The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between the head position and the subsequent ease of nasotracheal intubation by using the lightwand device Trachlight (TL). Patients requiring nasotracheal intubation were subdivided into 3 groups according to the intubated head position (group S: sniffing position; group E: extension position; and group N: neutral position). The number of attempts, the total intubation time, and the failures of the TL intubation were recorded. Intubation difficulty by means of TL was assessed by the ordinal 6-point scale. Of the 300 patients enrolled in the study, TL intubation was successful in 91.3% of them. There was no significant difference in the success rate of the first attempt between the groups. No correlation between the ordinal scale and the head position was observed. The total intubation time and the ratio of “unsuccessful” cases were not significantly different among the 3 groups. TL is an effective alternative for patients who require nasotracheal intubation. Our study did not determine the most favorable head position for nasotracheal intubation with the TL, so we recommend that nasotracheal intubation with TL be started with the head in the neutral position and then changed to a more appropriate position, if necessary, on an individual basis.
Nasotracheal intubation; Lightwand device (Trachlight); Appropriate head position.
Many patients undergoing major surgery have more fear of the general anesthesia than the procedure. This appears to be reversed with oral surgery. Therefore, patients need to be as well informed about this aspect as the surgical operation.
It has been reported that the action of infiltration anesthesia on the jawbone is attenuated significantly by elevation of the periosteal flap with saline irrigation in clinical studies; however, the reason is unclear. Therefore, the lidocaine concentration in mandibular bone after subperiosteal infiltration anesthesia was measured under several surgical conditions. The subjects were 48 rabbits. Infiltration anesthesia by 0.5 mL of 2% lidocaine with 1 : 80,000 epinephrine (adrenaline) was injected into the right mandibular angle and left mandibular body, respectively. Under several surgical conditions (presence or absence of periosteal flap, and presence or absence of saline irrigation), both mandibular bone samples were removed at a fixed time after subperiosteal infiltration anesthesia. The lidocaine concentration in each mandibular bone sample was measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. As a result, elevation of the periosteal flap with saline irrigation significantly decreased the lidocaine concentration in the mandibular bone. It is suggested that the anesthetic in the bone was washed out by saline irrigation. Therefore, supplemental conduction and/or general anesthesia should be utilized for long operations that include elevation of the periosteal flap with saline irrigation.
Periosteal flap; Lidocaine concentration; Jawbone; Infiltration anesthesia.
The purpose of this prospective, randomized, single-blind study was to determine the anesthetic efficacy of lidocaine with epinephrine compared to lidocaine with epinephrine plus 0.5 M mannitol in maxillary lateral incisor infiltrations. Forty-one subjects randomly received 2 maxillary lateral infiltrations consisting of a 1.84-mL solution of 36.8 mg lidocaine with 18.4 μg epinephrine (control solution) and a 2.90-mL solution of 36.8 mg lidocaine with 18.4 μg epinephrine (1.84 mL) plus 0.5 M mannitol (1.06 mL) in 2 separate appointments spaced at least 1 week apart. The maxillary lateral incisor was blindly electric pulp–tested in 2-minute cycles for 60 minutes postinjection. No response from the subject to the maximum output (a reading of 80) of the pulp tester was used as the criterion for pulpal anesthesia. Total percent pulpal anesthesia was defined as the total of all pulpal anesthesia readings (at output of 80) over the 60-minute test period. Pain during solution deposition and postoperative pain were also measured. The results demonstrated that a 2.90-mL solution of 36.8 mg lidocaine with 18.4 μg epinephrine (1.84 mL) plus 0.5 M mannitol (1.06 mL) was not statistically significantly superior to a 1.84-mL solution of 36.8 mg lidocaine with 18.4 μg epinephrine. The pain of solution deposition was lower with the lidocaine/mannitol formulation. Postoperative pain was not statistically significantly different between the lidocaine/mannitol formulation and the lidocaine formulation without mannitol. We concluded that adding 0.5 M mannitol to a lidocaine with epinephrine formulation was not significantly more effective in achieving a greater percentage of total pulpal anesthesia (as defined in this study) than a lidocaine formulation without mannitol in the maxillary lateral incisor.
