The dental anesthesia sonophoresis device (DASD) is a novel device that is intended to reduce the discomfort associated with intraoral mucosa needle puncture. The DASD produces ultrasonic energy that provides a sonophoretic effect on the oral mucosa, generating microchannels through the lipids between the keratinized cells that make up the stratum corneum. Once the topical anesthetic has permeated the stratum corneum, it quickly diffuses through the soft tissue, desensitizing the nerve endings and reducing the perception of pain caused by needle penetration. The aim of this study is to evaluate whether topical anesthesia applied using the DASD will reduce the discomfort of the needle puncture when compared to the control device. A split-mouth model, using 50 healthy subjects with puncture site at the maxillary canine vestibule, was used for this study. Subjects received a needle puncture on both sides of the mouth. Prior to the needle puncture, there was randomized application of 5% lidocaine with the DASD and a control device. Subjects rated their discomfort after needle punctures utilizing the visual analog scale pain scoring system. There was no statistically significant difference in the pain perception using the DASD versus the control device.
Dental anesthesia sonophoresis device; Sonophoresis
We compared the buccal infiltration of 4% articaine with 1 : 100,000 or 1 : 200,000 epinephrine without a palatal injection for the extraction of impacted maxillary third molars with chronic pericoronitis. This prospective, double-blind, controlled clinical trial involved 30 patients between the ages of 15 and 46 years who desired extraction of a partially impacted upper third molar with pericoronitis. Group 1 (15 patients) received 4% articaine with 1 : 100,000 epinephrine and group 2 (15 patients) received 4% articaine with 1 : 200,000 epinephrine by buccal infiltration. None of the patients in group 1 reported pain, but 3 patients in group 2 reported pain, which indicated a need for a supplementary palatal injection. The palatal injections were all successful in eliminating the pain. Two additional patients in group 2 experienced pain when the suture needle penetrated their palatal mucosa. Based on these results, 4% articaine with 1 : 100,000 epinephrine was found to be more effective for the removal of upper third molars in the presence of pericoronitis than 4% articaine hydrochloride with 1 : 200,000 epinephrine when only a buccal infiltration was used.
Articaine; Epinephrine; Molar extraction
The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between dental anxiety, salivary cortisol, and salivary alpha amylase (sAA) levels. Furthermore, the aim was to look into individual differences such as age, race, gender, any existing pain, or traumatic dental experience and their effect on dental anxiety. This study followed a cross-sectional design and included a convenience sample of 46. Every patient was asked to complete the Dental Anxiety Scale (DAS) and a basic demographic/dental history questionnaire. A saliva sample, utilizing the method of passive drooling, was then collected in 2-mL cryovials. Samples were analyzed for salivary cortisol and sAA levels by Salimetrics. Significant associations were observed between DAS scores and presence of pain and history of traumatic dental experience. However, no significant correlations were observed between DAS, cortisol, and sAA levels. Our study reconfirms that dental anxiety is associated with presence of pain and a history of traumatic dental experience. On the other hand, our study was the first to our knowledge to test the correlation between the DAS and sAA; nevertheless, our results failed to show any significant correlation between dental anxiety, cortisol, and sAA levels.
