The whole plant of Achyranthes aspera has been used as remedy for a number of diseases such as dropsy, strangury, cough, kidney stones, dysentery and bowel complaints, According to traditional practice, a kheer prepared from the seeds of this plant is used to treat brain disorders. An attempt was made to fix the macroscopical, microscopical parameters of the leaf quantitative microscopy, physical constants, and behaviour of the powder with chemical reagents and preliminary qualitative phytochemical studies of Achyranthes aspera were investigated. The phytochemical tests revealed the presence of sterols, flavanoids tannins and carbohydrates.
Achyranthes aspera; epilepsy; traditional medicine
Thirty patients suffering from uncomplicated chronic Sinusitis were enrolled in a clinical study to asses the efficacy of Ayurvedic medicine comprising of Tribhvan kirti rasa (Tablet) along with inhalation of steam of Dasamulakwath (Decoction) followed by nasya (intranasal instillation) with Anu tailam. The Tribhuvan kirti rasa was administered at a dose of 250mg b.d with Adrak swaras (Juice of Ginger).Steam inhalation of Dasmula kwath was given two times a day followed by nasya of Anu tail at a dose of 4 drops in both nostrils. The duration of the treatment varied from 45 days to 90 days. Radiological tests were done periodically. The patients were examined clinically in every week to asses the effect of medicine. The overall clinical efficacy was 96.6%. This medicine along with steam inhalation followed by Nasya was found to be well tolerated in general and no side effects were reported. Hence this treatment could be recommeed for treatment of chronic Sinusitis.
Siddha is a traditional medical system of India. According to siddha system of medicine, chendooram is a red colour powder generally made of metallic compounds. Mercury is used in the form of rasa chendooram (red oxide of mercury). This paper deals with the standardization of Kantha chendooram. It is a Siddha preparation of 8 ingredients, viz. 1. Purified Lode Stone, 2. Purified Sulphur, 3. Lead wort root powder, 4. Eclipta juice, 5. Lime juice, 6. Milk, 7. Egg albumin, 8. Madar Latex. In this study an attempt was made to standardize Kantha chendooram which has not been attempted by researchers earlier. Standardization of Kantha chendooram was in terms of its organoleptic characters, qualitative identification of phytochemical constituents, metallic quantification and in terms of pharmacognostical standardization.
The aerial parts of Cissus quadrangularis L. var-I collected from different soils were chemically analyzed for setting the standard to be of use in Indian Traditional Systems of medicine. Extractive value, ash value, loss on draying, powder analysis, qualitative and quantitative phyto-chemical estimation were estimated.
It is believed Kautilya, whose name was Vishnugupta and is popular as Chanakya (The son of Chanaka) wrote Arthasastra. This article is mainly based on Kautilya's Arthasastra, translated by R. Shamasastry. In the preface of 1st to 5th edition of this text, the translator Dr. R. Shamasastry tried to clarify the uncertainty regarding the name of the author and the time of the text. Kamandaka and Dandi quotation support the time of this treatise somewhere between 321 and 300 B.C. These quotations also support the authorship of Vishnugupta. According to Kadambari, the author of Arthasastra was Kautilya and according to Manu and Dharmasastras, Chanakya had written this Arthasastra. Though there are some controversies regarding the name of the author and time of this text, translator R. Shamasastry tried his level best in providing proper support for naming this text as Kautilya's
Arthasastra as the original available manuscript contains the name of Kautilya at the end of each of the hundred and fifty chapters of the work. Still there is controversy regarding the exact time of this text. If views of many scholars is considered, time of the text can be placed between 3rd century B.C. to 3rd century A.D. This translated original text contains 15 books (Basic discussions of the text), 150 chapters, 180 sections and 6000 Slokas (Thirty two syllables are considered as one Sloka).
Commiphora caudata (Wight & Arn) is a potential medicinal plant used for its antispasmodic activity, cytotoxic activity and hypothermic activity. Owing to its medicinal importance, macroscopic and microscopic characters of leaves of Commiphora caudata were studied.
The in vitro antifungal activity of solvent extracts of Coleus forskohlii, Coleus blumei and Coleus barbatus were compared by testing against some pathogenic fungi like Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus
fumigatus, Aspergillus ruantii, Proteus vulgaris and Candida albicans. The petroleum ether extract of Coleus forskohlii and Coleus barbatus exhibited significant antifungal activity against all the selected organisms. The extracts of Coleus blumei did not show any significant antifungal activity against the selected organisms.
Thirty five plants belonging to twenty families were studied for their antimicrobial activity. Among the plants tested, 43 % showed antimicrobial activity. Fifteen plants belonging to 10 families exhibited activity against gram positive bacteria and gram negative bacteria. Four plants namely Azadirachta indica, Garadenia jasminoides, Magnifera indica, and Wrightia tinctora showed an appreciable activity against the gram positive bacteria and seven plants against gram negative organisms. Leaf extract of Tabermontana coronaria showed a maximum zone of inhibition (24 mm) against Staphylococcus aureus and the leaf extract of Sida cordifolia showed a maximum zone (20 mm) against Corynebacteriun diphtheriae. Mentha piperanta gave a maximum zone size against E,coli (22 mm) and Vibrio cholerae (20mm). The inhibitory percentage of the leaf extracts against various pathogens were observed to be Staphylococcus aureus (40%), E.coli (28%), Shigella sp (25%), Salmonella sp (22%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Bacillus subtilis (20%), Klebsiella pneumoniae and Proteus vulgaris (17%), Vibrio cholera (14%) and Corynebacterium diphtheriae (11%). The results suggested that the leaf extracts of various plants has significant antibacterial activity against the tested microorganisms. The present study is done to compare the activity of the plant extracts with the activity of currently used antibiotics against the selected organisms.
