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jtitle_s:("anesti Prog")
1.  Oral transmucosal fentanyl pretreatment for outpatient general anesthesia. 
Anesthesia Progress  2000;47(2):29-34.
The oral transmucosal formulation of fentanyl citrate (OTFC) has been reported to be an effective sedative, providing convenient and atraumatic sedation for children prior to general anesthesia or painful diagnostic procedures. Thirty-three young children (24-60 months of age) scheduled for outpatient general anesthesia for treatment of dental caries were enrolled in this randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial. To determine the effectiveness of the OTFC premedication, patient behavior was evaluated using three distinct outcome ratings. A sedation score rated behavior in the waiting room prior to OTFC as well as 10 minutes and 20 minutes after OTFC. A separation score rated the child's response to being separated from his/her parent or guardian for transport to the dental operatory. Finally, a cooperation score rated the child's acceptance of the mask induction. The OTFC formulation was well tolerated by most of the children in this study. Compared with the placebo oralet, the active OTFC improved behavior for separation from the parent (P < .05) and cooperation with the mask induction (P < .05). The duration of surgery and the time of recovery did not differ between placebo and active premedication. Side effects including respiratory and cardiovascular complications were reported more frequently in the active fentanyl group. Continuous monitoring of respiratory function is essential when using this unique and effective formulation of fentanyl for pediatric preanesthetic sedation.
PMCID: PMC2149014  PMID: 11881693
2.  Flumazenil reversal of conscious sedation induced with intravenous fentanyl and diazepam. 
Anesthesia Progress  1995;42(1):11-16.
The addition of a benzodiazepine antagonist to the dental anesthesiologist's armamentarium should provide added safety for conscious sedation using benzodiazepines. A double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial of flumazenil, the first available benzodiazepine antagonist, was performed to evaluate its safety and efficacy following conscious sedation induced by diazepam and fentanyl. Flumazenil was found to reverse rapidly much of the central nervous system depression induced by fentanyl and diazepam conscious sedation. Flumazenil appears to be a valuable adjunct for dentists who administer intravenous benzodiazepines for conscious sedation.
PMCID: PMC2148871  PMID: 8934956
3.  Oral triazolam pretreatment for intravenous sedation. 
Anesthesia Progress  1993;40(4):117-121.
This double-blind, controlled clinical trial assessed the anxiety relief provided by oral triazolam given before intravenous sedation. Twenty-two healthy adults undergoing third-molar surgery with intravenous sedation were enrolled in this study. Subjects were randomly assigned to receive either 0.25 mg of triazolam p.o. or an identically appearing placebo 45 to 60 min before venipuncture. Immediately before test drug administration, subjects completed the Corah Anxiety Scale, a Visual Analog Scale (VAS) assessing state anxiety, and the Interval Scale of Anxiety Response (ISAR). The VAS and ISAR were repeated immediately before venipuncture. Intravenous sedation medications consisted of fentanyl, midazolam, and methohexital. At 24 hr, assessments of the venipuncture and global experience were obtained. Results indicated that the characteristics of the triazolam and placebo patients were similar at baseline. With triazolam pretreatment, both the VAS and ISAR scores decreased significantly. Dose requirements for conscious sedation medications were decreased in the triazolam group. Patients rated the venipuncture experience significantly less unpleasant when pretreated with triazolam, and global ratings of the overall surgical experience favored triazolam. An oral-intravenous combination sedation technique using 0.25 mg of triazolam may have a significant therapeutic advantage for outpatient oral surgery.
PMCID: PMC2148582  PMID: 7943920
4.  Pharmacologic desensitization for dental phobias: clinical observations. 
Anesthesia Progress  1990;37(6):308-311.
The elimination of the extreme fear reported by dental phobic patients traditionally involves psychologic interventions such as systematic desensitization. Observations resulting from a conscious sedation approach, as outlined in two case histories, suggest that a desensitization phenomena is occurring. This pharmacologic desensitization appears to mimic elements of systematic desensitization. Optimal management of fearful patients may sometimes require conjunctive support from both dental behavioral scientists and dental anesthesiologists.
PMCID: PMC2162557  PMID: 1982984
5.  A clinical trial of long-acting local anesthetics for periodontal surgery. 
Anesthesia Progress  1990;37(4):194-198.
The efficacy of long-acting local anesthetics for anesthesia during periodontal surgery and for analgesia during the immediate postoperative period was evaluated. The rationale for using long-acting local anesthetics such as etidocaine and bupivacaine is that they can provide surgical anesthesia and, because of their long duration, prevent discomfort that may occur for 4-6 hours postoperatively. Two clinical trials were performed. The first enrolled patients requiring bilateral periodontal surgery. Using a matched pair design and double-blind randomized study conditions, 2% lidocaine 1/100,000 epinephrine was compared with 1.5% etidocaine 1/200,000 epinephrine for periodontal surgery. The time until complete recovery and the time until pain onset were found to be longer for the etidocaine surgeries. Postoperative pain appeared more severe, and the need for oral analgesics was greater for the lidocaine surgeries. Surgeons' rating of surgical bleeding was significantly greater for the etidocaine procedures. When matched bilateral surgeries were not available, a second double-blind randomized parallel trial was performed that compared 1.5% etidocaine 1/200,000 epinephrine to 0.5% bupivacaine 1/200,000 epinephrine. No significant differences were seen in the quality of anesthesia, degree of bleeding, or postoperative pain between these two long-acting anesthetics.
PMCID: PMC2148673  PMID: 2096742
7.  Nitrous oxide-chloral hydrate pediatric sedation. 
Anesthesia Progress  1987;34(3):103.
PMCID: PMC2186271  PMID: 3479913
10.  Psychomotor impairment due to N2O exposure. 
Anesthesia Progress  1983;30(3):72-75.
PMCID: PMC2515439  PMID: 6580828

Results 1-10 (10)