; Anesthesia; Mannitol; Lidocaine; Infiltration; Maxillary.
The purpose of this study was to document current practices of dentist anesthesiologists who are members of the American Society of Dentist Anesthesiologists regarding the supplemental use of local anesthesia for children undergoing dental rehabilitation under general anesthesia. A survey was administered via e-mail to the membership of the American Society of Dentist Anesthesiologists to document the use of local anesthetic during dental rehabilitations under general anesthesia and the rationale for its use. Seventy-seven (42.1%) of the 183 members responded to this survey. The majority of dentist anesthesiologists prefer use of local anesthetic during general anesthesia for dental rehabilitation almost always or sometimes (90%, 63/70) and 40% (28/70) prefer its use with rare exception. For dentist anesthesiologists who prefer the administration of local anesthesia almost always, they listed the following factors as very important: “stabilization of vital signs/decreased depth of general anesthesia” (92.9%, 26/28) and “improved patient recovery” (82.1%, 23/28). There was a significant association between the type of practice and who determines whether or not local anesthesia is administered during cases. The majority of respondents favor the use of local anesthesia during dental rehabilitation under general anesthesia.
Local anesthesia; Hospital dentistry; General anesthesia; Restorative dentistry
Twenty-four patients were randomly divided into 2 groups. Intraoperatively, one group received a continuous intravenous infusion of dexmedetomidine alone, whereas the other received a continuous dexmedetomidine infusion plus a small dose of midazolam. Early measurements of patient anxiety and psychomotor performance were lower in patients who had received midazolam. This difference was not seen later in the appointment. An amnesic effect was observed in those patients who received midazolam. This effect, however, did not translate into increased patient satisfaction in the group receiving midazolam. Our findings suggest a prolonged discharge time for patients who had been given midazolam that may be clinically significant. Overall, dexmedetomidine showed an unpredictable sedative response and may be less practical than more common alternatives for oral surgery procedures.
Dexmedetomidine; Anesthesiology; Oral surgery; Sedation; Third molars
The purpose of this prospective randomized, single blind study was to determine the anesthetic efficacy of 68.8 mg of lidocaine with 50 μg epinephrine compared to 68.8 mg lidocaine with 50 μg epinephrine plus 0.9 M mannitol in inferior alveolar nerve (IAN) blocks. Forty subjects randomly received 2 IAN blocks consisting of a 1.72-mL formulation of 68.8 mg lidocaine with 50 μg epinephrine and a 5-mL formulation of 68.8 mg lidocaine with 50 μg epinephrine (1.72 mL) plus 0.9 M mannitol (3.28 mL) in 2 separate appointments spaced at least 1 week apart. Mandibular anterior and posterior teeth were blindly electric pulp tested at 4-minute cycles for 60 minutes postinjection. No response from the subject to the maximum output (80 reading) of the pulp tester was used as the criterion for pulpal anesthesia. Total percent pulpal anesthesia was defined as the total of all the times of pulpal anesthesia (80 readings), for each tooth, over the 60 minutes. One hundred percent of the subjects had profound lip numbness with both inferior alveolar nerve blocks. The results demonstrated that the 5 mL-formulation of 68.8 mg lidocaine with 50 μg epinephrine plus 0.9 M mannitol was significantly better than the 1.72-mL formulation of 68.8 mg lidocaine with 50 μg epinephrine for all teeth, except the lateral incisor. We concluded that adding 0.9 M mannitol to a lidocaine with epinephrine formulation was significantly more effective in achieving a greater percentage of total pulpal anesthesia (as defined in this study) than a lidocaine formulation without mannitol. However, the 0.9 M mannitol/lidocaine formulation would not provide 100% pulpal anesthesia for all the mandibular teeth.
