This study aimed to compare continuous intravenous infusion combinations of propofol-remifentanil and propofol-ketamine for deep sedation for surgical extraction of all 4 third molars. In a prospective, randomized, double-blinded controlled study, participants received 1 of 2 sedative combinations for deep sedation for the surgery. Both groups initially received midazolam 0.03 mg/kg for baseline sedation. The control group then received a combination of propofol-remifentanil in a ratio of 10 mg propofol to 5 μg of remifentanil per milliliter, and the experimental group received a combination of propofol-ketamine in a ratio of 10 mg of propofol to 2.5 mg of ketamine per milliliter; both were given at an initial propofol infusion rate of 100 μg/kg/min. Each group received an induction loading bolus of 500 μg/kg of the assigned propofol combination along with the appropriate continuous infusion combination . Measured outcomes included emergence and recovery times, various sedation parameters, hemodynamic and respiratory stability, patient and surgeon satisfaction, postoperative course, and associated drug costs. Thirty-seven participants were enrolled in the study. Both groups demonstrated similar sedation parameters and hemodynamic and respiratory stability; however, the ketamine group had prolonged emergence (13.6 ± 6.6 versus 7.1 ± 3.7 minutes, P = .0009) and recovery (42.9 ± 18.7 versus 24.7 ± 7.6 minutes, P = .0004) times. The prolonged recovery profile of continuously infused propofol-ketamine may limit its effectiveness as an alternative to propofol-remifentanil for deep sedation for third molar extraction and perhaps other short oral surgical procedures, especially in the ambulatory dental setting.
Propofol; Ketamine; Remifentanil; Deep sedation; TIVA
The goal of this study was to investigate the effect of an epinephrine continuous infusion on muscle blood flow in rabbits. Sixteen male Japan White rabbits were randomly allocated to 1 of 2 groups: epinephrine continuous infusion at 0.01 μg/kg/min (Ep-0.01 group, n = 8) and at 0.1 μg/kg/ min (Ep-0.1 group, n = 8). The observed variables were heart rate, femoral artery blood pressure, common carotid artery blood flow (CCBF), masseter muscle blood flow (MBF), and quadriceps muscle blood flow (QBF). In the Ep-0.01 group, CCBF, MBF, and QBF were increased by 14, 22, and 21% from respective control values. In contrast, in the Ep-0.1 group, CCBF, MBF and QBF were decreased by 10, 30, and 27% from respective control values. There were no differences in the percentage change between MBF and QBF during epinephrine continuous infusion. Positive correlations were observed between CCBF and MBF and between CCBF and QBF. In conclusion, skeletal muscle blood flow was increased during the small-dose epinephrine infusion, whereas it was decreased during large-dose infusion.
Epinephrine; Skeletal muscle blood flow; Rabbits
The aim of this present study was to evaluate the irritative potential of 2 topical anesthetics used in intrapocket anesthesia for periodontal scaling/root planing when applied in subcutaneous tissue of rats. Sixty animals were divided into 4 groups: group 1, saline solution (control); group 2, poloxamer gel (thermosetting vehicle); group 3, lidocaine and prilocaine poloxamer thermosetting gel; group 4: EMLA, a lidocaine and prilocaine dermatological cream. Injections of 2% Evans blue were administrated intravenously into the lateral caudal vein. In order to analyze vascular permeability, the tested substances were injected intradermally. The rats were sacrificed 3, 6, and 9 hours after injection of the substances. The dorsal skin was dissected and removed. The vascular permeability was evaluated by the measurement of area of dye extravasation and the dye was subsequently extracted after immersion in formamide. Statistical analyses were made by ANOVA with Bonferroni's post hoc test and Pearson correlation. The 2 methods to analyze the exudative phase of the inflammatory process showed statistically significant difference among the groups and periods of evaluation (P < .05). Both methods had a significant correlation (P < .0001). Under the tested conditions, the anesthetic agents showed mild initial inflammatory response when implanted in subcutaneous connective tissue.
