The ethanolic extract and its chloroform soluble and chloroform insoluble fractions of the roots of Baliospermum montanum were investigated in albino rats to evaluate the analgesic activity. Tailo – flick animal model was employed to test analgesic activity and compaired with a standard drug, Diclofenac sodium. The results indicate that the ethanolic extract and its chloroform soluble fraction are significantly effective (p<0.05) with respect to standard. The activity was found to be dose dependant. Results of present study justify the folklore use of B.montanum as analgesic drug.
Baliospermum montanum; Analgesic activity; Danti
Indigofera tincoria leaf extract has been evaluated for its anti-hepatotoxic activity on Rats. Isoniazid is a first line agent for treatment of tuberculosis. Acute ingestion by adults with little dose can lead to mild liver toxicity. In our study, administration of isoniazid (100mg/Kg of the body weight) to normal albino rats for 15 days, results in the induction of hepatitis, which is reversed by the leaf extract of Indigofera tincoria. Two different dose volumes of Indigofera tincoria (5ml/kg of the body weight and 10ml/kg of body weight) were given to determine the hepatoprotective efficacy. The effect of the extract was found to be dose dependent and the altered levels of AST, ALT, ALP and other serum parameters such as total protein, total bilirubin are showing normal values. Indigofera tinctoria provided significant protection against most of the biochemical alterations produced by isoniazid in test animals
The present paper deals with the study of biomass production of manures in the greens such as Amaranthus polygamus and Amaranthus viridis of the family Amaranthaceae and Spinacea oleracea of the family Chenopodiaceae. The medicinal uses and pharmaco – phytochemical analysis were also carried out for the plant species which are widely used as greens.
The effect of Shilajit on blood chemistry was studied in normal human volunteers. Administration of two gms of Shilajit for 45 days did not produced any significant change in physical parameters i.e. blood pressure, pulse rate and body weight and similarly no charge was observed in hematological parameters. A signification reduction in Serum Triglycerides, Serum cholesterol with simultaneous improvement in HDL Cholesterol was seen, besides Shilajit also improved antioxidant status of volunteers. Results of study suggest hypolipidemic and strong antioxidant activity of Shilajit.
Caesalpinia span heartwood is used in folklore in India. The present work attempts to summarize the pharmacognostical characters of the heartwood of this plant. Ash and extractive values, phytochemical tests, HPTLC and fluorescence analysis were carried out. The present work contributes for the standardization of this medicinal heat wood.
Caesalpinia sappan; Pharmacognostical evaluation; Phytochemical tests and Fluorescence analysis
As a follow-up of the articles of R. Brindha and S. Parvathy, ASL, XXII, 2003, 166-168, fifteen edible plants of South Asian ecosystem, commonly used in Sri Lankan cuisine, are dealt with in view of their ethnobotanical and ehtonomedical value. Their vernacular names (Sanskrit, Sinhala, and Tamil given here) often reveal different botanical features and medicinal properties.
Mentha arvensis Linn, a plant used as traditional medicine and in perfumery, has now been explored for its pharmacological activities as an anti-inflammatory and also as sedativehypnotic plant drug. The methanolic extract of the leaves after being processed, was taken for the pharmacological study. Anti-inflammatory activity was carried out on albino rats. Further, the activity was compared to that of a standard anti-inflammatory drug – nimesulide and the percent inhibition of oedema determined. The sedative hypnotic activity, when carried out on mice, showed the potentiation of pentobarbitone induced sleeping time. The data of average recovery time was analyzed to show the standard deviation from the mean.
Antibacterial activity pf various parts (stem, leaf and fruits) of solvent extracts (petroleum ether, alcohol and acetone) of Solanum xanthocarpum against Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Salmonella typhi and Bacillus cereus were detected by zone of inhibition. The extracts of Solanum xanthocarpum showed high sensitivity to Kiebsiella pneumoniae and Salmonella typhi, moderate sensitivity to Escherichia coli and less sensitivity and resistant to Bacillus cereus. In control, there is no inhibitory zone observed.
The present study includes antimicrobial activity of Memecylon umbellatum Alcoholic extract showed maximum antibacterial activity Staphylococcus aureus. (gram positive) and it also showed antibacterial activity against gram negative bacteria and also alcoholic extract alone showed slight antifungal activity.