Stress; Dental anxiety; Salivary cortisol; Salivary alpha amylase; Dental Anxiety Scale
Moderate oral sedation is used in pediatric dentistry for safe delivery of dental care to children. However, there is a paucity of data on the effects of pediatric dental sedations after discharge of children from the dental office. The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the incidence of adverse events occurring with meperidine and hydroxyzine versus midazolam alone 8 and 24 hours after sedation in pediatric dental patients. In this prospective study, a convenience sample of 46 healthy children presenting to a private pediatric dental practice for dental treatment needs was selected. A telephone survey of the parents of children sedated with either meperidine and hydroxyzine or midazolam alone was conducted 8 and 24 hours after the administration of sedation medications. Data analysis included descriptive statistics, frequency and proportion analysis, and Fisher exact test. Forty children were sedated with meperidine and hydroxyzine, and 6 who were sedated with midazolam. In both groups, 50% of the children slept in the car on the way home. Three children in the meperidine and hydroxyzine group vomited in the car. A significantly larger proportion of children in the meperidine and hydroxyzine group experienced prolonged sleep at home (P = .015). More children in the midazolam group exhibited irritability in the first 8 hours (P = .07). There were no statistical differences between the 2 groups with respect to incidence of pain, fever, vomiting, sleeping in the car, snoring, and difficulty in waking up. The lingering effects of orally administered sedation medications can lead to prolonged sleep, irritability, and vomiting in children after they have been discharged from the dental clinic. Most of these events occurred within the first 8 hours, but in some children the effects were seen up to 24 hours later.
Sedation; Children; Adverse events
Emergence delirium and agitation (EAD) associated with sevoflurane general anesthesia are very commonly observed in young children. Such events pose a risk for injury as well as decreased parental satisfaction, especially in the ambulatory and office-based setting. This article reviews the different approaches described in the literature to reduce EAD. A novel approach using a Bispectral Index System (BIS)-guided anesthesia with propofol washout technique is proposed as a viable and effective approach to prevent EAD.
Agitation; Delirium; Propofol; Sevoflurane
Many patients with disabilities need recurrent dental treatment under general anesthesia because of high caries prevalence and the nature of dental treatment. We evaluated the use of a nasal device as a possible substitute for flexible laryngeal mask airway to reduce the risk of unexpected failure accompanying intubation; we succeeded in ventilating the lungs with a cut nasotracheal tube (CNT) with its tip placed in the pharynx. We hypothesized that this technique would be useful during dental treatment under general anesthesia and investigated its usefulness as part of a minimally invasive technique. A prospective study was designed using general anesthesia in 37 dental patients with disabilities such as intellectual impairment, autism, and cerebral palsy. CNT ventilation was compared with mask ventilation with the patient in 3 positions: the neck in flexion, horizontal position, and in extension. The effect of mouth gags was also recorded during CNT ventilation. The percentages of cases with effective ventilation were similar for the 2 techniques in the neck extension and horizontal positions (89.2–97.3%). However, CNT ventilation was significantly more effective than mask ventilation in the neck flexion position (94.6 vs 45.9%; P < .0001). Mouth gags slightly reduced the rate of effective ventilation in the neck flexion position. Most dental treatments involving minor oral surgeries were performed using mouth gags during CNT ventilation. CNT ventilation was shown to be superior to mask ventilation and is useful during dental treatment under general anesthesia.
General anesthesia; Cut nasotracheal tube.
The purpose of this trial was to assess the effect of soft tissue massage on the efficacy of the mental and incisive nerve block (MINB). Thirty-eight volunteers received MINB of 2.2 mL of 2% lidocaine with 1 : 80,000 epinephrine on 2 occasions. At one visit the soft tissue overlying the injection site was massaged for 60 seconds (active treatment). At the other visit the crowns of the mandibular premolar teeth were massaged (control treatment). Order of treatments was randomized. An electronic pulp tester was used to measure pulpal anesthesia in the ipsilateral mandibular first molar, a premolar, and lateral incisor teeth up to 45 minutes following the injection. The efficacy of pulp anesthesia was determined by 2 methods: (a) by quantifying the number of episodes with no response to maximal electronic pulp stimulation after each treatment, and (b) by quantifying the number of volunteers with no response to maximal pulp stimulation (80 reading) on 2 or more consecutive tests, termed anesthetic success. Data were analyzed by McNemar, Mann-Whitney, and paired-samples t tests. Anesthetic success was 52.6% for active and 42.1% for control treatment for lateral incisors, 89.5 and 86.8% respectively for premolars, and 50.0 and 42.1% respectively for first molars (P = .344, 1.0, and .508 respectively). There were no significant differences in the number of episodes of negative response to maximum pulp tester stimulation between active and control massage. A total of 131 episodes were recorded after both active and control massage in lateral incisors (McNemar test, P = 1.0), 329 (active) versus 316 (control) episodes in the premolars (McNemar test, P = .344), and 119 (active) versus 109 (control) episodes respectively for first molars (McNemar test, P = .444). Speed of anesthetic onset and discomfort did not differ between treatments. We concluded that soft tissue massage after MINB does not influence anesthetic efficacy.
