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jtitle_s:("anesti Prog")
1.  Efficacy of Low Dose Combination Analgesics: Acetaminophen/Codeine, Aspirin/Butalbital/Caffeine/Codeine, and Placebo in Oral Surgery Pain 
Anesthesia Progress  1986;33(3):143-146.
A double-blind, randomized, single-dose study was performed to compare the efficacy and safety of two commonly prescribed combination analgesic products to placebo. The combinations were acetaminophen 300 mg/codeine 30 mg†, and aspirin 325 mg/butalbital 50 mg/caffeine 40 mg/codeine 30 mg††. One hundred twenty-three (123) oral surgery outpatients took study medications when their pain became moderate to severe and recorded the levels of pain intensity, pain relief, anxiety and relaxation at 30 minutes and hourly for 6 hours after dosing. Remedication was permitted if study medications did not provide adequate pain relief. Time to remedication, and the number of observations with 50% or better relief, were noted as were any side effects. An overall evaluation was obtained from each patient. Results of the study showed that the aspirin/butalbital/caffeine/codeine combination was significantly more effective than placebo for total pain relief, peak relief and global evaluation. While the acetaminophen/codeine combination was numerically superior to placebo, it achieved statistical significance only for global evaluation. The aspirin/butalbital/caffeine/codeine combination was numerically superior to acetaminophen/codeine for every measure of analgesic efficacy but the differences did not achieve statistical significance. Both active treatment groups experienced significantly less total anxiety than did the placebo group. Only 11 patients reported mild, transient adverse effects; the most common was drowsiness. The adverse effects occurred equally among the three treatment groups. In this study, the aspirin/butalbital/caffeine/codeine combination was significantly superior to placebo and somewhat better than acetaminophen/codeine.
PMCID: PMC2175477  PMID: 3461726
2.  Double-comparison of an Acetaminophen-Codeine-Caffeine Combination in Oral Surgery Pain 
Anesthesia Progress  1986;33(3):139-142.
The purpose of this paper was to evaluate the contribution of low dosages of codeine and caffeine when added to acetaminophen. Subjects were dental outpatients undergoing oral surgery involving bone removal. This was a single-dose, parallel group, double-blind assay evaluting 99 subjects. The treatment groups were acetaminophen 1000 mg, acetaminophen 1000 mg + codeine 16 mg + caffeine 30 mg and placebo. The results demonstrated that both active treatments were superior to placebo. Overall, the combination was slightly better than acetaminophen alone. The advantage of the combination appeared more evident in the “severe” baseline pain group.
PMCID: PMC2175476  PMID: 3461725

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