The aerial parts of Coldenia procumbens Linn. (Boraginaceae) are used in indigenous systems of medicine. The market sample is in the form of small pieces or nearly powdered, from which the morphological and anatomical characters are unable to study for the identification and conformation of its authenticity. The present study of physicochemical characteristics like physical constant values, behavior with different chemical reagents, fluorescent behavior and qualitative phytochemical studies were useful to identify the market sample even in the powdered form.
The antibacterial activity of the aqueous, ethanol and chloroform extracts from the stems of Tinospora cordifolia was studied using disc diffusion method against Escherichia coil, Proteus vulgaris, Enterobacter faecalis, Salmonella typhi (Gram-negative), Staphylococcus aureus and Serratia marcesenses (Gram-positive). Results suggest that the ethanolic extract has significant antibacterial activity against tested bacteria. The present study justifies the claimed uses of Tinospora cordifolia in the traditional system of medicine to treat various infectious diseases.
Antibacterial activity; Tinospora cordifolia; Inhibition zones; Infection diseases
The role of stress in the aetiology of several diseases is well recognized in Ayurvedic science and modern medicine. The stress is known as sahasa in Ayurveda. Sahasa by causing ojahksaya (loss of immunity) increases the susceptibility of the body to various diseases. Avoidance of stress is the best strategy for treatment and where it is not possible, the body should be well protected by taking appropriate care of the diet and sleep, sleep here indicates adequate rest required by the body. Further, regular intake of several rasayana herbs to increase the coping capacity of the body is advised. Several of these rasayanas have demonstrated significant stress attenuating effects in animal experimentation and scientific efforts are ongoing to logically utilize rasayana herbal formulation in stress management.
Cissus quadrangularis L. variant II belonging to the family Vitaceae was screened for its activity Hellcobacter pylori (Hp) human isolates. Flowering and vegetative period samples were analyzed. Aqueous (hot and cold) and solvent extracts (acetone, chloroform and methanol) were screened. Among them chloroform was observed to recover bioactive principles with low MIC and MLC. MIC and MLC was 40 μg/ml for flowering period. Whereas for vegetative period MIC was 40 μg/ml and MLC was 40 μg/ml respectively. Extracts from samples collected during flowering period were better than that of vegetative period. The results confirm the traditional use of the plant in PUD.
Cissus quadrangularis; PUD; ulcer; Helicobacter pylori; Vitaceae
The beginning of medicinal uses of plants dates back to the scribing period of Vedas in India. In ancient days, such uses came into vogue due to accidental experimentation or observation which subsequently gave rise to practice either by a qualified physician or by an astrologer or by lay men, called nostrum or folk-lore. All these have their own distinct manner of use though they are very often intermingled. Apart from classical uses as mentioned in Ayurvedic, Unani or Sidha therapeutic treatises, material medica, texts on / pharmacy etc.; the new dimension of collecting additional information started in early part of 20th century where on several botanists contributed a lot for exploration of the same.
Since Orissa is a treasure of folk-core claims and besides qualified practitioners, certain lay men especially in rural area and tribal area, saints and priests at different places also possess knowledge on certain typical uses of several plants, there is a larger scope to highlight the same for future study from difference angles. In this paper an attempt has been made to highlight certain newer information's on certain common and uncommon plants like Lygodium flexuosum, Vitex peduncularis, Barleria lupulina, Leptadenia reticulate, Selaginella indica, etc., collected from different parts of Orissa.
In folklore medicine Drymaria Cordata willd (Fam:Caryophylaceae) is well known plant in Sikkim state, India. The present work summarizes preliminary phytochemical study of leaves of this plant.
The present communication reports some medicinal plants which are used as Central Nervous System sedative agent in the traditional system of medicine.
Shoot tips and nodal segment explants to Rauwolfia serpentina when cultured on MS medium containing varying concentration of Benzyl adenine purine (BAP) and Benzyl adenine purine in combination with Indole butyric acid (IBA) produced multiple shoots. Maximum multiple shoots (85.6%) were found in static MS medium supplemented with 5.0 mg/ 1 BAP and 0.5 mg / 1 IBA along with 2.5% sucrose and 0.85% agar. The developed shoots after one month were excised from the culture tube and implanted individually on static MS medium with varying concentration of IBA and Indole butyric acid (IBA). Maximum rooting (76.6%) was observed in 0.5 mg/1 IBA after 27 days. Regenerated plantlets were successfully acclimatized and established in soil. About 74% of plantlets survived under open field conditions.