Dental pulp anesthesia; Lidocaine; Mental and incisive nerve block
The purpose of this prospective, randomized, single-blind study was to determine the anesthetic efficacy of 127.2 mg lidocaine with 50 μg epinephrine compared to 127.2 mg lidocaine with 50 μg epinephrine plus 0.5 M mannitol in inferior alveolar nerve (IAN) blocks. Forty subjects randomly received 2 IAN blocks consisting of a 3.18 mL formulation of 127.2 mg lidocaine with 50 μg epinephrine and a 5 mL formulation of 127.2 mg lidocaine with 50 μg epinephrine (3.18 mL) plus 0.5 M mannitol (1.82 mL) in 2 separate appointments spaced at least 1 week apart. Mandibular anterior and posterior teeth were blindly electric pulp tested at 4-minute cycles for 60 minutes postinjection. Pain of solution deposition and postoperative pain were also measured. No response from the subject to the maximum output (80 reading) of the pulp tester was used as the criterion for pulpal anesthesia. Total percent pulpal anesthesia was defined as the total of all the times of pulpal anesthesia (80 readings) over the 60 minutes. One hundred percent of the subjects had profound lip numbness with both inferior alveolar nerve blocks. The results demonstrated that a 5 mL formulation of 127.2 mg lidocaine with 50 μg epinephrine plus 0.5 M mannitol was significantly better than the 3.18 mL formulation of 127.2 mg lidocaine with 50 μg epinephrine for all teeth. Solution deposition pain and postoperative pain were not statistically different between the lidocaine/mannitol formulation and the lidocaine formulation without mannitol. We concluded that adding 0.5 M mannitol to a lidocaine with epinephrine formulation was significantly more effective in achieving a greater percentage of total pulpal anesthesia than a lidocaine formulation without mannitol.
Inferior alveolar nerve block; Lidocaine; Mannitol; Epinephrine
The purpose of this study was to test the null hypothesis that children with environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure (also known as passive smoke exposure) do not demonstrate an increased likelihood of adverse respiratory events during or while recovering from general anesthesia administered for treatment of early childhood caries. Parents of children (ages 19 months–12 years) preparing to receive general anesthesia for the purpose of dental restorative procedures were interviewed regarding the child's risk for ETS. Children were observed during and after the procedure by a standardized dentist anesthesiologist and postanesthesia care unit nurse who independently recorded severity of 6 types of adverse respiratory events—coughing, laryngospasm, bronchospasm, breath holding, hypersecretion, and airway obstruction. Data from 99 children were analyzed. The children for whom ETS was reported were significantly older than their ETS-free counterparts (P = .03). If the primary caregiver smoked, there was a significantly higher incidence of smoking by other members of the family (P < .0001) as well as smoking in the house (P < .0005). There were no significant differences between the adverse respiratory outcomes of the ETS (+) and ETS (−) groups. The ETS (+) children did have significantly longer recovery times (P < .0001) despite not having significantly more dental caries (P = .38) or longer procedure times. ETS is a poor indicator of post–general anesthesia respiratory morbidity in children being treated for early childhood caries.
