The purpose of this prospective, randomized, double-blind crossover study was to compare the anesthetic efficacy of 2% mepivacaine with 1 : 20,000 levonordefrin versus 2% lidocaine with 1 : 100,000 epinephrine in maxillary central incisors and first molars. Sixty subjects randomly received, in a double-blind manner, maxillary central incisor and first molar infiltrations of 1.8 mL of 2% mepivacaine with 1 : 20,000 levonordefrin and 1.8 mL of 2% lidocaine with 1 : 100,000 epinephrine at 2 separate appointments spaced at least 1 week apart. The teeth were electric pulp tested in 2-minute cycles for a total of 60 minutes. Anesthetic success (obtaining 2 consecutive 80 readings with the electric pulp tester within 10 minutes) was not significantly different between 2% mepivacaine with 1 : 20,000 levonordefrin and 2% lidocaine with 1 : 100,000 epinephrine for the central incisor and first molar. However, neither anesthetic agent provided an hour of pulpal anesthesia.
Lidocaine; Epinephrine; Mepivacaine; Levonordefrin; Infiltration; Maxillary
We experience individual differences in pain and sensitivity to analgesics clinically. Genetic factors are known to influence individual difference. Polymorphisms in the human OPRM1 gene, which encodes the μ-opioid receptors, may be associated with the clinical effects of opioid analgesics. The purpose of this study was to determine whether any of the 5 common single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the OPRM1 gene could affect the antinociceptive effect of fentanyl. Fentanyl was less effective in subjects with the G allele of the OPRM1 A118G SNP than in those with the A allele, and subjects with the G allele required more fentanyl for adequate postoperative pain control than those with the A allele. In the future, identifying SNPs might give us information to modulate the analgesic dosage of opioid individually for better pain control. Factors underlying individual differences in sensitivity to pain other than genetic factors may include environmental and psychological factors. We therefore examined the effects of preoperative anxiety on the analgesic efficacy of fentanyl in patients undergoing sagittal split mandibular osteotomy (SSMO). From among the patients enrolled in the study, 60 patients (male/female: 18/42, age: 24.6 ± 6.7 years) who gave informed consent were examined for correlations between preoperative trait/state anxiety, as measured by the state-trait anxiety inventory (STAI) on the day before surgery, and postoperative consumption of patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) fentanyl and visual analog scale (VAS) assessment by patients. Levels of trait and state anxieties measured by the STAI were correlated with neither the consumption of PCA fentanyl nor postoperative VAS assessment. These findings suggest that psychological factors are unlikely to affect postoperative pain or the use of analgesics.
Polymorphism; μ-Opioid receptor; Postoperative pain; Patient-controlled analgesia; Preoperative anxiety
Nausea, vomiting, and hiccups are troubling complications associated with sedation and general anesthesia. This article will review the basic pathophysiology of these events and current recommendations for their prevention and management.
Nausea; Vomiting; PONV; Hiccups; Anesthetic complications; Antiemetics
The present study investigated the physiologic and sedative effects between two different continuous infusion doses of dexmedetomidine (DEX). Thirteen subjects were separately sedated with DEX at a continuous infusion dose of 0.2 µg/kg/hr for 25 minutes after a loading dose of 6 µg/kg/hr for 5 minutes (0.2 group) and a continuous infusion dose of 0.4 µg/kg/hr for 25 minutes after a loading dose of 6 µg/kg/hr for 5 minutes (0.4 group). The recovery process was then observed for 60 minutes post infusion. The tidal volume, mean arterial pressure, and heart rate in both groups decreased significantly during infusion, but they were within a clinically acceptable level. A Trieger dot test plot error ratio in the 0.4 group was significantly higher than that in the 0.2 group until 15 minutes post infusion. Sedation appears to be safe at the infusion doses of DEX studied. However, increasing maintenance infusion doses of DEX from 0.2 µg/kg/hr to 0.4 µg/kg/hr delays some recovery parameters.
Dexmedetomidine; Sedation; α2 adenoceptor; Amnesia; Trieger dot test
The pharmacologic management of chronic orofacial pain involves the use of medications not used routinely in dental practice. Additionally, many drugs are used for long periods of time necessitating careful monitoring for adverse effects and potential drug interactions. This article will review commonly used medications for chronic orofacial pain and highlight important areas of concern.
Chronic pain; Orofacial pain; Pain management
Landau-Kleffner syndrome is a rare, epileptiform disorder with a pathognomonic sudden aphasia, epilepsy, and electroencephalographic abnormalities. It was first described in 1957. No case reports are included in the anesthesia literature. This case report describes a 9-year-old male who was treated for dental caries while under intubated general anesthesia. The case was successful and uneventful, with multiple precautions taken to prevent seizures or other complications. The authors hope that this report will provoke communication and additional case reports.
Auditory agnosia: Aphasia; Landau-Kleffner syndrome; General anesthesia; Dental
Gum elastic bougie (GEB), a useful device for difficult airway management, has seldom been used for nasotracheal intubation. Among 632 patients undergoing dental procedures or oral surgery, GEB was used successfully in 16 patients in whom conventional nasal intubation had failed because of anatomical problems or maldirection of the tip of the tracheal tube. We recommend that GEB should be applied from the first attempt for nasal intubation in patients with difficult airways.
