Cassia auriculata is widely distributed even in poor soil in Sri Lanka, India, Burma and cultivated in tropics. Based on Physical and Chemical methods, the flower of C. auriculata was found to contain a flavonol glycoside 5-O-methylquercetin 7-O-glucoside. The 50% acetone extract of the flower of C. auriculata showed marked anti-inflammatory activity (56%) in carrageenin induced oedema in rats.
The macroscopic characters of the whole plant, physical constant values, extractive values, preliminary phyto-chemical tests, fluorescence characters under ultra-violet light after treatment with different reagents of the powdered leaves form the tree of Adansonia digitata linn., [Bombacaceae] were studied to fix some pharmacognostical parameters. Preliminary phytochemical screening on the methanolic extract of the plant was also performed. These studies will help in identification of this plant for further research.
Commiphora berryi (Arn)
Englor (Burseraceae) is a well known plant in Tamil nadu, India. It is used in several parts of the state for various medicinal properties. The present work summarizes preliminary phyto chemical study of bark of this plant.
Antibacterial activity of various parts (stem, leaf and fruits) of solvent extracts (Petroleum ether, alcohol and acetone) of Solanum xanthocarpum against Escherichia coil, Klebsiella of Solanum xanthocarpum showed high sensitivity to Escherichia coil & less sensitivity and resistance to Bacillus cereus. In control, no inhibitory zone was observed.
The aqueous extract was found to be more effective on the surfactant system of lung against ova albumin and aluminium hydroxide induced lung damage in albino wistar rats. The rats were divided into 3groups of four animals each, namely group I, II and III which served as control, toxic and post treatment groups respectively. Our results showed increased Lung Body-Weight Index (LBI) and decreased lung lipid content in the toxic group of animals. But the levels of lipid content and Lung Body-Weight Index were restored in post-treated group of animals, which might be due to the protective activity of “Pentapala-04”.
Effect of spirulina and Liv-52 on lead induced hypercholesteroleamia in albino rats was studied. Oral administration of lead acetate(10mg/kg body weight/day) for 30 days resulted in a significant increase(P<0.01) in the level of serum total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL Cholesterol and a significant decreases in the level of serum HDL cholesterol, when compared to normal and control group of albino rats. Administration of either Liv-52 alone or in combination with spirulina produced a well pronounced protective effect against lead induced hypercholesteroleamia in rats. Although administration of spirulina alone caused an appreciable protective effect in lead toxicated tats, further study is needed with increased doses to evaluate its optimal effect.
The aerial parts and seeds of Swietenia macrophylla King (Meliaceae) are used in exotic medicine systems. In the present study, a preliminary phytochemical and few pharmacological profiles were under taken. The physical constans, extractive and ash values were examined. The presence of secondary metabolites in the aerial parts and seeds showed that Swietenia macrophylla is a good source of active principles. TLC studies were done by treating dry treating dry powder of Swietenia macrophylla with various acids, iodine and ferric chloride solution and UV and Visible light.
Description of the root of the plant, Zizyphus mauritiana Linn. the microscopical characters of the powdered root, its behavior on treatment with different chemical reagents, and the fluorescence character under ultraviolet light after treatment were studied to fix some pharmacognostical parameters. Preliminary phytochemical screening on the various extracts of the root of the plant was also performed. These studies were carried out to identify this plant for further research work.
A study was conducted to synthesise and evaluate the anti-inflammatory and anti-microbial activities of mannich bases from 1, 2 – hydroxy pyrazolines. For this, vanillin was reacted with substituted acetophenones and different vanillinyl chalcones were obtained which when coupled with phenyl hydrazine, produced hudroxy 1, 2 – pyrazolines. The hydroxyl pyrazolines were reacted with sulpha drugs and other compounds of biological interest containing free amino group in the presence of formaldehyde when mannich bases of 1, 2- hydroxyl pyrazolines were obtained. The compounds were characterized by elemental analysis, Ultra Violet (UV), Infra Red (IR) and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) studies. All the newly synthesized compounds have been screened for Anti-inflammatory and Anti-microbial activity. Out of six compounds, para nitro hydroxy pyrazolines of sulphadiazine mannich base (A), nitrohydroxy pyrazoline of sulphacetamide (B) substituted nitro hydroxyl pyrazoline of amino anti-pyrine mannich (F) exhibited significant or oedema in habiting oedem activity. Out of six compounds, para nitro hydroxyl pyrazoline of sulphadiazine mannich base (A) also exhibited anti-microbial activity.
Vanillinyl chalcones; Anti-bacterial activity; Anti-inflammatory activity; Antifungal activity
Ash, minerals and biochemical contents were determined in various parts of root, stem and leaf of Cissus quadrangularis. The maximum ash content was observed in the root. The maximum concentration of carbohydrate and protein in the root and phosphorus, iron, calcium and lipids in the stem were observed.
