The diuretic activity of concentrated ethanolic extract of Aerva lanata (Linn) & Aerva tomentosa Forsk on healthy albino rats were studied with frusemide as reference drug. The urine output increased with concentrated ethanolic extract of Aerva lanata only. In this case the level of electrolytes in urine also increased. But the diuretic activity was mild as compared to frusemide.
Pharmacognostical investigations were carried out on the Erythrina indica leaves, followed by phytochemical investigation. On the methanolic extract of leaves, TLC was performed and indole alkaloids were identified with selected solvent system. The UV analysis was also performed on the components confirming the presence of the indole nucleus. Anti-inflammatory activity was carried out on albino rats. Further, anti-inflammatory activity was compared to that of the standard drug indomethacin and percent inhibition of oedema was determined. Sedative hypnotic activity was also evaluated using pentobarbital which showed mild sedation.
Ethanolic extract of Naringi crenulata or liminonia crenulata leaves was investigated for Phytochemical and Antimicrobial activities. The macroscopic characteristics of leaves, physical constant values, extractive values, behavior on treatment with different chemical reagents of the powdered leaves. Naringi crenulata were studied to fix some pharmacognostical parameters and preliminary phytochemical studies on ethanolic extracts of the leaves were also performed. Antimicrobial activities against two bacterial strains – Bacillus subtilis, Klebsilla pnemoniae and two fungal strains Aspergillus niger, Mucor sp. among the various leaf extracts maximum antimicrobial activity was exhibited by standard antibiotic.
Naringi crenulata; Rutaceae; Phytochemical studies and Antimicrobial activities
The leaves and seeds of Cassia tora (Family Caesalpinaceae) are used in the treatment of leprosy, ring worm, flatulence, colic, dyspepsia, constipation, cough, bronchitis and cardiac disorders in the Ayurvedic systems of medicine. The present study deals with the study of macroscopic characters of the leaves, ash values, extractive values, behavior on treatment with different chemical reagents and fluorescence characters under ultraviolet light. Preliminary phytochemical studies on different extractives of the leaves were also performed. These studies will help in the identification of the plant for further research.
Antibacterial properties of hexane, chloroform and aqueous extracts of roots of Acorus calamus, Aristolochia indica, Cyperus rotundus, Desmodium gangeticum, Holostemma ada– kodien and Kaempferia galanga, used in the traditional medicine were studied on Bacillus pumilis and Eschericia coli by disc diffusion method.
The present paper deals with the results of a preliminary survey of the wild edible plants used by different ethnic groups in the Anaimalai hills of the Western Ghats in Coimbatore district. Tribals of various ethnic groups dominate the wooded habitat of this hilly region. About 53 plants species belonging to 32 families are used as edible by the tribes. Of these, the leaves of 25 plant species are consumed as green and about 20 wild fruits are consumed raw. The rest of the plant species are used for their tubers, seeds and roots. The plant species, their families, vernacular names, parts used and their mode of usage were also reported.
The preliminary phytochemical analysis of Limonia acidissima plant parts such as bark, leaf, rind, pulp and seed showed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, steroids, saponins, glycosides, phenols, gum and mucilage, fixed oils and fats, resins and tannins. Among the five plant parts, pulp possessed high amount of protein and the carbohydrate content was more in seeds and rind is rich was amino acid. The methanolic extracts of L. acidissima plant parts were tested against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus using disc diffusion method. The extracts from different parts showed varying degrees of antimicrobial activity.
Limonia acidissima; stomachic; astringent; diuretic; cardiotonic; carminative; bowel infections; antidote
The antibacterial activity of Bulbophyllum neilgherrense was tested against five species of bacteria, viz., Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus pumilus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Pseudomonas putida Aqueous, ethanolic and chloroform soluble extracts of leaf and pseudobulb (5.50 w/v) were screened for their antibacterial potential. The zone of inhibition was seen to be largest when alcoholic extract was used.
C.halicacabum is wide spread in tropical and sub-tropical Asia and Africa. Our laboratory results showed crude ethanolic extract of this plant exerted anti-inflammatory activity in chronic inflammatory models. In this present study, we tried to investigate the presence of anti-inflammatory compound in this extract.
Antimicrobial activity of chloroform and methanolic extracts of Salacia reticulata were tested against gram positive, gram negative and fungus strains using zone of inhibition and minimum inhibitory concentrations. It was observed that both extracts have inhibitory effect towards all microorganisms used in the test. Chloroform extract was more effective than methanolic extract.
In the present investigation, aqueous, ethanol and petroleum ether, ethanol (1:1) root extracts of Seidenfia rheedii were tested against 12 different human pathogenic bacteria for antibacterial activity. It was found that ethanolic extracts inhibited the growth of all the bacterial strains tested whereas moderate antibacterial activity was associated with petroleum ether, ethanol (1:1) root extracts. The aqueous extract did not show antibacterial activity. Thus the present investigation reveals that the selected plant extracts have potential of bactericidal effect on test bacteria.
Seidenfia rheedii; Antibacterial activity; Bactericidal; root extracts
The present paper represents the results of an ethnobotanical survey conducted in Mundakunnu village of Gudalur taluk, Nilgiri district of Tamil Nadu, India. It has been observed that the plant species are used to various ailments of analgesic, antidiarrhoeal, piles, antidiabetic, gynecological problems, vermifuge, antidandruff, venereal diseases, bone fracture and as vegetables. A total of 52 plants species belonging to 51 genera (33 dicot & 6 monocot) have been discussed.