Biocompatibility testing; Anesthetics local; Lidocaine; Prilocaine
Dexmedetomidine (DEX) has a minimal respiratory depressive effect, which is beneficial for dentistry; however, it has the disadvantage of permitting an intraoperative arousal response such that the patient appears to be suddenly no longer sedated, and it has a variable amnestic effect. Since midazolam (MDZ) in an appropriate dose has a profound amnesic effect, we investigated whether additional MDZ compensates for the disadvantage of DEX and enables a better quality of sedation. Forty-three subjects were randomly divided into 4 groups. In group 1, MDZ (0.02 mg/kg) was administered intravenously, followed by a dose of 0.01 mg/kg every 45 minutes. After the first dose of MDZ, preloading with DEX (2 µg/kg/h for 10 minutes) was started and maintained with a dosage of 0.5 µg/kg/h. In group 2, MDZ was infused in the same manner as in group 1, followed by preloading with DEX (1 µg/kg/h for 10 minutes) and maintenance (0.3 µg/kg/h). In group 3, MDZ was infused 0.03 mg/kg, and a dose of 0.01 mg/kg was given every 30 minutes; DEX was administered at the same as in group 2. In group 4, DEX was infused using the same method as in group 1 without MDZ. The sedation levels, amnesia, and patient satisfaction were also investigated. Group 2 had a lower sedation level and a poor evaluation during the first half of the operation. Group 4 did not exhibit an amnesic effect at the beginning of the operation. An evaluation of the degree of patient satisfaction did not reveal any differences among the groups. Optimal sedation was achieved through the combined use of MDZ (0.02 mg/kg with the addition of 0.01 mg/kg every 45 minutes) and DEX (2 µg/kg/h for 10 minutes followed by 0.5 µg/kg/h).
Dexmedetomidine; Midazolam; Sedation; Dental treatment; Implant; Amnesia
We audited the recovery characteristics of 51 patients who had undergone orthognathic maxillofacial surgery at a single center. Patients whose anesthesia had been maintained with intravenous propofol and remifentanil (n = 21) had significantly higher pain scores during the first 4 hours after surgery than those whose anesthesia was maintained with volatile inhalational agents and longer-acting opioids (n = 30) (P = .016). There was a nonsignificant trend towards shorter recovery times in the former group, while there were no differences in early postoperative opioid usage, hemodynamic parameters, or postoperative nausea and vomiting . Given that our data were collected retrospectively and without the ability to control for potential confounders, we interpret the results with caution. Notwithstanding these limitations, we believe this is the first report comparing the effects of different opioid-based anesthetic regimens on early recovery from orthognathic surgery, and we believe this report may be used as the starting point for a controlled study.
Propofol; Remifentanil; Inhalation anesthesia; Orthognathic surgery
The effects of infiltration anesthesia with ropivacaine on the dental pulp are considered to be weak. This may be partly associated with its permeation into the oral tissue. With the objective of investigating the local pharmacokinetics of ropivacaine and lidocaine following infiltration anesthesia, we injected 3H-ropivacaine or 14C-lidocaine to the palatal mucosa in rats, measured distributions of radioactivity in the maxilla, and compared the local pharmacokinetics of these agents. The animals were sacrificed at various times and the maxillas were removed. The palatal mucosa and maxillary nerve were resected, and the bone was divided into 6 portions. We measured radioactivity in each tissue and calculated the level of each local anesthetic (n = 8). Lidocaine diffused to the surrounding tissue immediately after the injection, whereas ropivacaine tended to remain in the palatal mucosa for a longer period. Lidocaine showed a higher affinity for the maxillary bone than ropivacaine. There was a correlation between the distribution level of local anesthetics in the maxillary bone and that in the maxillary nerve. The lower-level effects of infiltration anesthesia with ropivacaine on the dental pulp may be because ropivacaine has a high affinity for soft tissue, and its transfer to bone is slight.
Ropivacaine; Lidocaine; Infiltration anesthesia; Local pharmacokinetics
The purpose of this study is to explore the use of office-based sedation by board-certified pediatric dentists practicing in the United States. Pediatric dentists have traditionally relied upon self-administered sedation techniques to provide office-based sedation. The use of dentist anesthesiologists to provide office-based sedation is an emerging trend. This study examines and compares these two models of office-based sedations. A survey evaluating office-based sedation of diplomates of the American Board of Pediatric Dentistry (ABPD) based on gender, age, years in practice, practice types, regions, and years as a diplomate of the ABPD was completed by 494 active members. The results were summarized using frequencies and percentages. Relationships of dentist age, gender, and number of years in practice with the use of intravenous (IV) sedation was completed using two-way contingency tables and Mantel-Haenszel tests for ordered categorical data. Relationships of office-based sedation use and the type of one's practice were examined using Pearson chi-square tests. Of the 1917 surveys e-mailed, 494 completed the survey for a response rate of 26%. Over 70% of board-certified US pediatric dentists use some form of sedation in their offices. Less than 20% administer IV sedation, 20 to 40% use a dentist anesthesiologist, and 60 to 70% would use dentist anesthesiologists if one were available.