Black musli (Curculigo orchioides Gaertn.) one of the ayurvedic dasapushpa and a rejuvenating and aphrodisiac drug. Is on the verge of extinction and needs to be conserved and cultivated. Large variations are also observed in the quality of the crude drug available in the market. Study on the quality of C. orchioides in natural habitat, under cultivation and in trade in south India showed that there was considerable variation with biotypes and habitats. Drugs collected form the natural habitat was superior in quality to that produced by cultivation. Among the market samples collected from the various Zones of kerala, those from the High Ranges were superior in most of the quality parameters, which indicated its superiority for high quality drug formulation. Among the southern states, Tamil Nadu samples ranked next to High Range samples in this respect. There exists large variability in the market samples and there is felt-need for proper standardization of the crude drug for ensuring quality in the drug formulations.
Curculigo orchioides; black musli; biotype; habitat; crude drug; quality; curculigoside; metabolites
Two preparations of herbal shampoo powder were formulated using some common traditional drugs used by folk and traditional people of Bundelkhand region (M.P) India, for hair care. The preparations were formulated using bahera, amla, neem tulsi, shikakai henna & brahmi evaluated for organoleptic, powder charecterestics, foam test and physical evaluation. As the selected drugs being used since long time as single drug or in combination, present investigations will further help to establish a standard formulation and evaluation parameters, which will certainly help in the standardization for quality and purity of such type of herbal powder shampoos.
Herbal Shampoo; Evaluation; Standardization
The present study is based on the evaluation of antioxidant potential of a well known plant Lactuca sativa. Methanolic leaf extract was investigated for in vitro inhibition of oxidative damage induced by UV-radiations to the salmonella typhi bacteria and in vivo effect on the production of body enzymes i.e. catalase and superoxide dismutase. The lipid peroxidation masurement was also done in terms of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) in blood and brain of male albino wistar rats. The plant extract has shown significant antioxidant potential both in vitro and in vivo.
Berberis tinctoria Lesch. Is an endemic plant to high hills of Nilgiris having lot of medicinal properties. For its better conservation through mass multiplication, attempts have been made to standardize tissue culture technology. The results of the study exhibited that the basal medium containing BAP and NAA each at 0.5 mg/1 was found to be the optimum for callus formation. Shoot proliferation was highly effective in the basal medium supplemented with BAP at 0.5 mg/1. The root initiation was maximum in the basal medium containing the NAA at 1.0 mg/1 and the plantlet establishment was successful in the hardening medium composed by vermiculite and soil in the ration of 1:1.
Chlorophytum borivilianum Santapan and Fernandes is an important medicinal Plant in Ayurveda and it is used mainly for its aphrodisiac activity. It is very closely related to other species also. The present work attempts to identify the Chlorophytum borivilianum from other allied species in general by pharmacognostical, preliminary phytochemical and fluorescence analysis methods.
Effect of packing material on the stability of four Ayurvedic drugs viz., Hingvatsaka Curna, Brahmi ghrta, Dasamula Kvatha Curna and Ajamodarka have been studied by distributing the drugs in different containers by observing the physical and biological changes. The study revealed that Hingvatsaka Curna keeps well for at least 6 month, Ajamodarka is stable for minimum period of six months when stored in glass bottle exposed to light. Dasamula K vatha Curna showed the presence of insects at the completion of three months. In the second month itself Brahmi ghrta becomes rancid on storing in glass and amber colored bottles.
Container effect; Hingvatsaka Curna; Brahmi ghrta; Dasamula Kvatha Curna; Ajamodarka
Nadi Pariksha has been said as one of the important Ashta sthana parikshas. Though, there are some physicians who are doing miracles just by examining Nadi, this system of examination in many views has became extinct now a days. The main reason for this is, now a days very little research and practice is going on regarding this technique. So, many resent samhitas and Chikitsa granthas like Sarangadhara, Yogaratnakara, etc., have highlighted Nadi pariksha. Basavarajiyam is also one of those resent treatises (19th century), which has highlighted this ancient type of examination of the patient. Basavarajiyam is a popular Ayurvedic heritage of Andhra Pradesh written by Basavaraju, son of Namahshivaya and disciple of Ramadeshika. The author has referred many books and collected many slokas from various ancient granthas and quoted them in 25 Prakaranas along with his own views and quotations. This book was translated in Telugu language by Puvvada surya Narayana Rao and lppublished by A.B.S.publications, Rajahmundry A.P. In this paper Nadi sthanas (Location), Nadi types, Nadi Pareeksha vidhi (examination of Nadi) and its utilities in different aspects of the disease are dealt, which have been mentioned in Basavarajeeyam.
