Swarna – Vanga, an Ayurvedic preparation, is used in the treatment mainly of Pramehas (genitor urinary and metabolic disorders), Sveta Pradara (Leucorrhoea), Kasa – Swasa (Respiratory disorders), etc. The drug contains tin and sulphur as major components along with traces of mercury, iron and aluminum. According to modern point of view certain metals have been claimed toxic to both human and animal. Since Svarna – Vanga contains these metals, it is essential to screen out its toxic effect, if any, although it is claimed in Ayurveda that when a metal is processed as prescribed, it become non – toxic or the least toxic. Considering the above facts, an animal experiment was carried out for short duration (14 days) to screen the toxic effects of Svarna – Vanga (SV) in increasing doses of the drug starting from the maximum therapeutic dose (12.5 mg / 100 gm b.wt / day). The drug was found to have no toxic effects in tissues of the animal at doses of 12.5 mg and 25 mg / 100 gm b.wt. / day. Fine fatty vacuolization in liver and focal superficial mucosal degeneration and necrosis of small intestine confined to one animal each at dose of 50 mg / 100gm b.wt. and 100 mg/ 100 gm. b.wt. / day were observed. Our study indicates that the drug has no toxic effect on tissues at therapeutic dose.
The behaviour of so called traditional patients has been the topic of anthropological research for the last thirty years. Myths have been and constructed and rejected, one being that patients with chronic and less incapacitating illness see rather traditional healers than allopathic medical treatment. The case study with which we are concerned in this paper is the illness of a young girl who is the age in which she is expected to accept a marriage contract. Since she is obviously not willing to do she adopts an illness behaviour which enables her to postpone all role expectations of her age group. She performs a behaviour which is socially accepted and guarantees all the support from her family which she needs and requires. The paper investigates the causes, reason and development of her spirit possession and relates it to the cultural grammar of the patient's group of reference. The data of this case study were obtained at a Muslim shrine in Gujarat, India.
The effect of acetone extracts of Foeniculum vulgare Mill., seeds at different dose levels (50/ug, 150/ug and 250/ug/100gm body wt.) on mammary glands and oviducts of castrated rats was investigated. The extract was found to increase nucleic acids and protein concentration as well as the organ weights in both the tissues. The medium and high doses were very effective. The results confirm the estrogenic nature of the seed extract.
A detailed review on Guggulu, covering its botanical, Chemical Pharmacological and Ayurvedic aspects, is presented here.
Nimbidin, the crude bitter compound from neem has been investigated for its gastric anti secretory activity in rats and cats. It exhibited significant anti – secretory activity in pylorus ligated rats and cats. In lumen – perfused rats it suppressed the basal as well as histamine and carbachol stimulated gastric acid output at 40 mg/kg (i.v). However it had no effect on ASA – induced back – diffusion of H+ ions. This anti secretory activity of nimbidin was found to be similar to that of H2 – receptor antagonists, which are reported to suppress the histamine induced gastric secretion in animals and man.
Azadirachta indica; Nimbidin; Pylorus – ligated rats; Stomach – lumen perfused rats; Pylorus – ligated cats; H2 – receptor blockade
This article is based on author's reflections born out of a live programme to strengthen the Primary health care in a tribal area (Karjat) in Maharashtra State.
Volatile fatty acids are produced during the digestion of dietary fibre and contribute to the body's energy supply. Their detection in humans has proven that the colon is intimately connected with nutrition, which suggests that they can be associated with the Ciratposana of Prans.
A preliminary investigations was carried out to study the antibacterial activity of the water soluble extracts of five and ten years old barks of Eugenia Jambolana Lam. (fam. Myrtaceae) on dysentery and diarrhoea forming micro organisms. It was observed that the barks of young plants have a better inhibitory effect on micro – organisms like Salmonella viballerup, Shigella dysenteriae 10, Shigella boydii 5, Sgigella dysenteriae 2.
In this paper the author attempts to trace the ancient man and his conceptualism of drugs and cosmology by interpreting various classical texts related to that field.
Attempts have been made to correlate the processes involved in Raja – Yoga with the portions of nervous system, as described by Swami Vivekananda. Further scientific research in this field is invited.
Kesar has been an important ingredient of the recipes of our ancient physicians in the field of Indian systems of medicine and its cultivation is a monopoly of Jammu and Kashmir. This paper presents in detail the historical review, botanical description, vernacular names, distribution in India and world, cultivation, collection, preservation and storage, adulterants, purity tests, chemical composition, action and uses, folk – lore claims and markets with special reference to its medicinal utility.
Ayurveda has a long history of being enriched by different types of contributions from different stages befitting their geographical, climatic and cultural situations, and based on their thinking and living patterns, especially the practical aspects. Kerala has its own great role in this prcess of enrichment. It is unique and invaluable. The historical aspects the literary contributions by Kerala to the Ayurvedic system, the traditional and special treatments of Kerala etc., are discussed in this paper.
In this paper the author discusses how the secret of life was taken care of by our ancients. The contribution of modern research scholars in this fields are also summed up here.