Inferior alveolar nerve block; Lidocaine; Mannitol
The purpose of this study was to identify the risk factors associated with low peripheral oxygen saturation (SpO2) and delayed recovery of dental patients with disabilities after intravenous sedation. A total of 1213 patients with disabilities were retrospectively investigated with respect to demographic parameters and sedation conditions. Multivariate logistic analyses were conducted for patients with an SpO2 <90% and a recovery period of >60 minutes to identify the risk factors for poor sedation conditions. A significant odds ratio related to decreased SpO2 was observed for age, sex, midazolam and propofol levels, concurrent use of nitrous oxide, cerebral palsy, Down syndrome, and mental retardation. The most problematic patients were those diagnosed with Down syndrome (odds ratio, 3.003–7.978; 95% confidence interval; P < .001). Decision tree analysis showed an increased risk of decreased SpO2 in males with Down syndrome or after administration of >0.493 mg/kg propofol in combination with midazolam. An increased risk of delayed awakening was seen in patients aged less than 21 years and in males administered >0.032 mg/kg of midazolam. Intravenous sedation for dental patients with disabilities, particularly those with cerebral palsy, Down syndrome, or mental retardation, increases the risk of decreased SpO2. In addition, delayed recovery is expected after midazolam administration.
Dental sedation; Low peripheral oxygen saturation; Delayed recovery
Moderate intravenous (IV) sedation combined with local anesthesia is common for outpatient oral surgery procedures. An ideal sedative agent must be safe and well tolerated by patients and practitioners. This study evaluated fospropofol, a relatively new sedative/hypnotic, in comparison to midazolam, a commonly used benzodiazepine, for IV moderate sedation during oral and maxillofacial surgery. Sixty patients were randomly assigned to either the fospropofol or the midazolam group. Each participant received 1 μg/kg of fentanyl prior to administration of the selected sedative. Those in the fospropofol group received an initial dose of 6.5 mg/kg, with 1.6 mg/kg supplemental doses as needed. Those in the midazolam group received initial doses of 0.05 mg/kg, followed by 0.02 mg/kg supplemental doses. The quality of sedation in each patient was evaluated with regard to (a) onset of sedation, maintenance, and recovery profile; (b) patient and surgeon satisfaction; and (c) hemodynamic stability and adverse effects. The fospropofol group demonstrated shorter physical recovery times than midazolam patients, taking a mean of 11.6 minutes versus 18.4 minutes for physical recovery (P = .007). Cognitive recovery comparison did not find any difference with a mean of 7.5 minutes versus 8.8 minutes between the 2 drug groups (P = .123). The fospropofol group had a higher rate of local anesthetic injection recall (90.5 vs 44.4%, P = .004). Other parameters of recall were comparable. Two adverse effects demonstrated significance, with more patients in the midazolam group experiencing tachycardia (48.2 vs 9.4%, P = .001), and more patients in the fospropofol group experiencing perineal discomfort (40.6 vs 0, P < .001). No significant difference was found in any other measures of sedation safety, maintenance, or satisfaction. Fospropofol, when administered intravenously by a dentist anesthesiologist at the indicated dose in this study, appears to be a safe, well-tolerated alternative to midazolam for intravenous moderate sedation during minor oral surgery procedures.
Fospropofol; Midazolam; Moderate sedation; Outpatient surgery; IV conscious sedation; Benzodiazepine; Propofol
The Parker Flex-Tip tracheal tube (PFTT, Parker Medical, Highlands Ranch, Colo) has a soft, flexible, curved tip with double Murphy eyes. Previous studies have shown that the PFTT reduces the incidence of epistaxis during nasotracheal intubation and the incidence of postintubation nasal pain, as compared to conventional tracheal tubes. Although thermosoftening is a well-known and effective technique for reducing epistaxis during nasotracheal intubation with conventional tracheal tubes, we occasionally encounter difficulties with advancing the tube through the nasal passage when the PFTT is thermosoftened prior to nasotracheal intubation. Consequently, when using the PFTT for nasotracheal intubation, the procedure of thermosoftening should be avoided.
Thermosoftening; Tracheal tubes
Antibiotics play a vital role in dental practice for managing orofacial infections. They are used to manage existing infection and they are also used as prophylaxis for certain medical conditions and surgical procedures. This article will review pharmacological and therapeutic considerations for the proper use of these agents for dental infections.