Passive smoke exposure; Dental caries
Pediatric dental patients who cannot receive dental care in the clinic due to uncooperative behavior are often referred to receive dental care under general anesthesia (GA). At Stony Brook Medicine, dental patients requiring treatment with GA receive dental care in our outpatient facility at the Stony Brook School of Dental Medicine (SDM) or in the Stony Brook University Hospital ambulatory setting (SBUH). This study investigates the time and cost for ambulatory American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) Class I pediatric patients receiving full-mouth dental rehabilitation using GA in these 2 locations, along with a descriptive analysis of the patients and dental services provided. In this institutional review board–approved cross-sectional retrospective study, ICD-9 codes for dental caries (521.00) were used to collect patient records between July 2009 and May 2011. Participants were limited to ASA I patients aged 36–60 months. Complete records from 96 patients were reviewed. There were significant differences in cost, total anesthesia time, and recovery room time (P < .001). The average total time (anesthesia end time minus anesthesia start time) to treat a child at SBUH under GA was 222 ± 62.7 minutes, and recovery time (time of discharge minus anesthesia end time) was 157 ± 97.2 minutes; the average total cost was $7,303. At the SDM, the average total time was 175 ± 36.8 minutes, and recovery time was 25 ± 12.7 minutes; the average total cost was $414. After controlling for anesthesia time and procedures, we found that SBUH cost 13.2 times more than SDM. This study provides evidence that ASA I pediatric patients can receive full-mouth dental rehabilitation utilizing GA under the direction of dentist anesthesiologists in an office-based dental setting more quickly and at a lower cost. This is very promising for patients with the least access to care, including patients with special needs and lack of insurance.
Pediatric dentistry; Dental anesthesia; Cost analysis; Operating room; Office-based anesthesia; Health economics
This study aimed to compare continuous intravenous infusion combinations of propofol-remifentanil and propofol-ketamine for deep sedation for surgical extraction of all 4 third molars. In a prospective, randomized, double-blinded controlled study, participants received 1 of 2 sedative combinations for deep sedation for the surgery. Both groups initially received midazolam 0.03 mg/kg for baseline sedation. The control group then received a combination of propofol-remifentanil in a ratio of 10 mg propofol to 5 μg of remifentanil per milliliter, and the experimental group received a combination of propofol-ketamine in a ratio of 10 mg of propofol to 2.5 mg of ketamine per milliliter; both were given at an initial propofol infusion rate of 100 μg/kg/min. Each group received an induction loading bolus of 500 μg/kg of the assigned propofol combination along with the appropriate continuous infusion combination . Measured outcomes included emergence and recovery times, various sedation parameters, hemodynamic and respiratory stability, patient and surgeon satisfaction, postoperative course, and associated drug costs. Thirty-seven participants were enrolled in the study. Both groups demonstrated similar sedation parameters and hemodynamic and respiratory stability; however, the ketamine group had prolonged emergence (13.6 ± 6.6 versus 7.1 ± 3.7 minutes, P = .0009) and recovery (42.9 ± 18.7 versus 24.7 ± 7.6 minutes, P = .0004) times. The prolonged recovery profile of continuously infused propofol-ketamine may limit its effectiveness as an alternative to propofol-remifentanil for deep sedation for third molar extraction and perhaps other short oral surgical procedures, especially in the ambulatory dental setting.
Propofol; Ketamine; Remifentanil; Deep sedation; TIVA
The goal of this study was to investigate the effect of an epinephrine continuous infusion on muscle blood flow in rabbits. Sixteen male Japan White rabbits were randomly allocated to 1 of 2 groups: epinephrine continuous infusion at 0.01 μg/kg/min (Ep-0.01 group, n = 8) and at 0.1 μg/kg/ min (Ep-0.1 group, n = 8). The observed variables were heart rate, femoral artery blood pressure, common carotid artery blood flow (CCBF), masseter muscle blood flow (MBF), and quadriceps muscle blood flow (QBF). In the Ep-0.01 group, CCBF, MBF, and QBF were increased by 14, 22, and 21% from respective control values. In contrast, in the Ep-0.1 group, CCBF, MBF and QBF were decreased by 10, 30, and 27% from respective control values. There were no differences in the percentage change between MBF and QBF during epinephrine continuous infusion. Positive correlations were observed between CCBF and MBF and between CCBF and QBF. In conclusion, skeletal muscle blood flow was increased during the small-dose epinephrine infusion, whereas it was decreased during large-dose infusion.
