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jtitle_s:("anesti Prog")
1.  A comparison of certain practice characteristics of dental anesthesiologists in Canada and the United States. 
Anesthesia Progress  1999;46(2):49-51.
An existing database was used to compare aspects of dental anesthesiology practice of dental anesthesiologists in Canada (n = 32) and the United States (n = 123). Data focusing on percutaneous injuries were obtained through a mailed questionnaire that was returned anonymously. Respondents provided information on the treatment of patients under deep sedation or general anesthesia only. Eighty-one percent of Canadians and 61% of Americans returned the questionnaire. The vast majority (84%) of injuries reported were due to sharps associated with general dentistry compared with those associated with anesthesiology. Canadians were more likely to be operator-anesthetists (P < .01) and to experience a percutaneous injury (P < .01) than US practitioners. American practitioners were more likely to have a greater proportion of the caseload under the age of 20 (P < .02). No other significant differences were observed. These results illustrate a number of unique attributes of the practice of dental anesthesiology in these 2 countries.
PMCID: PMC2148895  PMID: 10853564
2.  The occupational risk to dental anesthesiologists of acquiring 3 bloodborne pathogens. 
Anesthesia Progress  1999;46(2):63-70.
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the occupational risk to dental anesthesiologists of contracting 3 bloodborne pathogens: hepatitis B (HBV), hepatitis C (HCV), and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). METHODS: Through an anonymously returned, mailed questionnaire, dental anesthesiologists in Canada and the United States provided information regarding percutaneous and mucocutaneous contacts with contaminated fluid during the treatment of patients under deep sedation and general anesthesia as well as other general practice information. A mathematical model was applied to determine the occupational risk. RESULTS: Of the 101 (65%) returned questionnaires, 98 reported having treated patients within the previous 6 months. Of these, 41 (42%) had at least one percutaneous accident (89 accidents in total), and the projected mean annual injury rate for dental anesthesiologists overall was 1.82. The most common causes of injury were burs, intraoral needles, and dental instruments. Operator error during use was associated with 31% of reported accidents. Significantly more injuries were reported by those who also reported a mucocutaneous contact and by those working more than 25 hours per week. The projected mean annual number of mucocutaneous exposures was 0.88 for dental anesthesiologists overall. CONCLUSIONS: The calculated annual risk to the average dental anesthesiologist of acquiring HBV (if not immune), HCV, and HIV following percutaneous injury was very low for all infections (HBV the most; HIV the least). The risk of contracting HIV following mucocutaneous contact was extremely low.
PMCID: PMC2148890  PMID: 10853567
3.  Stability of parenteral midazolam in an oral formulation. 
Anesthesia Progress  1997;44(1):17-22.
Midazolam is increasingly being used for oral sedation in pediatric dentistry. Unfortunately, it is available only as a parenteral formulation in Canada and the United States. Preparation of the parenteral solution for oral use is not uniform and leads the clinician to question the stability of this drug when used in conjunction with these vehicles. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the chemical stability of parenteral midazolam as an oral formulation to determine its expiry date. This was evaluated using a validated stability-indicating liquid chromatographic method. Midazolam was diluted in orange-flavored syrup to yield concentrations of 0.35, 0.64, and 1.03 mg/ml and then stored at room temperature. Samples were drawn on each of 9 study days (0, 1, 2, 6, 7, 9, 13, 21, and 102) and chromatographed. On each study day, solutions were inspected visually for changes in color, clarity, and appearance of particulate matter. Midazolam concentrations were considered within acceptable limits if they were not less than 90% of the initial concentration. Over the 102-day study period, there was no significant change in concentration in any of the solutions. On day 102, the remaining midazolam was within 7% of the day zero concentration. Therefore, these formulations of midazolam are stable at room temperature for a period of 102 days and would be suitable for clinical use.
PMCID: PMC2148861  PMID: 9481976
4.  The efficacy of nonopioid analgesics for postoperative dental pain: a meta-analysis. 
Anesthesia Progress  1997;44(4):119-126.