Office-based; Dentist-anesthesiologist; Pediatric dentist
This study describes what training programs in pediatric dentistry and dental anesthesiology are doing to meet future needs for deep sedation/general anesthesia services required for pediatric dentistry. Residency directors from 10 dental anesthesiology training programs in North America and 79 directors from pediatric dentistry training programs in North America were asked to answer an 18-item and 22-item online survey, respectively, through an online survey tool. The response rate for the 10 anesthesiology training program directors was 9 of 10 or 90%. The response rate for the 79 pediatric dentistry training program directors was 46 of 79 or 58%. Thirty-seven percent of pediatric dentistry programs use clinic-based deep sedation/general anesthesia for dental treatment in addition to hospital-based deep sedation/general anesthesia. Eighty-eight percent of those programs use dentist anesthesiologists for administration of deep sedation/general anesthesia in a clinic-based setting. Pediatric dentistry residency directors perceive a future change in the need for deep sedation/general anesthesia services provided by dentist anesthesiologists to pediatric dentists: 64% anticipate an increase in need for dentist anesthesiologist services, while 36% anticipate no change. Dental anesthesiology directors compared to 2, 5, and 10 years ago have seen an increase in the requests for dentist anesthesiologist services by pediatric dentists reported by 56% of respondents (past 2 years), 63% of respondents (past 5 years), and 88% of respondents (past 10 years), respectively. Predicting the future need of dentist anesthesiologists is an uncertain task, but these results show pediatric dentistry directors and dental anesthesiology directors are considering the need, and they recognize a trend of increased need for dentist anesthesiologist services over the past decade.
Demand for services; Dental anesthesiologist; Pediatric dentist
The purpose of this prospective, randomized, single-blind study was to determine the anesthetic efficacy of lidocaine with epinephrine compared to lidocaine with epinephrine plus 0.5 M mannitol in inferior alveolar nerve (IAN) blocks. Forty subjects randomly received an IAN block in 3 separate appointments spaced at least 1 week apart using the following formulations: a 1.8 mL solution of 36 mg lidocaine with 18 µg epinephrine (control solution); a 2.84 mL solution of 36 mg lidocaine with 18 µg epinephrine (1.80 mL) plus 0.5 M mannitol (1.04 mL); and a 5 mL solution of 63.6 mg lidocaine with 32 µg epinephrine (3.18 mL) plus 0.5 M mannitol (1.82 mL). Mandibular teeth were blindly electric pulp tested at 4-minute cycles for 60 minutes postinjection. No response from the subject to the maximum output (80 reading) of the pulp tester was used as the criterion for pulpal anesthesia. Mean percent total pulpal anesthesia was defined as the total of all the times of pulpal anesthesia (80 readings) over the 60 minutes. Pain of solution deposition and postoperative pain were also measured. The results demonstrated that 2.84 mL of lidocaine with epinephrine plus 0.5 M mannitol was significantly better than 1.8 mL of lidocaine with epinephrine for the molars and premolars. The 5 mL of lidocaine with epinephrine plus 0.5 M mannitol was statistically better than 1.8 mL of lidocaine with epinephrine and 2.84 mL of lidocaine with epinephrine plus 0.5 M mannitol for all teeth except the central incisor. Solution deposition pain and postoperative pain were not statistically different among the mannitol formulations and the lidocaine formulation without mannitol. We concluded that adding 0.5 M mannitol to lidocaine with epinephrine formulations significantly improved effectiveness in achieving a greater percentage of total pulpal anesthesia compared with a lidocaine formulation without mannitol for IAN block.
Inferior alveolar nerve block; Lidocaine; Mannitol
Moderate and deep sedation can be provided using several routes of drug administration including oral (PO), inhalation, and parental injection. The safety and efficacy of these various techniques is largely dependent on pharmacokinetic principles. This continuing education article will highlight essential principles of absorption, distribution, and elimination of commonly used sedative agents.