Epinephrine; Skeletal muscle blood flow; Rabbits
The aim of this present study was to evaluate the irritative potential of 2 topical anesthetics used in intrapocket anesthesia for periodontal scaling/root planing when applied in subcutaneous tissue of rats. Sixty animals were divided into 4 groups: group 1, saline solution (control); group 2, poloxamer gel (thermosetting vehicle); group 3, lidocaine and prilocaine poloxamer thermosetting gel; group 4: EMLA, a lidocaine and prilocaine dermatological cream. Injections of 2% Evans blue were administrated intravenously into the lateral caudal vein. In order to analyze vascular permeability, the tested substances were injected intradermally. The rats were sacrificed 3, 6, and 9 hours after injection of the substances. The dorsal skin was dissected and removed. The vascular permeability was evaluated by the measurement of area of dye extravasation and the dye was subsequently extracted after immersion in formamide. Statistical analyses were made by ANOVA with Bonferroni's post hoc test and Pearson correlation. The 2 methods to analyze the exudative phase of the inflammatory process showed statistically significant difference among the groups and periods of evaluation (P < .05). Both methods had a significant correlation (P < .0001). Under the tested conditions, the anesthetic agents showed mild initial inflammatory response when implanted in subcutaneous connective tissue.
Biocompatibility testing; Anesthetics local; Lidocaine; Prilocaine
Dexmedetomidine (DEX) has a minimal respiratory depressive effect, which is beneficial for dentistry; however, it has the disadvantage of permitting an intraoperative arousal response such that the patient appears to be suddenly no longer sedated, and it has a variable amnestic effect. Since midazolam (MDZ) in an appropriate dose has a profound amnesic effect, we investigated whether additional MDZ compensates for the disadvantage of DEX and enables a better quality of sedation. Forty-three subjects were randomly divided into 4 groups. In group 1, MDZ (0.02 mg/kg) was administered intravenously, followed by a dose of 0.01 mg/kg every 45 minutes. After the first dose of MDZ, preloading with DEX (2 µg/kg/h for 10 minutes) was started and maintained with a dosage of 0.5 µg/kg/h. In group 2, MDZ was infused in the same manner as in group 1, followed by preloading with DEX (1 µg/kg/h for 10 minutes) and maintenance (0.3 µg/kg/h). In group 3, MDZ was infused 0.03 mg/kg, and a dose of 0.01 mg/kg was given every 30 minutes; DEX was administered at the same as in group 2. In group 4, DEX was infused using the same method as in group 1 without MDZ. The sedation levels, amnesia, and patient satisfaction were also investigated. Group 2 had a lower sedation level and a poor evaluation during the first half of the operation. Group 4 did not exhibit an amnesic effect at the beginning of the operation. An evaluation of the degree of patient satisfaction did not reveal any differences among the groups. Optimal sedation was achieved through the combined use of MDZ (0.02 mg/kg with the addition of 0.01 mg/kg every 45 minutes) and DEX (2 µg/kg/h for 10 minutes followed by 0.5 µg/kg/h).
Dexmedetomidine; Midazolam; Sedation; Dental treatment; Implant; Amnesia
We audited the recovery characteristics of 51 patients who had undergone orthognathic maxillofacial surgery at a single center. Patients whose anesthesia had been maintained with intravenous propofol and remifentanil (n = 21) had significantly higher pain scores during the first 4 hours after surgery than those whose anesthesia was maintained with volatile inhalational agents and longer-acting opioids (n = 30) (P = .016). There was a nonsignificant trend towards shorter recovery times in the former group, while there were no differences in early postoperative opioid usage, hemodynamic parameters, or postoperative nausea and vomiting . Given that our data were collected retrospectively and without the ability to control for potential confounders, we interpret the results with caution. Notwithstanding these limitations, we believe this is the first report comparing the effects of different opioid-based anesthetic regimens on early recovery from orthognathic surgery, and we believe this report may be used as the starting point for a controlled study.
