Bailospermum raziana Keshav. Et. Yog. Is a newly identified species belonging to the family Euphorbiaceae. It is a leafy shout monoecious, erect herb. The plant differentiates from the other species i.e Baliospermum montanum (Wild) Muell-Arg by the presence of extra floral nectaries found on the abaxial side all along the margins of the leaf lamina and long peduncled racemes. Histologically the root is differentiated in to periderm and stele. Groups of cortical fibres are randomly distributed among the inner layers of phelloderm. Tanniniferous content and crystals of calcium oxalate are found in the periderm. Simple starch grains are located in the stellar region. Vessel element occurring one at each end. Perforation plates are two in each element occurring one at each end. Phytochemical studies subjected the possibilities of the alkaloids, carbohydrates, flavonoids, triterpenes, tannins etc. The aqueous extract has shown mild purgative action (600 mg /kg body wt) in the animal models. Morphologically there are many similarities between B. raziana and B. montanum an important Ayurvedic herbal drug. In commerce both the drugs are being sold under the common name “Danti’. In the present investigation diagnostic characters of both species have been discussed briefly.
Immune system plays an important role in pathogenesis of diabetes (DM). Besides hypoglycaemics, rasayanas are indicated in the management of DM. In several studies the immunomodulatroy potentials of rasayanas have been proved. A clinical trial of three rasayana drugs, Asparagus recemosus (AR). Bacopa monnieri (BM) and Centella asiatica (CA) was carried out in diabetics. In this study, diabetics were found to have significantly lower levels of serum IgG, increased serum IgA and comparable levels of IgM. All drugs reverted levels of serum IgG levels in diabetics, however, statistical significance was attained only with AR. Further the increased IgA levels were brought back towards normal. These drugs also increased serum protein levels.
Diabetes; immunomodulation; rasayana; Asparagus recemosus; Bacopa monnieri; Centella asiatica; immunoglobulins
The present study was carried out in a sample of 30 numbers of female infertility cases with the use of phalagritam in the from of intra uterine insuffulation. After the treatment of three consecutive cycles an overall encouraging result was observed which will be represented in the full paper.
Ubiquinone or Co Q10 is essentially a vitamin like substance and is a cofactor of an enzyme. It is an integral part of the memberanes of mitocondria where it is involved in the energy production. It is a nutrient necessary for the function of every cell of the body especially vital organs of the body like heart, liver, brain etc. Studies have shown that coenzyme Q10 alters the natural history of cardiovascular illness and has the potential of prevention of cardiovascular diseases through the inhibition of LDL cholesterol oxidation by maintenance of optimal cellular and mitochondrial function throughout the ravages of time internal and external stress.
Toxicity studies of crude aqueous ethanolic extract of the roots of Hemidesmus indicus var. pubescens R. Br. Was carried out in two growth phases. The drug was administered orally and intra-peritonealy. It was found to possess nonspecific changes in liver. The results are discussed in detail.
Tylophora indica (Burm.f) Merr. (ASCLEPIDACEAE) is an important Indian medicinal plant. It is called “ASTHMA KODI” OR “NANJARUPPAN” IN Tamil in the Siddha system of medicine. Tamil medical literature reveal that it is an ideal plant medicine for respiratory problems and is also a cardiac tonic. For medicinal purposes it is collected only from the wild. It has not yet been brought under cultivation. Its taxonomy, morphology, ecology and medicinal uses were studied. Since, tissue-culture is a costly technology and requiring a high-tech laboratory a low-cost mass- multiplication technique has been invented through water-culture experiments, in order to make its saplings available to the interested herbal farmers in a larger scale. The results are reported in this paper, which will be of immense help and use to the herbal farmers.
Phytochemical studies of leaf of the plant Lagerstroemia Parviflora Roxb (Lythraceae) reveals the presence of phytosterols, tannins, alkaloids, glycosides and absence of saponin, flavanoid and triterpenoids have been reported in this plant for the first time.
The macroscopic and microscopic characters, physical constant values, extractive values, ash values and the behaviour of powder drug on treatment with different chemical regents, microchemical and histochemical analyses were conducted to characterize some pharmacognostical parameters of Curcuma amada linn. (Zingiberaceae).
Curcuma amada; Zingiberaceae; Pharmacognostic study Phytochemistry
The plant Coldenia procumbens Linn. is used commonly in Indian system of medicine for various ailments. The present paper deals with detailed pharmacognosy of the leaf of coldenia procumbens Linn. and includes its Macro/Micro morphological (vein islet, vein termination numbers and stomatal index) anatomical characters, Physico chemical standards such as ash values, extractive values, crude fibre content and fluorescence characters of various extracts and leaf powder after treatment with different chemical reagents under UV light. Prelimanary phytochemical tests on various extracts of the leaf have also been carried out.
Aqueous and ethanol extracts of cassia didymobotraya were investigated for purgative and anit-inflammatory activities in albino mice and rats, respectively at a dose of 100 mg/kg body weight. Anti-inflammatory activity was screened by 1% carageenan induced paw edema method and purgative activity was screened by the method described by Akah etal, Both the extracts exhibited significant purgative and anti-inflammatory activities, which are comparable to standard drugs, Senna (20mg/kg) and indomethacin (20mg/kg). Ethanol extract showed higher purgative and anti-inflammatory than aqueous extract. The percentage of protection of aqueous, ethanol extracts and indomethacin were found to be 35.29,37.25 and 43.13.