Antibiotics; Antifungals; Dental infections; Antibiotic prophylaxis
The aim of the study was to demonstrate if 2% lidocaine hydrochloride with 1 : 200,000 epinephrine could provide palatal anesthesia in maxillary tooth removal with a single buccal injection. The subjects included in the clinical study were those requiring extraction of the maxillary third molar of either side. For the purpose of comparison, the sample was randomly divided into 2 main groups: group 1 (study group) included 100 subjects who were to receive a single injection before extraction, and group 2 (control group) included 100 subjects who were to receive a single buccal injection and a single palatal injection before extraction. After 5 minutes the extraction was performed. All patients were observed for Faces Pain Scale during extraction and asked for the same on a 100-mm visual analog scale after extraction. According to visual analog scale and Faces Pain Scale scores, when maxillary third molar removal without palatal injection (study group) and with palatal injection (control group) were compared the difference was not statistically significant (P > .05). Removal of maxillary third molars without palatal injection is possible by depositing 2 mL of 2% lidocaine hydrochloride with 1 : 200,000 epinephrine to the buccal vestibule of the tooth.
Maxillary third molar; Lidocaine hydrochloride with 1 : 200,000 epinephrine single buccal injection; Local anesthesia
The purpose of this study was to measure and compare peak methemoglobin levels and times to peak methemoglobin levels following the use of prilocaine and lidocaine in precooperative children undergoing comprehensive dental rehabilitation under general anesthesia. Ninety children, 3–6 years of age, undergoing dental rehabilitation under general anesthesia were enrolled and randomly assigned into 3 equal groups: group 1, 4% prilocaine plain, 5 mg/kg; group 2, 2% lidocaine with 1 : 100,000 epinephrine, 2.5 mg/kg; and group 3, no local anesthetic. Subjects in groups 1 and 2 were administered local anesthetic prior to restorative dental treatment. Methemoglobin levels (SpMET) were measured and recorded throughout the procedure using a Masimo Radical-7 Pulse Co-Oximeter (Masimo Corporation, Irvine, Calif, RDS-1 with SET software with methemoglobin interface). Data were analyzed using chi-square, one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), and Pearson correlation (significance of P < .05). Group 1 had a significantly higher mean peak SpMET level at 3.55% than groups 2 and 3 at 1.63 and 1.60%, respectively. The mean time to peak SpMET was significantly shorter for group 3 at 29.50 minutes than that of group 1 at 62.73 and group 2 at 57.50 minutes. Prilocaine, at 5 mg/kg in pediatric dental patients, resulted in significantly higher peak SpMET levels than lidocaine and no local anesthetic. In comparison to no local anesthetic, the administration of prilocaine and lidocaine caused peak SpMET levels to occur significantly later in the procedure.
Methemglobin; Methemoglobinemia; Prilocaine; Lidocaine
The dental anesthesia sonophoresis device (DASD) is a novel device that is intended to reduce the discomfort associated with intraoral mucosa needle puncture. The DASD produces ultrasonic energy that provides a sonophoretic effect on the oral mucosa, generating microchannels through the lipids between the keratinized cells that make up the stratum corneum. Once the topical anesthetic has permeated the stratum corneum, it quickly diffuses through the soft tissue, desensitizing the nerve endings and reducing the perception of pain caused by needle penetration. The aim of this study is to evaluate whether topical anesthesia applied using the DASD will reduce the discomfort of the needle puncture when compared to the control device. A split-mouth model, using 50 healthy subjects with puncture site at the maxillary canine vestibule, was used for this study. Subjects received a needle puncture on both sides of the mouth. Prior to the needle puncture, there was randomized application of 5% lidocaine with the DASD and a control device. Subjects rated their discomfort after needle punctures utilizing the visual analog scale pain scoring system. There was no statistically significant difference in the pain perception using the DASD versus the control device.