Mundakunnu; Gudalur Taluk; Paniya Tribes; the Nilgiris; Tamilnadu; ethnobotany
A polyherbal formulation was evaluated for its hepatoprotective activity against ethanol and CCl4 induced liver damage in rats. The rats were divided into five groups of six animals each and serve as control, toxic, post-treated, herbal control, Liv.52 treated groups respectively. The results showed that the activities of liver marker enzymes in serum namely AST, ALT, ALP, ACP and serum bilirubin level (total) were increased in toxic group animals. But the activities of these enzymes were significantly lowered in post-treated group of rats. Thus, the results suggest antihepatotoxicity of “Ayush-Liv.04”.
polyherbal formulation; hepatic damage; CCl4; ethanol; Liv.52; serum enzymes and bilirubin
Phytochemical studies of whole plant of Phyllanthus debilis Klein.ex.willd (Euphorbiaceae) reveals the presence of phytosterols, lignans, glycosides and absence of saponin, triterpenoids, tannins and alkaloids have been reported in this plant for the first time.
The volatile oil obtained from the cones of Cupressus funebris by hydrodistillation was subjected to anti-inflammatory activity using carrageenan induced paw oedema model using albino mice, Diclofenac sodium was used as standard drug (25 mg/kg body weight, p.o.). The volatile oil (100 mg/kg body weight, p.o.) showed significant anti inflammatory activity.
Cupressus funebris; Volatile oil; Anti-inflammatory activity; Carrageenan; Diclofenac
The macroscopic character of the whole plant, physical constant values, extractive values, behaviour on treatment with different chemical reagents. Fluorescence characters under uv light after treatment with different chemical reagents of the powdered whole plant of lonidium suffruticosam Ging (Family; violaceae) were studied to characterize some pharmacognostical parameters. Preliminary photochemical study on different extracts of the whole plant were also performed.
Insight of evidence that some complications of diabetes mellitus due to hyperglycemia, we investigated the effect of T. arjuna bark extract on serum, liver and kidney marker enzymes in alloxan - induced diabetic rats. T. arjuna was administered orally at a doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg body weight for 30 days, after which serum liver and kidney tissues were assayed for the degree of pathological changes by means of markers such as alkaline phosphatase (ALP), acid phosphatase (ACP), alanine amino transferase (ALT), aspartate amino transferase (AST) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) resulted in a significant reduction in serum and tissue of liver and kidney marker enzymes when compared with control rats T. arjuna at a dose of 500 mg/kg body weight exhibited higher efficacy.
Terminalia arjuna; hyperglycemia; alloxan diabetes; marker enzymes
Fruit pulp of Mangifera indica Linn. is an important Ayurvedic medicine which is useful in gastric disorders, dyspepsia, loss of appetite, urine incontinence, uterine diseases, heat apoplexy, pharyngitis, ulcer, dysentery, sun stroke etc. The present study for the first time attempts to investigate physico-chemical and pharmacognostic properties as per WHO guidelines of this drug. Detailed account of physico-chemical and microscopic analysis have been given in the paper
Physico-chemical; pharmacognostic; Ayurveda
A medicinal plants survey was done in various parts of Dharmapuri district, about 260 medicinal plants were identified and collected. Amongst them, few of the plants were less known but had remarkable medicinal properties, they were grouped together and are enumerated by the botanical name, family name, local name, locality and ethnomedical properties.
Caraka the renowned physician of Indian system of medicine recommended Cyavanaprasa for wide variety of ailments from paediatric to geriatric. So, the paper is focused on the result of the clinical study, that was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of Cyavanprasa in elderly volunteers. And the paper also highlights the step made through this clinical study to evaluate the weight of chief constituent i.e.500 number of fresh Amalaki (Emblica officinalis Gaertn) with proper ratio of sugar.
Saraca asoca commonly known as asoka, which is considered as a sacred tree by Hindus and Buddhists possesses various medicinal uses. The stem bark of the tree is the principal constituent of several ayurvedic preparations which are widely prescribed in leucorrhoea, haematuria, menorrhagia and other diseases of the female genitourinary system. Because of destructive extraction and the absence of an organized cultivation programme, the avilbility of the crude drug is diminishing and this has resulted in the sale of adulterants. The commonly used adulterant is the bark of Polyalthia longifolia which shows some similarity with that of asoka. Studies were conducted at Aromatic and Medicinal Plants Research station, Odakkali (Kerala Agricultural University) during 2001-2002 to evolve methods for differentiating the original drug from the adulterant species by anatomical biochemical and chromatographic techniques.
Cassia alata Linn, Commonly known as semaiagathi in Tamil is well known for its various medicinal properties in Indian systems of medicine. Various parts of this plant are used as vermicide, astringent, purgative, expectorant and to treat skin diseases. The present work deals with the anatomy, quantitative microscopy, physical constants and fluorescence analysis of the plant leaves.
A total of 22 species of plants used by Irula community people are described based on ethnomedical field survey. These plants belong to 17 families and are used to treat a wide range of discomforts like cough, cold, body ache, earache, stomachache, headache, diarrhea, snake bite, rheumatism etc. the botanical names, followed by their local names have also been given.
The present study deals with an analysis of the roots of Rauvolfia serpentine (L) Benth. Ex Kurz under ultraviolet radiation and also under daylight. The coarsely powdered roots were treated with various chemical reagents and the characteristic fluorescence patterns emitted were recorded and are reported in this paper. This study was undertaken as a pharmacognostic standardization to ascertain the authenticity of the roots of this plant in its crude form and also to check any adulteration that may be used in trade.