The evidence for the efficacy of nonopioid analgesics in the dental pain model was examined by conducting a meta-analysis. Studies were obtained by searching the literature from August 1996 back to 1975 using the terms pain, analgesics, and dentistry. This led to the review of 294 articles, of which 33 studies met the inclusion criteria. Pain scale results were transformed into a common percent scale and converted to N-weighted means with differences in efficacy considered significant using a 95% confidence interval. Collectively, therapeutic doses of the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) commonly used in dentistry were significantly more efficacious than the combination of acetaminophen (600 or 650 mg) with codeine (60 mg). Similarly, specific doses of each of diflunisal, flurbiprofen, ibuprofen, and ketorolac were significantly more efficacious than the commonly used acetaminophen-codeine combination. These quantitative results show that particular NSAIDs may be more efficacious than the acetaminophen-codeine combination for relief of postoperative dental pain.
PMCID: PMC2148941  PMID: 9481955
5.  A pilot study of the efficacy of oral midazolam for sedation in pediatric dental patients. 
Anesthesia Progress  1996;43(1):1-8.
Oral midazolam is being used for conscious sedation in dentistry with little documentation assessing its efficacy. In order to accumulate preliminary data, a randomized, double-blind, controlled, crossover, multi-site pilot study was conducted. The objective was to determine if 0.6 mg/kg of oral midazolam was an equally effective or superior means of achieving conscious sedation in the uncooperative pediatric dental patient, compared with a commonly used agent, 50 mg/kg of oral chloral hydrate. Twenty-three children in three clinics who required dentistry with local anesthetic and were determined to exhibit behavior rated as "negative" or "definitely negative" based on the Frankl scale were assessed. They were evaluated with respect to acceptance of medication; initial level of anxiety at each appointment; level of sedation prior to and acceptance of local anesthetic; movement and crying during the procedure; and overall behavior. The results showed that the group randomly assigned to receive midazolam had a significantly greater initial level of anxiety for that appointment (P < 0.02), a finding that could clearly confound further determination of the efficacy of these drugs. Patients given oral midazolam had an increased level of sedation prior to the administration of local anesthetic compared with those given chloral hydrate (P < 0.015). No statistically significant differences were noted in any of the other parameters. The age of the patient was found to have no correlation with the difference in overall behavior (r = -0.09). These preliminary data warrant further clinical trials.
PMCID: PMC2153450  PMID: 10323118
6.  Ketamine: a review of its pharmacologic properties and use in ambulatory anesthesia. 
Anesthesia Progress  1992;39(3):61-68.
The administration of intravenous agents is the most commonly used method in Canada and the United States to produce sedation or general anesthesia for dental procedures. Ketamine, a dissociative anesthetic, has several advantageous physical, pharmacokinetic, and pharmacodynamic properties. It can be used to induce anesthesia, sedation, analgesia, and amnesia. Ketamine can maintain functional residual capacity, induce bronchodilation, and avoid cardiovascular depression. However, adverse effects have been demonstrated, such as cardiovascular stimulation and unpleasant emergence phenomena, both of which may be modulated by supplementation with benzodiazepines. An increase in the use of ketamine for ambulatory anesthesia has recently been advocated. This review of the literature supports the use of ketamine as an effective agent for selected anesthetic procedures.
PMCID: PMC2148758  PMID: 1308374
7.  Comparison of articaine and prilocaine anesthesia by infiltration in maxillary and mandibular arches. 
Anesthesia Progress  1990;37(5):230-237.
Claims that labial infiltration of the local anesthetic articaine HCl (Ultracaine DS) results in anesthesia of mandibular pulpal as well as maxillary and mandibular lingual soft tissue have never been scientifically substantiated. The aim of this investigation was to evaluate these claims, by comparing articaine to a standard anesthetic, prilocaine HCl (Citanest Forte). To investigate this, a double blind, randomized study was conducted in healthy adult volunteers. In each volunteer, the ability to induce maxillary and mandibular anesthesia following labial infiltration with articaine was compared to prilocaine given contralaterally. Anesthesia was determined by measuring sensation to electrical stimulation at the tooth, labial and lingual soft tissue for each of the 4 non-carious, non-restored, canines. Results showed that mandibular canine pulpal anesthesia had a success rate of 65% for articaine and 50% for prilocaine. Success rates for palatal and lingual anesthesia averaged 5% for each agent. As determined by chi-square analysis, no statistically significant differences were found between articaine and prilocaine for any tissue at any of the 6 sites (P greater than 0.05). A time-course assessment also failed to demonstrate a difference between the two drugs. Therefore these data are not consistent with superior anesthesia efficacy being produced by articaine at any site, including the mandibular pulpal, lingual or maxillary palatal tissues, in the canine teeth studied.
PMCID: PMC2148603  PMID: 2096746

Results 1-7 (7)