Propofol; Remifentanil; Inhalation anesthesia; Orthognathic surgery
The effects of infiltration anesthesia with ropivacaine on the dental pulp are considered to be weak. This may be partly associated with its permeation into the oral tissue. With the objective of investigating the local pharmacokinetics of ropivacaine and lidocaine following infiltration anesthesia, we injected 3H-ropivacaine or 14C-lidocaine to the palatal mucosa in rats, measured distributions of radioactivity in the maxilla, and compared the local pharmacokinetics of these agents. The animals were sacrificed at various times and the maxillas were removed. The palatal mucosa and maxillary nerve were resected, and the bone was divided into 6 portions. We measured radioactivity in each tissue and calculated the level of each local anesthetic (n = 8). Lidocaine diffused to the surrounding tissue immediately after the injection, whereas ropivacaine tended to remain in the palatal mucosa for a longer period. Lidocaine showed a higher affinity for the maxillary bone than ropivacaine. There was a correlation between the distribution level of local anesthetics in the maxillary bone and that in the maxillary nerve. The lower-level effects of infiltration anesthesia with ropivacaine on the dental pulp may be because ropivacaine has a high affinity for soft tissue, and its transfer to bone is slight.
Ropivacaine; Lidocaine; Infiltration anesthesia; Local pharmacokinetics
The purpose of this study is to explore the use of office-based sedation by board-certified pediatric dentists practicing in the United States. Pediatric dentists have traditionally relied upon self-administered sedation techniques to provide office-based sedation. The use of dentist anesthesiologists to provide office-based sedation is an emerging trend. This study examines and compares these two models of office-based sedations. A survey evaluating office-based sedation of diplomates of the American Board of Pediatric Dentistry (ABPD) based on gender, age, years in practice, practice types, regions, and years as a diplomate of the ABPD was completed by 494 active members. The results were summarized using frequencies and percentages. Relationships of dentist age, gender, and number of years in practice with the use of intravenous (IV) sedation was completed using two-way contingency tables and Mantel-Haenszel tests for ordered categorical data. Relationships of office-based sedation use and the type of one's practice were examined using Pearson chi-square tests. Of the 1917 surveys e-mailed, 494 completed the survey for a response rate of 26%. Over 70% of board-certified US pediatric dentists use some form of sedation in their offices. Less than 20% administer IV sedation, 20 to 40% use a dentist anesthesiologist, and 60 to 70% would use dentist anesthesiologists if one were available.
Office-based; Dentist-anesthesiologist; Pediatric dentist
This study describes what training programs in pediatric dentistry and dental anesthesiology are doing to meet future needs for deep sedation/general anesthesia services required for pediatric dentistry. Residency directors from 10 dental anesthesiology training programs in North America and 79 directors from pediatric dentistry training programs in North America were asked to answer an 18-item and 22-item online survey, respectively, through an online survey tool. The response rate for the 10 anesthesiology training program directors was 9 of 10 or 90%. The response rate for the 79 pediatric dentistry training program directors was 46 of 79 or 58%. Thirty-seven percent of pediatric dentistry programs use clinic-based deep sedation/general anesthesia for dental treatment in addition to hospital-based deep sedation/general anesthesia. Eighty-eight percent of those programs use dentist anesthesiologists for administration of deep sedation/general anesthesia in a clinic-based setting. Pediatric dentistry residency directors perceive a future change in the need for deep sedation/general anesthesia services provided by dentist anesthesiologists to pediatric dentists: 64% anticipate an increase in need for dentist anesthesiologist services, while 36% anticipate no change. Dental anesthesiology directors compared to 2, 5, and 10 years ago have seen an increase in the requests for dentist anesthesiologist services by pediatric dentists reported by 56% of respondents (past 2 years), 63% of respondents (past 5 years), and 88% of respondents (past 10 years), respectively. Predicting the future need of dentist anesthesiologists is an uncertain task, but these results show pediatric dentistry directors and dental anesthesiology directors are considering the need, and they recognize a trend of increased need for dentist anesthesiologist services over the past decade.
