require inclusion in the calculation of total lidocaine administered to a pediatric patient.
PMCID: PMC2007339  PMID: 15384296
22.  Bispectral EEG index monitoring of high-dose nitrous oxide and low-dose sevoflurane sedation. 
Anesthesia Progress  2002;49(2):56-62.
This single-blind controlled clinical study characterized the effects of 30-70% nitrous oxide (N2O) and 0.2-0.8% sevoflurane conscious sedation on quantitative electroencephalographic (EEG) readings of 22 healthy dental students as measured by the bispectral index (BIS). The study verified the 2 previously published BIS/N2O investigations showing no correlation between N2O dosage up to 70% and BIS. Observer's Assessment of Alertness and Sedation scores (OAA/S), however, correlated well with increasing doses of N2O from approximately 35 to 70%. A near linear dose-response relationship was established between OAA/S and end tidal (ET) sevoflurane concentrations of 0.4-0.7%. Only at the highest level of end tidal sevoflurane recorded, 0.7%, was statistically significant BIS depression seen. Subjects evaluated the acceptability of the sedative effect of the 2 gases, showing a slight preference for N2O. Comparable partial anterograde amnesia and sedation (OAA/S) were produced by both agents in administered concentrations of 40-70% N2O and 0.6-0.8% sevoflurane. Female subjects exhibited better memory and significantly less amnesia than males. No statistically significant changes occurred in any of the monitored vital signs. EMG readings demonstrated a statistically significant difference from control values only at the highest, 0.7%, ET concentration of sevoflurane. BIS does not appear useful for evaluating the level of nitrous oxide sedation in the dental setting but may have some value in assessing depth of sedation at deeper levels of sevoflurane sedation.
PMCID: PMC2007394  PMID: 15384293
24.  A comparison of intraoral injection discomfort produced by plain and epinephrine-containing lidocaine local anesthetic solutions: a randomized, double-blind, split-mouth, volunteer investigation. 
Anesthesia Progress  2002;49(2):44-48.
The authors report a clinical trial designed to compare the discomfort produced by plain and epinephrine-containing lidocaine solutions during local anesthesia in the maxilla. Twenty-four healthy volunteers were recruited; each received buccal and palatal infiltrations on each side of the maxilla in the premolar region. The solutions were 2% lidocaine and 2% lidocaine with 1:80,000 epinephrine. Allocation to side was randomized and operator and volunteer were blinded to the identity of the solutions. Volunteers recorded injection discomfort on a 100-mm visual analogue scale (VAS). Volunteers were included in the trial if a score of at least 30 mm was recorded for at least 1 of the matched pair of injections. Differences between treatments were measured using Student's paired t test. Twelve volunteers recorded a VAS score of at least 30 mm for 1 or both buccal injections, and 17 volunteers reached this score for palatal injections. Buccal injection pain was less when the plain solution was used (P = .04) and was not influenced by the order of the injection. Palatal injection discomfort did not differ between the solutions; however, the second palatal injection was more uncomfortable than the first palatal injection (P = .046). These results suggest that plain lidocaine produces less discomfort than lidocaine with epinephrine when administered into the maxillary premolar buccal sulcus in individuals who report moderate pain during this injection. Palatal injection discomfort does not differ between these solutions.
PMCID: PMC2007391  PMID: 15384291
25.  Anesthetic efficacy of an infiltration in mandibular anterior teeth following an inferior alveolar nerve block. 
Anesthesia Progress  2002;49(2):49-55.
The purpose of this prospective, randomized, blinded study was to measure the degree of pulpal anesthesia obtained with an inferior alveolar nerve (IAN) block followed by an infiltration in mandibular anterior teeth. Through use of a repeated-measures design, 40 patients randomly received 3 injection combinations at 3 separate appointments: an IAN block followed by a mock lingual infiltration and a mock labial infiltration, an IAN block followed by a mock lingual infiltration and a labial infiltration, and an IAN block followed by a mock labial infiltration and a lingual infiltration. Each IAN block used 3.6 mL of 2% lidocaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine, and each infiltration used 1.8 mL of 2% lidocaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine administered over the lateral incisor apex. Mandibular anterior teeth were blindly pulp tested at 2-minute cycles for 60 minutes following the IAN-infiltration injections. No response from the patient to the maximum output (80 reading) of the pulp tester was used as the criterion for pulpal anesthesia. Anesthesia was considered successful when 2 consecutive 80 readings were obtained within 15 minutes and the 80 reading was sustained for 60 minutes. Anesthesia was considered a failure if 2 consecutive 80 readings were not obtained during the 60 minutes. The results of this study showed that 100% of the patients had lip numbness with all IAN blocks. For the lateral incisor, the success rate of the IAN block alone was 40% and the failure rate was 30%. For the IAN block plus labial infiltration, the success rate was 62% and the failure rate was 12% for the lateral incisor. There was a significant difference (P < .05) between the IAN block alone and the IAN block plus labial infiltration. In conclusion, a labial infiltration, over the lateral incisor apex, of 1.8 mL of 2% lidocaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine following an IAN block significantly improved pulpal anesthesia for the lateral incisor compared with the IAN block alone.
PMCID: PMC2007388  PMID: 15384292

Results 1-25 (25)