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jtitle_s:("anesti Prog")
1.  Recruiting phobic research subjects: effectiveness and cost. 
Anesthesia Progress  2001;48(1):3-8.
Efficiently enrolling subjects is one of the most important and difficult aspects of a clinical trial. This prospective study evaluated strategies used in the recruitment of 144 dental injection phobics for a clinical trial evaluating the effectiveness of combining alprazolam with exposure therapy. Three types of recruitment strategies were evaluated: paid advertising, free publicity, and professional referral. Sixty-three percent of subjects were enrolled using paid advertising (the majority of them from bus advertisements [27.0%], posters on the University of Washington campus [20.1%], and newspaper advertisements [13.2%]). Free publicity (eg, television coverage, word of mouth) yielded 18.8% of enrolled subjects and professionaL referrals 14.6% of subjects. The average cost (1996 dollars) of enrolling 1 subject was $79. Bus and poster advertising attracted more initial contacts and yielded the greatest enrollment.
PMCID: PMC2007331  PMID: 11495403
2.  Dental fear among university students: implications for pharmacological research. 
Anesthesia Progress  1998;45(2):62-67.
University students are often subjects in randomized clinical trials involving anxiolytic and analgesic medications used during clinical dental and medical procedures. The purpose of this study was to describe a typical university student population available for research by using data from a mail survey. Subjects were 350 students chosen randomly from all enrolled, full-time, traditional students on the main campus at the University of Washington in Seattle, WA. The aim was to determine the extent and nature of dental anxiety in this population. In addition, the relationships between subject willingness to receive dental injections and general and mental health and medical avoidance and medical fears were examined. The Dental Anxiety Scale (DAS) was used to measure dental anxiety. Dental anxiety was prevalent in this population; 19% of students reported high rates of dental fear. Thirteen percent of students had never had a dental injection. Students with no experience with dental injections were more reluctant than those with experience to receive an injection if one were needed. DAS scores were correlated with injection reluctance. Students who were reluctant to go ahead with a dental injection also reported poorer general and mental health than those who were less reluctant. These students also reported higher medical avoidance and medical anxiety scores. University students provide a rich source of potential subjects for clinical research. The student population, like the community at large, contains people with high levels of dental and medical fear.
PMCID: PMC2148972  PMID: 10356434
3.  The efficacy and memory effects of oral triazolam premedication in highly anxious dental patients. 
Anesthesia Progress  1994;41(3):70-76.
Triazolam (0.375 or 0.50 mg) or placebo was administered orally to 31 highly anxious dental patients in a double-blind clinical trial 1 hr before treatment. The drug was safe and highly effective, in comparison to placebo, in reducing both anxious cognitions and disruptive movement during oral injections of local anesthetic and drilling. Episodic memory and implicit memory were both adversely affected by the active drug but not the placebo.
PMCID: PMC2148823  PMID: 8934963
4.  The safety and efficacy of outpatient midazolam intravenous sedation for oral surgery with and without fentanyl. 
Anesthesia Progress  1993;40(3):57-62.
This study examined midazolam and midazolam plus fentanyl in a placebo-controlled, double-blind clinical trial. It tested the hypothesis that combined drug therapy results in significantly poorer safety but no difference in efficacy compared to the single drug approach. Subjects were among 207 mildly anxious young adults having their third molars removed. Fentanyl had a significant depressant effect on respiration. Fifty of 79 (63%) subjects who received a midazolam-fentanyl combination became apneic, while only two of 78 (3%) who received midazolam alone were apneic (Fisher's Exact Test, P < 0.001). Two subjects (2.5%) in the combination group and none in the midazolam alone group had oxygen saturations drop below 90%. About twice as many subjects in the combination group had end-tidal carbon dioxide (EtCO2) levels greater than 25% above baseline. While these results are consistent with those for apnea, contingency analyses of the oxygen saturation and EtCO2 results were not statistically significant. Subjects in the combination group were more than four times as likely to have excellent versus good, fair, or poor sedation at a given level of intraoperative pain, and behavioral (movement and verbalization) but not cognitive measures of anxiety were attenuated.
PMCID: PMC2148741  PMID: 7645789
5.  Clinical study of diffusion hypoxia after nitrous oxide analgesia. 
Anesthesia Progress  1991;38(1):21-23.
In order to estimate the incidence of diffusion hypoxia, arterial oxygen saturation was measured in 104 healthy adult dental patients who were administered nitrous oxide-oxygen analgesia and who did not receive postcessation oxygen. Pretreatment saturation levels as determined by pulse oximetry ranged from 93% to 100%. When the nitrous oxide-oxygen administration ceased, the saturation levels were from 95% to 100%. The mean saturation dropped about 2% over the next 4 min and then stabilized. No patient had a posttreatment oxygen saturation of less than 92%.
PMCID: PMC2162366  PMID: 1809049
6.  Clinical experience with TENS and TENS combined with nitrous oxide-oxygen. Report of 371 patients. 
Anesthesia Progress  1989;36(2):66-69.
Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) alone or TENS combined with nitrous oxide-oxygen (N2O) was administered for restorative dentistry without local anesthesia to 371 adult patients. A total of 55% of TENS alone and 84% of TENS/N2O visits were rated successful. A total of 53% of TENS alone and 82% of TENS/N2O patients reported slight or no pain. In multivariable analyses, pain reports were related to the anesthesia technique and patient fear and unrelated to sex, race, age, tooth, or depth of preparation.
PMCID: PMC2148635  PMID: 2604059

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