Water extract of the leaves of Coleus Aromaticus Benth was tested for its diuretic activity in male albino rats. The study was carried out on normal rats using furosemide as a standard reference drug. Rats were treated with furosemide (4 mg/kg. p.o) and Coleus aromaticus (0.5 g/kg and 1.0 g/kg, p/o). Urine was collected and its volume was recorded. Urinary levels of sodium, potassium and chloride were estimated. Treatment with Coleus aromaticus produced diuresis. The urine output and electrolytes concentration was significantly increased. Hence, it is suggested, Coleus aromaticus leaves has diuretic activity on rats.
About 25 Ethnobotanical Plants belonging to 21 Angiospermic families used by the people of Anaimalai union for different types of diseases. These information's were collected from the tribal people of the union and reported for the first time. The great biodiversity of the vegetation particularly the medicinal plants are being unexplored. There is a wide scope to develop the growth of medicinal plants to establish pharmaceutical setup for traditional medicinal care.
The methanolic extract of leaves of Mesua ferrea Linn. were tested for its antibacterial potentiality against 103 various strains of bacteria including Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus spps. Klebsiella spps., Streptococus pneumoniae, Sarcina lutea, Lactobacilus arabinosus, Escherichia coli, shigellae, salmonellae, Proteus spps., Pseudomonas spps. and the vibrios. Significant antibacterial effects were produced by the extract against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus sppa., lactobacilli, Escherichia coli, shigellae and salmonellae and the results were compared with standard antibiotic ciprofloxacin. Further the extract was proved to be bacterial in its action.
Leaves of Atalantia monophylla are used in chronic rheumatism and paralysis. The Pharmacognostical studies like histological characters, leaf constants, ash values and extractive values of leaves of Atalantia monophylla Corr were carried out. The preliminary phytochemical analysis were also carried out.
Leaf and stem explants excised from young plant of B.diffusa were cultured on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium containing agar (0.8%), sucrose (2.5%) and varied concentration of Indole butyric acid (IBA), Napthyl acetic acid (NAA), 2,4 – dichloro phenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D) and Picrolam. Leaf explants has given better response for both rooting and callus formation. IBA in a concentration of 5μM has shown maximum regeneration (69.7%) with induction period of 7 days. The developed roots were similar to that of naturally grown roots with little anatomical changes. For callus formation 20μM 2, 4-D has given maximum amount and percentage response 979.5% with an induction period of 8 days. Picrolam (10μM) has shown 36.6% response and the average weight of callus was less as compared with 2,4-D. The callus obtained was friable and opaque in nature.
Ethanolic extract of roots and aerial parts of Achyranthes aspera was investigated for its antibacterial activity against Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus pumilus, and Proteus vulgaris and anti fungal activity against Cryptococcus neoformans, Aspergillus flavus at 100 mg/disc using diffusion method. The comparative studies shown that ethanolic extract of roots and aerial parts of Achyranthes aspera have exhibited moderately equal action when compared to Cotrimoxazole (30 mg/disc) for antibacterial and Clotrimazole (30 mg/disc) for antifungal activity. Our findings confirm the traditional therapeutic claims for this herb.
Allergic Rhinitis is typically characterized by sneezing, rhinorrhoea, nasal obstruction, nasal, conjunctival & pharyngeal itching and lacrimation all occurring in a temporal relation to allergen exposure. The peak incidence of this disease occurs in childhood and adolescence, with most of the cases belonging to the atopic category.
There is a high incidence of patients of allergic rhinitis attending the outdoor sections of Ajmal Khan Tibbiya College Hospital. Many of them are dissatisfied with conventional anti-histaminic drugs. An open study was carried out on 20 such patients aged between 15 to 50 years to evaluate the clinical efficacy of a unani pharmacopeal preparation [Itrifal ustukhudoos] added with cloves [qaranfal]. Preliminary clinical study showed promising results. The study is into the next phase in which a comparative double-blind trial is being conducted with this combination and Allegra (Fexofenadine hydrochloride).