Dental anesthesia sonophoresis device; Sonophoresis
We compared the buccal infiltration of 4% articaine with 1 : 100,000 or 1 : 200,000 epinephrine without a palatal injection for the extraction of impacted maxillary third molars with chronic pericoronitis. This prospective, double-blind, controlled clinical trial involved 30 patients between the ages of 15 and 46 years who desired extraction of a partially impacted upper third molar with pericoronitis. Group 1 (15 patients) received 4% articaine with 1 : 100,000 epinephrine and group 2 (15 patients) received 4% articaine with 1 : 200,000 epinephrine by buccal infiltration. None of the patients in group 1 reported pain, but 3 patients in group 2 reported pain, which indicated a need for a supplementary palatal injection. The palatal injections were all successful in eliminating the pain. Two additional patients in group 2 experienced pain when the suture needle penetrated their palatal mucosa. Based on these results, 4% articaine with 1 : 100,000 epinephrine was found to be more effective for the removal of upper third molars in the presence of pericoronitis than 4% articaine hydrochloride with 1 : 200,000 epinephrine when only a buccal infiltration was used.
Articaine; Epinephrine; Molar extraction
The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between dental anxiety, salivary cortisol, and salivary alpha amylase (sAA) levels. Furthermore, the aim was to look into individual differences such as age, race, gender, any existing pain, or traumatic dental experience and their effect on dental anxiety. This study followed a cross-sectional design and included a convenience sample of 46. Every patient was asked to complete the Dental Anxiety Scale (DAS) and a basic demographic/dental history questionnaire. A saliva sample, utilizing the method of passive drooling, was then collected in 2-mL cryovials. Samples were analyzed for salivary cortisol and sAA levels by Salimetrics. Significant associations were observed between DAS scores and presence of pain and history of traumatic dental experience. However, no significant correlations were observed between DAS, cortisol, and sAA levels. Our study reconfirms that dental anxiety is associated with presence of pain and a history of traumatic dental experience. On the other hand, our study was the first to our knowledge to test the correlation between the DAS and sAA; nevertheless, our results failed to show any significant correlation between dental anxiety, cortisol, and sAA levels.
Stress; Dental anxiety; Salivary cortisol; Salivary alpha amylase; Dental Anxiety Scale
Moderate oral sedation is used in pediatric dentistry for safe delivery of dental care to children. However, there is a paucity of data on the effects of pediatric dental sedations after discharge of children from the dental office. The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the incidence of adverse events occurring with meperidine and hydroxyzine versus midazolam alone 8 and 24 hours after sedation in pediatric dental patients. In this prospective study, a convenience sample of 46 healthy children presenting to a private pediatric dental practice for dental treatment needs was selected. A telephone survey of the parents of children sedated with either meperidine and hydroxyzine or midazolam alone was conducted 8 and 24 hours after the administration of sedation medications. Data analysis included descriptive statistics, frequency and proportion analysis, and Fisher exact test. Forty children were sedated with meperidine and hydroxyzine, and 6 who were sedated with midazolam. In both groups, 50% of the children slept in the car on the way home. Three children in the meperidine and hydroxyzine group vomited in the car. A significantly larger proportion of children in the meperidine and hydroxyzine group experienced prolonged sleep at home (P = .015). More children in the midazolam group exhibited irritability in the first 8 hours (P = .07). There were no statistical differences between the 2 groups with respect to incidence of pain, fever, vomiting, sleeping in the car, snoring, and difficulty in waking up. The lingering effects of orally administered sedation medications can lead to prolonged sleep, irritability, and vomiting in children after they have been discharged from the dental clinic. Most of these events occurred within the first 8 hours, but in some children the effects were seen up to 24 hours later.
Sedation; Children; Adverse events
Emergence delirium and agitation (EAD) associated with sevoflurane general anesthesia are very commonly observed in young children. Such events pose a risk for injury as well as decreased parental satisfaction, especially in the ambulatory and office-based setting. This article reviews the different approaches described in the literature to reduce EAD. A novel approach using a Bispectral Index System (BIS)-guided anesthesia with propofol washout technique is proposed as a viable and effective approach to prevent EAD.