Pharmacokinetics; Drug administration; Sedation
The death of a patient under sedation in New South Wales, Australia, in 2002 has again raised the question of the safety of dental sedation. This study sought answers to 2 questions: Can safe oxygen saturation levels (≥94%) be consistently maintained by a single operator/sedationist? Does the additional use of propofol, in subanesthetic doses, increase the risk of exposure to hypoxemia? Three thousand five hundred cases generated between 1996 and 2006 were randomly examined and divided into 2 subcohorts: 1750 patients were sedated with midazolam and fentanyl, and 1750 patients received propofol, in subanesthetic increments, in addition to midazolam and fentanyl. Initial sedation was established using midazolam and fentanyl in both subcohorts. The second subcohort received propofol during times of noxious stimulation. Patient exposure to 2 or more oxygen desaturations below 94% was uncommon. The variables that were significantly associated with low saturations were age, gender, and weight. Neither the dose of midazolam nor the additional use of propofol was a significant risk factor. ASA classification (I or II) was not a determinant of risk. The data, within the limitations of the study, showed that a single operator/sedationist, supported by a well-trained team of nurses, can consistently maintain safe oxygen saturation levels. The additional use of propofol did not increase exposure to hypoxemia.
Dental sedation; Safe oxygen saturation levels; Propofol
The risk for cardiovascular complications while providing any level of sedation or general anesthesia is greatest when caring for patients already medically compromised. It is reassuring that significant untoward events can generally be prevented by careful preoperative assessment, along with attentive intraoperative monitoring and support. Nevertheless, providers must be prepared to manage untoward events should they arise. This continuing education article will review cardiovascular complications and address their appropriate management.
Medical emergencies; Sedation; Anesthesia; Complications
The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of 2 anesthetic agents on patients' postoperative pain perception after periodontal surgery. For this parallel-group, double-blinded, randomized clinical trial, 36 open flap debridement surgeries were performed on patients who presented with periodontal disease with clinical signs of inflammation after nonsurgical treatment on at least 1 quadrant. Patients were allocated to 1 of the following groups: group 1, 2% lidocaine with 1 ∶ 100,000 epinephrine; group 2, 2% mepivacaine with 1 ∶ 100,000 norepinephrine. Pain intensity was assessed using the visual analog scale during the first 8 hours after surgery. All patients received 750-mg acetaminophen tablets, which they were instructed to take as a rescue medication if necessary. The results demonstrated that postoperative pain intensity was statistically lower in group 2 than in group 1 at the 1-, 2-, and 3-hour periods after surgery, although the pain intensity for all groups could be considered mild. In conclusion, patients in both groups reported similar mild pain after periodontal surgery.
Anesthetic solution; Pain, postoperative; Lidocaine; Mepivacaine
The aim of the present study was to assess injection flow rates of metal syringes, with an emphasis on injection speed and the generation of flow pulsations. A cohort of 64 operators (32 practitioners and 32 students) performed 3 consecutive ex vivo simulated injections (SIs) of 1.8-mL cartridges of anesthetic solution. Two needle diameters were tested (27-gauge and 30-gauge). Each SI was filmed and analyzed using a computer. In most cases, the SI lasted longer than 60 seconds with the 30-gauge needle (75%) but not with the 27-gauge needle (47.9%) (P < .0001). Practitioners and men delivered a full cartridge significantly faster than students and women, respectively (P = .0007 in both cases). All operators generated 1 pulse in at least 1 of the 3 SIs with both types of needles, especially during the first 3 seconds (254/384; 66.1%). Pulses occurred more frequently with practitioners (P = .0176) and with the 27-gauge needle (P = .005). Within its methodological limits, the present study showed how difficult it is to control injection pressure when using a metal syringe, especially at the beginning of the injection. Computerized systems may help overcome this problem.
Dental anesthesia; Injection speed; Injection pressure
The bispectral index (BIS) monitor records electroencephalogram waveforms and provides an objective measure of the hypnotic effect of a sedative drug on brain activity. The aim of this pilot study was to use the BIS monitor to evaluate the depth of procedural sedation in pediatric dental patients and to assess if the BIS monitor readings correlate with a validated pediatric sedation scale, the University of Michigan Sedation Scale (UMSS), in determining the level of sedation in these patients. Thirty-five pediatric dental patients requiring sedation were studied prospectively. A baseline BIS reading was obtained and during the procedure an independent observer recorded the BIS every 5 minutes. The operator, who was blinded to the BIS results, determined the UMSS scale at the same 5-minute interval. The patients were monitored postoperatively for 1 hour. There was a significant but moderate correlation between BIS values and UMSS scores (Spearman's rank correlation r = −0.574, P < .0001). Percentage of agreement and kappa coefficient using all the observations were also calculated. The percentage of agreement was 37.8%, the kappa coefficient was 0.18 (P < .0001), and the weighted kappa coefficient 0.26 (P < .0001). A lack of correlation was noted between the deeper levels of UMSS sedation scores and BIS values. This study demonstrated a significant correlation between BIS values and the UMSS score in pediatric dental patients undergoing mild to moderate sedation. Based on our results, it appears that the BIS monitor may be useful during mild or moderate sedations to establish the level of sedation objectively without the need to stimulate the patient.