Various extracts (Petroleum ether, Benzene, Chloroform and Methanol) of Commiphora Berryi (Arn) Englor were subjected to preliminary phytochemical evaluation and it was shown that same extracts were evaluated for its anti-inflammatory activity against carrageenin induced rat paw oedema. Diclofenac sodium (30mg/kg), a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent was used as a standard drug for comparison.
The present study aims to evaluate the topical anti-inflammatory activity of “Pinda thailam”, a herbal gel formulation containing aqueous extract of roots of Rubia cordifolia (Rubiaceae) and Hemidesmus indicus (Asclepiadaceae) which are known for their anti-inflammatory activity using the technique of carrageenin induced paw oedema in albino rats. The herbal gel formulation showed significant anti-inflammatory activity comparable to the reference standard Diclofenac sodium gel.
Rice Bran wax is obtained from natural sources and is abundantly available in the country. Rice bran wax is suitable for use in chocolate enrobes, as an enteric coating for candy and lozenges, as a plasticizing material in chewing gums etc. Present study attempts to find if rice bran wax is useful as ointment base. The oleaginous type ointment base is prepared by using rice bran wax and evaluated for speardabililty, water number and active ingredient diffusibility. The results obtained in the present study indicate, rice bran wax can be used as a good component in ointment base, comparable with white wax.
This study highlights the effect of Rudraksha (Elaeocarpus ganitrus Roxb) in experimentally induced acute hypertension by adrenaline and nicotine. Study was done in 6 anaesthetised cats having similar body weight and age. 90 % Ethanol extracts of Elaeocarpus ganitrus Roxb was given intravenously to cats. Blood pressure was measured by using Pressure transducer and Polyrite (INCO). Elaeocarpus ganitrus (Roxb) reduces adrenaline induced hypertension and also normal blood pressure; but it is not effective in nicotine induced hypertension. The effect of the drug was found when the water soluble portion of the extract was given to cats in a dose of 15mg / kg body weight.
Cholesterol fed mice were administered powdered myrobalan, the fruit of Terminalia chebula, to evaluate its antiatherogenic activity. Male mice were fed a diet containing 1% cholesterol with or without myrobalan for 100 days. The cholesterol containing diet fed to mice caused increased food intake, body weight, serum cholesterol, triglyceride, thickening of the walls of aorta and shrinkage in its lumen (group 2) . The oral administration of myrobalan to mice on atherogenic diet successfully reversed these effect (group 3). However, the food intake was observed to be high as compared to the control animals. Control animals (group 1) received only the vehicle. The results suggest that myrobalan has hypocholesterolemic effect in animals fed with atherogenic diet.
Myrobalan; hypocholesterolemia; cholesterol; triglyceride
Naga bhasma is one of those reputed ayurvedic bhasmas which are claimed to possess some extraordinary medical properties. However, identification of a genuine sample of naga bhasma is a challenging problem. Because at present naga bhasma is manufactured by different ayurvedic pharmacies, by following different methods, these products are not standardised either from chemical and structural point of view. Therefore, comparative study of these samples using modern analytical techniques is important and necessary to understand their current status. In this communication, such study of naga bhasma from chemical and structural point of view is reported by using XRD, IR and UV spectroscopy and thermogravimetry.
The aerial parts of Cissus quadrangularis L.Variant I and II are being used therapeutically for various ailments in indigenous system of medicine. Detailed pharmacognostical studies on the aerial parts were made. Variant I and II were analysed for their physiochemical, microscopical, fluorescent, qualitative and quantitative phytochemical, TLC and HPTLC characteristics. Quantitative variations were noted among seasonal samples and between variants and the results are presented.
Cissus quadrangularis; variants; pharmacognostical studies; seasonal changes
We investigated the spasmolytic activity of herbal drugs isolated from Tephrosia purpurea on guinea pigs for the treatment of asthma in India. For this investigation, the herbal drug was extracted with 70% ethanol in soxhlet apparatus. After purification and isolution, the drug was used in experimental animals to observe prophylactic activity. For anaphylactic activity, horse serum 0.5 ml along with triple antigen (0.5 ml) was induced in guinea pigs. To observe prophylactic activity, male guinea pigs weighing about 250-450 gms were killed by cervical dislocation and the trachea was isolated. Each trachea was cut in to six segments. Each segment consists of three cartilage rings. Each end of tracheal muscles was attached to the bronchospasm transducers for isometric recording of the tension charges on a polygraph. The results of experiments clearly showed the spasmolytic activity of the drug. The preliminary phytochemical investigation, however shows the presence of glycoside saponins.
Tephrosia purpurea; spasmolytic; polygraph; Bronchospasm