Agitation; Delirium; Propofol; Sevoflurane
Many patients with disabilities need recurrent dental treatment under general anesthesia because of high caries prevalence and the nature of dental treatment. We evaluated the use of a nasal device as a possible substitute for flexible laryngeal mask airway to reduce the risk of unexpected failure accompanying intubation; we succeeded in ventilating the lungs with a cut nasotracheal tube (CNT) with its tip placed in the pharynx. We hypothesized that this technique would be useful during dental treatment under general anesthesia and investigated its usefulness as part of a minimally invasive technique. A prospective study was designed using general anesthesia in 37 dental patients with disabilities such as intellectual impairment, autism, and cerebral palsy. CNT ventilation was compared with mask ventilation with the patient in 3 positions: the neck in flexion, horizontal position, and in extension. The effect of mouth gags was also recorded during CNT ventilation. The percentages of cases with effective ventilation were similar for the 2 techniques in the neck extension and horizontal positions (89.2–97.3%). However, CNT ventilation was significantly more effective than mask ventilation in the neck flexion position (94.6 vs 45.9%; P < .0001). Mouth gags slightly reduced the rate of effective ventilation in the neck flexion position. Most dental treatments involving minor oral surgeries were performed using mouth gags during CNT ventilation. CNT ventilation was shown to be superior to mask ventilation and is useful during dental treatment under general anesthesia.
General anesthesia; Cut nasotracheal tube.
The purpose of this trial was to assess the effect of soft tissue massage on the efficacy of the mental and incisive nerve block (MINB). Thirty-eight volunteers received MINB of 2.2 mL of 2% lidocaine with 1 : 80,000 epinephrine on 2 occasions. At one visit the soft tissue overlying the injection site was massaged for 60 seconds (active treatment). At the other visit the crowns of the mandibular premolar teeth were massaged (control treatment). Order of treatments was randomized. An electronic pulp tester was used to measure pulpal anesthesia in the ipsilateral mandibular first molar, a premolar, and lateral incisor teeth up to 45 minutes following the injection. The efficacy of pulp anesthesia was determined by 2 methods: (a) by quantifying the number of episodes with no response to maximal electronic pulp stimulation after each treatment, and (b) by quantifying the number of volunteers with no response to maximal pulp stimulation (80 reading) on 2 or more consecutive tests, termed anesthetic success. Data were analyzed by McNemar, Mann-Whitney, and paired-samples t tests. Anesthetic success was 52.6% for active and 42.1% for control treatment for lateral incisors, 89.5 and 86.8% respectively for premolars, and 50.0 and 42.1% respectively for first molars (P = .344, 1.0, and .508 respectively). There were no significant differences in the number of episodes of negative response to maximum pulp tester stimulation between active and control massage. A total of 131 episodes were recorded after both active and control massage in lateral incisors (McNemar test, P = 1.0), 329 (active) versus 316 (control) episodes in the premolars (McNemar test, P = .344), and 119 (active) versus 109 (control) episodes respectively for first molars (McNemar test, P = .444). Speed of anesthetic onset and discomfort did not differ between treatments. We concluded that soft tissue massage after MINB does not influence anesthetic efficacy.