Gum elastic bougie; Nasal intubation; Difficult intubation
Alterations in arterial PaCO2 can influence local anesthetic toxicity. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of stress-induced changes in PaCO2 and PaO2 on the seizure threshold of lidocaine and articaine. Lidocaine (2% with 1 ∶ 100,000 epinephrine) or articaine (4% with 1 ∶ 100,000 epinephrine) was administered intravenously under rest or stress conditions to 36 rats separated into 4 groups. Propranolol and prazosin were administered preoperatively to minimize cardiovascular effects of epinephrine. Mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR), and arterial pH, PaCO2, and PaO2 were measured. Results showed no differences in MAP, HR, or pH. Stress significantly increased the latency period for the first tonic-clonic seizure induced by a toxic dose of both lidocaine and articaine (P < .05). Seizures were brought on more rapidly by articaine. No significant difference between toxic doses of lidocaine and articaine was noted. Stress raised the seizure threshold dose for both drugs and significantly (P < .01) increased arterial PaO2 from 94.0 ± 1.90 mm Hg to 113.0 ± 2.20 mm Hg, and reduced PaCO2 from 36.0 ± 0.77 mm Hg to 27.0 ± 0.98 mm Hg. In conclusion, reduction in PaCO2 and/or increase in PaO2 raised the seizure threshold of lidocaine and articaine. This study also confirmed that lidocaine and articaine have equipotent central nervous system toxicity.
Lidocaine; Articaine; Local anesthetic toxicity
The objective of this study was to examine the public health relevance of the prevalence of dental fear in Kuwait and the resultant barrier that it creates regarding access to dental care. The study analysis demonstrated a high prevalence of dental fear and anxiety in the Kuwaiti population and a perceived need for anesthesia services by dental care providers. The telephone survey of the general population showed nearly 35% of respondents reported being somewhat nervous, very nervous, or terrified about going to the dentist. In addition, about 36% of the population postponed their dental treatment because of fear. Respondents showed a preference to receive sedation and anesthesia services as a means of anxiety relief, and they were willing to go to the dentist more often when such services were available. People with high fear and anxiety preferred to receive some type of medication to relieve their anxiety. In conclusion, the significance and importance of the need for anesthesia services to enhance the public health of dental patients in Kuwait has been demonstrated, and improvements are needed in anesthesia and sedation training of Kuwaiti dental care providers.
Needs assessment; Sedation; Kuwait; Dental anesthesia; Anxiety
The purpose of this prospective, randomized, double-blind crossover study was to evaluate the anesthetic efficacy of 2% lidocaine with 1 : 100,000 epinephrine, 4% prilocaine with 1 : 200,000 epinephrine, and 4% prilocaine in maxillary lateral incisors and first molars. Sixty subjects randomly received, in a double-blind manner, maxillary lateral incisor and first molar infiltrations of 1.8 mL of 2% lidocaine with 1 : 100,000 epinephrine, 1.8 mL of 4% prilocaine with 1 : 200,000 epinephrine, and 1.8 mL of 4% prilocaine, at 3 separate appointments spaced at least 1 week apart. The teeth were pulp-tested in 3-minute cycles for a total of 60 minutes. Anesthetic success (ie, obtaining 2 consecutive 80 readings with the electric pulp tester) and onset of pulpal anesthesia were not significantly different between 2% lidocaine with 1 : 100,000 epinephrine, 4% prilocaine with 1 : 200,000 epinephrine, and 4% prilocaine for the lateral incisor and first molar. For both lateral incisor and first molar, 4% prilocaine with 1 : 200,000 epinephrine and 2% lidocaine with 1 : 100,000 epinephrine were equivalent for incidence of pulpal anesthesia. However, neither anesthetic agent provided an hour of pulpal anesthesia. For both lateral incisor and first molar, 4% prilocaine provided a significantly shorter duration of pulpal anesthesia compared with 2% lidocaine with 1 : 100,000 epinephrine and 4% prilocaine with 1 : 200,000 epinephrine.
Lidocaine; Epinephrine; Prilocaine; Infiltration; Maxillary
General descriptions or “snapshots” of sedation/general anesthesia practices during dental care are very limited in reviewed literature. The objective of this study was to determine commonalities in dental sedation/anesthesia practices, as well as to accumulate subjective information pertaining to sedation/anesthesia care within the dental profession. This questionnaire-based survey was completed by participating anesthesia providers in the United States. A standardized questionnaire was sent via facsimile, or was delivered by mail, to 1500 anesthesia providers from a randomized list using an online database. Data from the returned questionnaires were entered onto an Excel spreadsheet and were imported into a JMP Statistical Discovery Software program for analyses. Quantitative evaluations were confined to summation of variables, an estimation of means, and a valid percent for identified variables. A total of 717 questionnaires were entered for data analysis (N = 717). Data from this study demonstrate the wide variation that exists in sedation/anesthesia care and those providing its administration during dental treatment in the United States. The demographics of this randomized population show anesthesia providers involved in all disciplines of the dental profession, as well as significant variation in the types of modalities used for sedation/anesthesia care. Data from this study reveal wide variation in sedation/anesthesia care during dental treatment. These distinctions include representation of sedation/anesthesia providers across all disciplines of the dental profession, as well as variations in the techniques used for sedation/anesthesia care.