Bispectral index monitor; Pediatric sedation; University of Michigan Sedation Scale; Pediatric dentistry
Dyloject is a novel formulation of diclofenac intended for intravenous (IV) administration. This formulation employs the solubilizing agent hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin to permit bolus IV administration. The efficacy and safety of 5 dose levels of IV diclofenac were compared with IV ketorolac and placebo following third molar extraction. This was a single-dose, randomized, double-blind, placebo- and comparator-controlled, parallel-group study. A total of 353 subjects with moderate to severe pain received placebo; ketorolac 30 mg; or IV diclofenac 3.75, 9.4, 18.75, 37.5, or 75 mg (N = 51 for all groups, except N = 47 for ketorolac). The primary endpoint was total pain relief over 6 hours (TOTPAR6) as measured by the visual analog scale (VAS). Secondary endpoints included multiple measures of pain intensity and relief; patient global evaluation; and times to pain relief and rescue medication. Dropouts and adverse effects (AEs) were also monitored. IV diclofenac was superior to placebo as measured by TOTPAR6 (P < .0001 for all doses except 3.75 mg, for which P = .0341). IV diclofenac 3.75 mg was statistically superior to placebo for TOTPAR2 and TOTPAR4. IV diclofenac at both 37.5 and 75 mg was superior to placebo (P < .05) at the earliest (5 minute) assessments of pain intensity and pain relief, but ketorolac was not. The proportion of patients reporting 30% or greater pain relief at 5 minutes was significantly greater after IV diclofenac 37.5 and 75 mg than after ketorolac 30 mg or placebo. Secondary endpoints confirmed the primary findings. Treatment-related AEs were generally mild to moderate and were typical for nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). The more rapid onset of action of IV diclofenac compared with the reference injectable NSAID ketorolac suggests additional clinical benefit. If confirmed in larger series, these findings may improve the safety and efficacy of postoperative NSAID analgesia.
Acute pain; Postoperative pain; Molar extraction; Diclofenac; Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug; Cyclodextrin
The risk for complications while providing any level of sedation or general anesthesia is greatest when caring for patients having significant medical compromise. It is reassuring that significant untoward events can generally be prevented by careful preoperative assessment, along with attentive intraoperative monitoring and support. Nevertheless, we must be prepared to manage untoward events should they arise. This continuing education article will review respiratory considerations and will be followed by a subsequent article addressing cardiovascular considerations.
Medical emergencies; Sedation; Anesthesia; Complications
Nasal intubation is an advantageous approach for dental procedures performed in the hospital, ambulatory surgery center, or dental office, when possible. Although many who provide anesthesia services are familiar and comfortable with nasal intubation techniques, some are reluctant and uncomfortable because of lack of experience or fear of nasopharyngeal bleeding and trauma. It has been observed from experiences in various settings that many approaches may be adapted to the technique of achieving nasal intubation. The technique that is described in this paper suggests a minimally invasive approach that introduces the nasoendotracheal tube through the nasopharyngeal pathway to the oropharynx in an expedient manner while preserving the nasopharyngeal structures, thus lessening nasal bleeding and trauma to soft tissues. The technique uses a common urethral catheter and can be incorporated along with current intubation armamentaria. As with all techniques, some limitations to the approach have been identified and are described in this paper. Cases with limited mouth opening, neck injury, and difficult airways may necessitate alternative methods. However, the short learning curve along with the many benefits of this technique offers the anesthesia professional additional options for excellent patient care.