Demand for services; Dental anesthesiologist; Pediatric dentist
The purpose of this prospective, randomized, single-blind study was to determine the anesthetic efficacy of lidocaine with epinephrine compared to lidocaine with epinephrine plus 0.5 M mannitol in inferior alveolar nerve (IAN) blocks. Forty subjects randomly received an IAN block in 3 separate appointments spaced at least 1 week apart using the following formulations: a 1.8 mL solution of 36 mg lidocaine with 18 µg epinephrine (control solution); a 2.84 mL solution of 36 mg lidocaine with 18 µg epinephrine (1.80 mL) plus 0.5 M mannitol (1.04 mL); and a 5 mL solution of 63.6 mg lidocaine with 32 µg epinephrine (3.18 mL) plus 0.5 M mannitol (1.82 mL). Mandibular teeth were blindly electric pulp tested at 4-minute cycles for 60 minutes postinjection. No response from the subject to the maximum output (80 reading) of the pulp tester was used as the criterion for pulpal anesthesia. Mean percent total pulpal anesthesia was defined as the total of all the times of pulpal anesthesia (80 readings) over the 60 minutes. Pain of solution deposition and postoperative pain were also measured. The results demonstrated that 2.84 mL of lidocaine with epinephrine plus 0.5 M mannitol was significantly better than 1.8 mL of lidocaine with epinephrine for the molars and premolars. The 5 mL of lidocaine with epinephrine plus 0.5 M mannitol was statistically better than 1.8 mL of lidocaine with epinephrine and 2.84 mL of lidocaine with epinephrine plus 0.5 M mannitol for all teeth except the central incisor. Solution deposition pain and postoperative pain were not statistically different among the mannitol formulations and the lidocaine formulation without mannitol. We concluded that adding 0.5 M mannitol to lidocaine with epinephrine formulations significantly improved effectiveness in achieving a greater percentage of total pulpal anesthesia compared with a lidocaine formulation without mannitol for IAN block.
Inferior alveolar nerve block; Lidocaine; Mannitol
Moderate and deep sedation can be provided using several routes of drug administration including oral (PO), inhalation, and parental injection. The safety and efficacy of these various techniques is largely dependent on pharmacokinetic principles. This continuing education article will highlight essential principles of absorption, distribution, and elimination of commonly used sedative agents.
Pharmacokinetics; Drug administration; Sedation
The death of a patient under sedation in New South Wales, Australia, in 2002 has again raised the question of the safety of dental sedation. This study sought answers to 2 questions: Can safe oxygen saturation levels (≥94%) be consistently maintained by a single operator/sedationist? Does the additional use of propofol, in subanesthetic doses, increase the risk of exposure to hypoxemia? Three thousand five hundred cases generated between 1996 and 2006 were randomly examined and divided into 2 subcohorts: 1750 patients were sedated with midazolam and fentanyl, and 1750 patients received propofol, in subanesthetic increments, in addition to midazolam and fentanyl. Initial sedation was established using midazolam and fentanyl in both subcohorts. The second subcohort received propofol during times of noxious stimulation. Patient exposure to 2 or more oxygen desaturations below 94% was uncommon. The variables that were significantly associated with low saturations were age, gender, and weight. Neither the dose of midazolam nor the additional use of propofol was a significant risk factor. ASA classification (I or II) was not a determinant of risk. The data, within the limitations of the study, showed that a single operator/sedationist, supported by a well-trained team of nurses, can consistently maintain safe oxygen saturation levels. The additional use of propofol did not increase exposure to hypoxemia.
Dental sedation; Safe oxygen saturation levels; Propofol