An intensive survey was carried out in Wynadu, Palghat and malappuram districts of Kerala to identify plants used by the tribals were identified in the survey. A brief account of 15 plant species used as single plant remedy for alleviating liver ailments by the tribals is given in this report. This ethnomedical information can lead the development of useful drugs against liver diseases.
Sida acuta Burm.f. (Fam. Malvaceae) is used in Siddha system of medicine and in folk medical practice in Tamil Nadu under the names Arivalmooku pachilai or vattatiruppi. The leaves of this plant are used for their diuretic, demulcent, anthelmintic and wound healing properties. The present paper discusses the anatomy of petiole leaf and stem, microscopic constants, physico-chemical standards and fluorescence analysis of the drug.
Siddha system of medicine is one of the oldest medical system of India. Existed separately in early times. Although this system declined in later years., in the wake of changing mode of life modern medicine, it continued to sustain its influence on the masses Parpam is a group of siddha drugs, which is used in diarrhea, colic, pepticulcer, asthma, chronic cough tuberculosis, etc. During the present study Sangu Parpam and silasathu Parpam were selected and evaluated for its antiulcer effect in albino rats, which could not be attempted by researchers earlier.
The alcoholic extract of Achyranthes bidentata (AAB) has been studied for analgesic, anticonvulsant and CNS depressant activities in animal models. Analgesic activity was studied using acetic acid-induced writing test for assessing peripheral analgesic effect and tail immersion test for central analgesic effect. Anticonvulsant activity was performed by maximal electroshock induced convulsions; while the locomotor activity was evaluated using actophotometer. AAB (250-500 mg/kg) significantly reduced the number of wriths induced by acetic acid and elevated pain threshold in hot water test. The extract (500mg/kg) exhibited anticonvulsant activity significantly (P<0.001) against tonic seizures induced by MES. The results of locomotor activity showed the significant (P<0.01) CNS depressant effect at the three doses (250,375 and mg/kg) employed. The results suggest that AAB exhibited analgesic, anticonvulsant and CNS depressant activity in a dose dependent pattern.
Achyranthes bidentata: Writhing; Tail-flick; Tonic extensor; Locomotor
The Aravalli ranges run along the Sabarkantha district is the ancient region of India, inhibited by tribals living in close vicinity of enriched forest. The present paper contains various ethnobotanical aspects of some plant species used by the tribals for their day-to day requirement. The paper includes the first hand information collected through tribal informants, medicinemen and tribal people of several villages during the field trips in the region for last three years in different seasons.
The paper provides an account of the ethnobotanical uses for basic necessities and welfare of tribal life, medicine and hygiene, fuel fodder, fibres food, shelter, dye, oil and other miscellaneous purposes.
Ethnobotany; Aravalli Hills; Sabarkantha; North Gujarat
Aegle marmelos Linn is a common plant used to treat many disease Conditions in Indian traditional systems of medicine. The present study was undertaken to findout a scientific validation for the efficacy of Aegle marmelos against gastric ulcer. Aqueous extract of Aegle marmelos leaves was prepared and used for investigation. A daily does of 1 gm/kg body weight of the extract administered orally for 21 days. The volume of the gastricse cretion, ulcer lesion count, pepsin content, PH, total acidity, hexose and hexosamine content were estimated. The result indicated a significant reduction in the ulcer lesion count, volume of gastric juice and acidity and increase in pH and hexosamine after treatment with extract. However the pepsin and hexose content not significantly altered. Histopathological studies were conducted to support the antiulcer study.
The macroscopic and microscopic characters, physical constant values, extractive values, ash values the behaviour of the powerdered drug on treatment with different chemical reagents, microchemical ad histochemical analyses were conducted to characterize some pharmacognostical parameters of Hemidesmus indicus (Linn) R,Br. (Asclepiadaceae).
Leucas cephalotes a common ethanomedicinal plant, is used by folklore of Tirupati in Andhra Pradesh for fevers and urinary tract infections. In the present study leaves of L. cephalotes were shade dried, powerdered and extracts were made by Soxhlet Extractor using different organic solvents like hexane, dichloromethane, methanol and ethylacetate. The antimicrobial activity of these organic extracts was evaluated against pathogenic organisms of staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus vulgaris and Klebsiella pneumoniae. These isolates were obtained from clinical specimens like urine, blood and pus of Sri Venkateshwara Institute of Medical Sciences, Tirupati. The zone of inhibition was determined for these pathogenic microorganism by using specific standards and respective controls for determining Minimum inhibitory Concentration (MIC). Among these tested organic extracts, hexane and methanolic extracts showed prominent antibacterial activity index for each tested extract has been calculated.
Leaf; Leucas cephalotes; Organic leaf extracts; Anibacterial properties
The Ethanolic extract of “Hadrabi” powder was tested for antimicrobial activites against gram positive organisms-Staphylococus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Clostridium perfringens and gram negative organisms-Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella paratyphi –B, Escherichia coli & Klebsiella pneumoniae Significant antimicrobial activity of the extract was found in this study at the dose of 1250 mg.