Nasotracheal tube; Nasopharyngeal; Intubation; Special needs; Urethral catheter; Epistaxis
In order to determine if dentist anesthesiologists (DAs) actively contribute to research in the field of anesthesiology, and thus contribute new knowledge to the field, an extensive literature search was accomplished. DAs make up only 1.5% of dentists who actively contribute to anesthesia research but account for 10% of publications. To determine if the impact of DA research was similar to the American Dental Association (ADA) recognized specialties, h-indices of noted researchers in other specialties were compared to the h-indices of noted DA researchers. The results show that the impact of top DA researchers in dental anesthesiology is similar to the impact of top dental specialty researchers, despite lack of academic departments in dental schools where a large percentage of dental research is completed. Dentist anesthesiologists actively contribute to the research in anesthesiology for dentistry and thus, actively contribute to new knowledge in the field.
H-index; Dental research; Anesthesia, dental
The Bispectral Index System is a useful guide for timing of adequate intubation conditions in office‐based pediatric general anesthesia without neuromuscular blockade. As the number of cases in the office‐based setting increase, many clinicians opt to intubate patients without neuromuscular blockade to avoid airway complications associated with skeletal muscle relaxation. Conventionally, this technique is conducted using the traditional monitoring criteria of vital signs, end‐tidal inhalation agents, as well as anesthesiologist timing and knowledge of the pharmacodynamics of the anesthetic agent to help determine the proper depth of anesthesia for adequate intubating conditions. This study retrospectively assesses the use of the Bispectral Index System (BIS) as a guide for timing of nonparalytic tracheal intubation in pediatric office‐based general anesthesia. Anesthetic records for 168 children, American Society of Anesthesiology physical status I and II, and ranging in age from 18 months to 17 years were retrospectively analyzed. Intubation outcomes were based on 6 preset criteria to reflect the adequacy of the technique. The mean BIS value during the time of intubation was 34.7. There were no complications encountered. A BIS mean value of 34.7 provided adequate intubation conditions without muscle relaxation in office‐based pediatric anesthesia without complications.
Pediatric general anesthesia; Office‐based anesthesia; Intubation without neuro‐muscular blockade; BIS applications; Pediatric dental general anesthesia
Anxiety is a relevant problem in dental practice. The Visual Analogue Scale for Anxiety (VAS‐A), introduced in dentistry in 1988, has not yet been validated in large series. The aim of this study is to check VAS‐A effectiveness in more than 1000 patients submitted to implantology. The VAS‐A and the Dental Anxiety Scale (DAS) were administered preoperatively to 1114 patients (459 males and 655 females, age 54.7 ± 13.1 years). Statistical analysis was conducted with Pearson correlation coefficient, the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve, and McNemar tests. A close correlation between DAS and VAS‐A was found (r = 0.57, P < .0001); the VAS‐A thresholds of dental anxiety and phobia were 5.1 and 7.0 cm, respectively. Despite a significant concordance of tests in 800 cases (72%), disagreement was found in the remaining 314 cases (28%), and low DAS was associated with high VAS‐A (230 cases) or vice versa (84 cases). Our study confirms that VAS‐A is a simple, sensitive, fast, and reliable tool in dental anxiety assessment. The rate of disagreement between VAS‐A and DAS is probably due to different test sensitivities to different components of dental anxiety. VAS‐A can be used effectively in the assessment of dental patients, using the values of 5.1 cm and 7.0 cm as cutoff values for anxiety and phobia, respectively.
Dental anxiety; Dental Anxiety Scale; Visual Analogue Scale; Dentistry; Psychological tests
The purpose of this prospective, randomized, double-blind crossover study was to compare the anesthetic efficacy of 2% mepivacaine with 1 : 20,000 levonordefrin versus 2% lidocaine with 1 : 100,000 epinephrine in maxillary central incisors and first molars. Sixty subjects randomly received, in a double-blind manner, maxillary central incisor and first molar infiltrations of 1.8 mL of 2% mepivacaine with 1 : 20,000 levonordefrin and 1.8 mL of 2% lidocaine with 1 : 100,000 epinephrine at 2 separate appointments spaced at least 1 week apart. The teeth were electric pulp tested in 2-minute cycles for a total of 60 minutes. Anesthetic success (obtaining 2 consecutive 80 readings with the electric pulp tester within 10 minutes) was not significantly different between 2% mepivacaine with 1 : 20,000 levonordefrin and 2% lidocaine with 1 : 100,000 epinephrine for the central incisor and first molar. However, neither anesthetic agent provided an hour of pulpal anesthesia.
Lidocaine; Epinephrine; Mepivacaine; Levonordefrin; Infiltration; Maxillary