Dental pulp anesthesia; Lidocaine; Mental and incisive nerve block
The purpose of this prospective, randomized, single-blind study was to determine the anesthetic efficacy of 127.2 mg lidocaine with 50 μg epinephrine compared to 127.2 mg lidocaine with 50 μg epinephrine plus 0.5 M mannitol in inferior alveolar nerve (IAN) blocks. Forty subjects randomly received 2 IAN blocks consisting of a 3.18 mL formulation of 127.2 mg lidocaine with 50 μg epinephrine and a 5 mL formulation of 127.2 mg lidocaine with 50 μg epinephrine (3.18 mL) plus 0.5 M mannitol (1.82 mL) in 2 separate appointments spaced at least 1 week apart. Mandibular anterior and posterior teeth were blindly electric pulp tested at 4-minute cycles for 60 minutes postinjection. Pain of solution deposition and postoperative pain were also measured. No response from the subject to the maximum output (80 reading) of the pulp tester was used as the criterion for pulpal anesthesia. Total percent pulpal anesthesia was defined as the total of all the times of pulpal anesthesia (80 readings) over the 60 minutes. One hundred percent of the subjects had profound lip numbness with both inferior alveolar nerve blocks. The results demonstrated that a 5 mL formulation of 127.2 mg lidocaine with 50 μg epinephrine plus 0.5 M mannitol was significantly better than the 3.18 mL formulation of 127.2 mg lidocaine with 50 μg epinephrine for all teeth. Solution deposition pain and postoperative pain were not statistically different between the lidocaine/mannitol formulation and the lidocaine formulation without mannitol. We concluded that adding 0.5 M mannitol to a lidocaine with epinephrine formulation was significantly more effective in achieving a greater percentage of total pulpal anesthesia than a lidocaine formulation without mannitol.
Inferior alveolar nerve block; Lidocaine; Mannitol; Epinephrine
The purpose of this study was to test the null hypothesis that children with environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure (also known as passive smoke exposure) do not demonstrate an increased likelihood of adverse respiratory events during or while recovering from general anesthesia administered for treatment of early childhood caries. Parents of children (ages 19 months–12 years) preparing to receive general anesthesia for the purpose of dental restorative procedures were interviewed regarding the child's risk for ETS. Children were observed during and after the procedure by a standardized dentist anesthesiologist and postanesthesia care unit nurse who independently recorded severity of 6 types of adverse respiratory events—coughing, laryngospasm, bronchospasm, breath holding, hypersecretion, and airway obstruction. Data from 99 children were analyzed. The children for whom ETS was reported were significantly older than their ETS-free counterparts (P = .03). If the primary caregiver smoked, there was a significantly higher incidence of smoking by other members of the family (P < .0001) as well as smoking in the house (P < .0005). There were no significant differences between the adverse respiratory outcomes of the ETS (+) and ETS (−) groups. The ETS (+) children did have significantly longer recovery times (P < .0001) despite not having significantly more dental caries (P = .38) or longer procedure times. ETS is a poor indicator of post–general anesthesia respiratory morbidity in children being treated for early childhood caries.
Passive smoke exposure; Dental caries
Pediatric dental patients who cannot receive dental care in the clinic due to uncooperative behavior are often referred to receive dental care under general anesthesia (GA). At Stony Brook Medicine, dental patients requiring treatment with GA receive dental care in our outpatient facility at the Stony Brook School of Dental Medicine (SDM) or in the Stony Brook University Hospital ambulatory setting (SBUH). This study investigates the time and cost for ambulatory American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) Class I pediatric patients receiving full-mouth dental rehabilitation using GA in these 2 locations, along with a descriptive analysis of the patients and dental services provided. In this institutional review board–approved cross-sectional retrospective study, ICD-9 codes for dental caries (521.00) were used to collect patient records between July 2009 and May 2011. Participants were limited to ASA I patients aged 36–60 months. Complete records from 96 patients were reviewed. There were significant differences in cost, total anesthesia time, and recovery room time (P < .001). The average total time (anesthesia end time minus anesthesia start time) to treat a child at SBUH under GA was 222 ± 62.7 minutes, and recovery time (time of discharge minus anesthesia end time) was 157 ± 97.2 minutes; the average total cost was $7,303. At the SDM, the average total time was 175 ± 36.8 minutes, and recovery time was 25 ± 12.7 minutes; the average total cost was $414. After controlling for anesthesia time and procedures, we found that SBUH cost 13.2 times more than SDM. This study provides evidence that ASA I pediatric patients can receive full-mouth dental rehabilitation utilizing GA under the direction of dentist anesthesiologists in an office-based dental setting more quickly and at a lower cost. This is very promising for patients with the least access to care, including patients with special needs and lack of insurance.
Pediatric dentistry; Dental anesthesia; Cost analysis; Operating room; Office-based anesthesia; Health economics