Vanga bhasma, a popular Ayurvedic Medicine is prepared from Tin metal. This drug is claimed to have ‘Sukrala’ (Semenaugmentator), ‘vrsya’ (good for testis) properties in the literature and is widely in vogue for genito – urinary disorders in Ayurvedic practice. An experimental evaluation of the claim has been undertaken and the results have been presented in this paper. The drug in reference is found to have testicular regenerative potential on cadmium induced testicular degeneration in albino tats, when administered orally. This effect on ‘Sukravaha Srotomula’ (testis) appears to corroborate “Sukrala” and “Vrsya” properties attributed to the drug in Ayuredic literature.
Vanga bhasma; Sukrala; Vrsyam Sukravaha Srotas; Cadmium induced partial testicular degeneration; zinc sulphate
“777 oil” is a coded drug of the Siddha system of medicine prescribed in Psoriasis. Sunlight plays an important role in the preparation of the drug as well as in the treatment of the cases.
In vitro studies carried out with the drug exposed to sunlight for four hours showed an increase in acid and iodine values. The visible spectrum was changed in shape at the wave length 480 to 580 mm. The thin layer chromtographs employing different solvent systems did not show any difference. The drug resolved in to two to three spots in these solvents and did not indicate any response of the drug to insulation.
35 patients of Maturity onset diabetes mellitus having the complaints of polyurea polydypsia and polyphagia etc. have been selected. For the diagnosis of diabetes mellitus the fasting and 1st hour and 2nd hour post parandial blood sugar were estimated. Patients were classified into two groups. 20 patients were treated with powder of C. Tamal leaves in the dose of 2 TSF T. D. S. and 15 patients were treated with Inula racemosa in the dose of 1 TSF T. D. S. for the period of three months. The response was estimated on the parameter of Joslin's Clinica in C. Tamal group 50% cases were in good control. 33.33% were in fair control and 16.67% cases were in poor control.
Inula racemosa treated group 100% cases were in good control. Thus it can be inferred that both of the drugs are useful in the treatment of Diabetes mellitus of Maturity onset. However, the response of Inula racemosa is better as compared to C. Tamala.
Ayurveda, the ancient Indian “Science of Life” and age – old traditional medical science of India, has a recorded history of more than 2000 years. During this period certain changes and developments occurred in the conceptual framework of this science as well as in the political, socio – economic, and religion contexts in which Ayurvedic science must be seen. In his historical process one observes a continuous systematization, diversification, and specialization of the science.
Yet, among the central concerns of Ayurveda has always been promotion and maintenance of health and prevention of disease. Especially on the first topic one finds beautiful expositions in the early samhitas of Ayurvedic writing. But there is hardly any further elaboration on this subject in the later literature and until today. “It's all been said in Caraka”.
As the importance of health promotion and prevention medicine for comprehensive health care is now recognised, what is required today are not flat statements such as “Ayurveda is prevention in itself” but a critical assessment of the respective issues of Ayurvedic or any other old tradtion with a view to their relevance today, with a clear sigth of their limitations, and without loosing out of sight the ways and means required for their implementations.
Here, an attempt is made to study the clinical aspect of Kalanchoe spathulata Dc. It has been observed that would heals rapidly leaving no scar. The study clearly validates the ancient concept of Ayurveda, that without taking the help of surgery, there are several medicinal plants which may cure diseases very well.
‘HAB-E-BUKHAR’ – a compound drug formulation in Unani System of medicine has been analysed. The microscopic method of identification of few of its ingredients (Sath-e-gulu, Thabasheer); Quantitative analysis of Quinine sulphate, other physio-chemical contents and the T.L.C. of the drug have also been reported here.
An experiment to study the effect of inter and intra row spacing on the yielding performance of periwinkle species was conducted at Nagarjun Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Research Scheme, P. K. V., Akola (M. S.) during 1980 – 81 to 82 – 83. Three species viz., Catharanthus roseus, Catharanthus alba and Catharanthus oscillatus did not differ significantly in respect of dried foliage and root yields. Inter and intra row spacing of 30 and 20 cm. respectively produced the highest foliage and root yields.
Cardiospermum halicacabum used in Ayurveda has been investigated for various pharmacological actions in a number of experimental animal models. On central nervous system the decoction of the plant showed sedative effect. It exhibited significant analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities. The drug also showed vasadepressant activity which is considered to be transcient in nature. In vitro studies also revealed its antispasmodic effect. These findigns are in support of its use in Ayurvedic medicine.
This article deals with the history, names and uses of the garden cress in Indian Medicine.
Several arguments have been forwarded for the stagnation of Ayurveda, and most of these focus on the discrimination that Ayurveda faces under Mughal and then under British rule. Even for Ancient India, the halcyon portrait of Ayurveda synergetically related with religion and politics during the period, as has been portrayed in many books of history and in countless lores, is false. This paper then deals with the interaction between the State and Ayurvedic medicine in ancient India.
The Ayurvedic materia medica is based upto 500 to 600 plant drugs. The number of these drugs are dwindling rapidly due to several natural and man made factors with the result the physicians are uanble to get the required drug or the required quantity of the drug. This ultimately results in the gradual death of the entire system. In order to overcome this alarming problem and to provide a permanent solution, various aspects like new or alternate sources for the drugs, exploitation of crude drug market sources, ethnobotanical data and cultivation and germ plasm are discussed in detail.
In the first part the authors have discussed the botanical identity of the drug ‘Thamalaki’ as it is used in Kerala. The second part deals with the identity of a few more drugs namely, ‘Puskaramula, Punarnava, Suryavartha and Nirgundi’.