Anesthesia; Dentistry; Practice characteristics; Techniques
The authors, using a crossover design, randomly administered, in a double-blind manner, inferior alveolar nerve (IAN) blocks using a buffered 2% lidocaine with 1 : 100,000 epinephrine/sodium bicarbonate formulation and an unbuffered 2% lidocaine with 1 : 100,000 epinephrine formulation at 2 separate appointments spaced at least 1 week apart. An electric pulp tester was used in 4-minute cycles for 60 minutes to test for anesthesia of the first and second molars, premolars, and lateral and central incisors. Anesthesia was considered successful when 2 consecutive 80 readings were obtained within 15 minutes, and the 80 reading was continuously sustained for 60 minutes. For the buffered 2% lidocaine with 1 : 100,000 epinephrine/sodium bicarbonate formulation, successful pulpal anesthesia ranged from 10–71%. For the unbuffered 2% lidocaine with 1 : 100,000 epinephrine formulation, successful pulpal anesthesia ranged from 10–72%. No significant differences between the 2 anesthetic formulations were noted. The buffered lidocaine formulation did not statistically result in faster onset of pulpal anesthesia or less pain during injection than did the unbuffered lidocaine formulation. We concluded that buffering a 2% lidocaine with 1 : 100,000 epinephrine with sodium bicarbonate, as was formulated in the current study, did not statistically increase anesthetic success, provide faster onset, or result in less pain of injection when compared with unbuffered 2% lidocaine with 1 : 100,000 epinephrine for an IAN block.
Buffered lidocaine; Sodium bicarbonate; Inferior alveolar nerve block; Lidocaine
Safe and effective management of acute dental pain can be accomplished with nonopioid and opioid analgesics. To formulate regimens properly, it is essential to appreciate basic pharmacological principles and appropriate dosage strategies for each of the available analgesic classes. This article will review the basic pharmacology of analgesic drug classes, including their relative efficacy for dental pain, and will suggest appropriate regimens based on pain intensity. Management of chronic pain will be addressed in the second part of this series.
Pain management; Analgesics; Postoperative pain; Dental pain
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of an antihypertensive drug class and the timing of discontinuation of antihypertensive therapy on blood pressure during oral and maxillofacial surgery for 129 patients on antihypertensive therapy receiving general anesthesia. Blood pressures at loss of response to stimulation and 5–15 minutes after intubation were significantly lower than those before induction, although the type of antihypertensive therapy did not affect changes in blood pressure. No significant correlation was observed between systolic blood pressure (SBP) on the ward and change in SBP during surgery, though patients with higher blood pressure on the ward tended to exhibit larger differences between SBP on the ward and the lowest SBP during surgery. Frequency of use of vasopressors during surgery was significantly higher in patients who discontinued antihypertensive therapy on the day before surgery than in those who continued antihypertensive therapy on the day of surgery. These findings suggest that appropriate preoperative antihypertensive therapy is important for minimizing change in blood pressure during surgery and preventing perioperative complications. Patients undergoing antihypertensive therapy should be carefully monitored perioperatively by observation for interactions between antihypertensive and anesthetic agents and minimizing interruption schedules for antihypertensive therapy.
Antihypertensive drugs; General anesthesia; Oral and maxillofacial surgery
The placement of endotracheal tubes in the airway, particularly through the nose, can cause trauma. Their design might be an important etiologic factor, but they have changed little since their introduction. Recently Parker Medical (Bridgewater, Conn ) introduced the Parker Flex-Tip (PFT) tube, suggesting that it causes less trauma. This study aimed to compare the PFT endotracheal tube to a side-beveled, standard-tip endotracheal tube (ETT) for nasotracheal intubation (Figures 1 and 2). Forty consecutive oral surgery patients requiring nasotracheal intubation were randomized to receive either a standard ETT or the PFT tube. Intubations were recorded using a fiber-optic camera positioned proximal to the Murphy eye of the tube. This allowed visualization of the path and action of the tube tip as it traversed the nasal, pharyngeal, laryngeal, and tracheal airway regions. Video recordings made during intubation and extubation were evaluated for bleeding, trauma, and intubation time. Both bleeding and trauma were recorded using a visual analogue scale (VAS) and by 3 different evaluators. The PFT received significantly better VAS values than the standard tubes from all 3 raters (P < 0.05) in both the extent of trauma and bleeding. Since the intubations were purposefully conducted slowly for photographic reasons, neither tube displayed a time advantage. This study suggests that the PFT tube design may be safer by causing less trauma and bleeding than standard tube designs for nasotracheal intubation.
Nasotracheal intubation; Parker Flex-Tip tube; Endotracheal intubation; Endotracheal tube; Fiber-optic intubation