Effect of Garlic against mercuric chloride induced toxicity in albino rats was studied. Oral administration of mercuric chloride (100mg/kg/p.o) for 30 days resulted in significant increase in LPO Basal level and LPO FeSO4 induced and significant decrease in GSH (Glutathione) and Vit C as compared to the normal and control group. Simultaneous administration of Garlic along with Mercuric chloride, produced a pronounced neproprotective effect against mercuric chloride induced toxicity in rats by restoring the normal levels of biochemical parameters.
The present study was designed with an objective to assess the inhibition of lipid peroxidation (LPO) by the aqueous extract of Calocybe indica (milky mushroom) using an invitro model of goat liver homogenate and RBC ghosts. The invitro LPO was inhibited to a good extent by the aqueous extract of milky mushroom and the extent of inhibition being higher in the RBC membrane model when compared with liver homogenate model.
Calocybe indica; LPO
Chloroform, ethanol and aqueous extracts of the leaves of Abutilon indicum were investigated for antibacterial activity against Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhi. Among the various extracts, maximum antibacterial activity was exhibited by ethanol extract (14, 25, 14, 25, 17, 18 mm) followed by chloroform extract (13, 17, 8, 15, 15, 20 mm) while aqueous extract, showed no activity.
Abutilon indicum; antibacterial activity
Solanum surattense Burm.f. has been largely used in the indigenous system of medicine. A preliminary pharmacognostical study of the seed has been undertaken and the physico-chemical, fluorescent and qualitative phytochemical tests have been worked out and the results were presented.
Petroleum ether (60-80°C), chloroform, ethyl acetate, ethanol and aqueous extract of aerial parts of Melothria heterophylla Lour. were evaluated separately for anthelmintic activity on adult Indian earthworms (Pheretima posthuma), using albandazole and piperazine citrate as reference standards. The results indicated that the ethanol extract of M. heterophylla Lour (EEMH) was more potent than the other four extracts of it.
Oral treatment with 50 mg Kg-1 day-1 of crude methanol extract of Morinda citrifolia leaves for 14 days significantly increased the anti-oxidant enzymes, like catalase, glutathione peroxidase (GSHPx) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), and anti-oxidants like glutathione (GSH) and ascorbic acid decreased in lymphoma-bearing mice.
Anti-oxidant activity; Morinda citrifolia; Lymphoma
The Butanol and Ethanol extract of the leaves and bark of Wrightia tomentosa along with its seven pure component isolates (BLF28, BLF
29*, BBF29, ELF3, ELF7, ELF17*, EBF7 ) after fractionation by column chromatography were evaluated for antimicrobial activity against Gram positive (S. aureus, S. fecalis, S.albus and B.subtilis) and Gram negative (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus vulgaris & Klebsiella aerogenes) bacteria and the fungi Candida albicans by disc diffusion method. The extracts and isolates showed different degree of activity against pathogenic microbes. The results obtained were compared with standard drugs Ciprofloxacin (10μg) and Clotrimazole (10μg). The isolates of butanol bark extract (BBF29) followed by leaf extract(BLF29*) were considerably more effective than the ethanol leaf and bark extract in inhibiting all the microbial strains
The occurrence of mycorrhiza in 40 selected medicinal plants was studied. The percentage of mycorrhizal colonization in each of the plant was calculated. The colonization was found to be very less in four plants and very high in six plants. All others showed a moderate level of colonization. The present work suggests the use of mycorrhiza as a biofertilizer to enhance the growth and yield of medicinal plants.
Diabetes Mellitus (Madhumeha) is a well-known clinical syndrome since antiquity. First time the role of Diet in the prevention, etiology and treatment of Diabetes was mentioned in Ayurveda under the heading of Prameha and Madumeha. Caraka Samhita, Susruta Samhita and other Ayurvedic classics have appropriate descriptions on the role of diet, habits and life style in Prameha and Madhumeha, which is akin to Diabetes. Recent modern (contemporary) Researches and statistics support these descriptions. Aim of this article is to alarm people regarding role of diet and lifestyle in Diabetes through Ayurvedic approach and contemporary scientific correlation with support of clinical and statistical data.
The refractive index as well as molar refraction, is the true index of purity of substance and plays a vital role in solution chemistry. A small addition of a foreign substance either in solid state of liquid form is going to effect the refractive index.
As such the variation of refractive indices in pure glucose solution as a function of concentration is studied in detail and this principle is extended to the study of the refractive indices of urine solution of diabetic patients. The refractive indices are measured by spectrometry and abbe refractometry. A detailed study of variation of refractive indices of urine samples containing different sugar concentrations, of patients of different age groups revealed that the increase in refractive index follows a linear scale and can be explained by the equation, n=no [l+0.00251og (a s)1/4] [l+0.031og0.011C]. These study provided an opportunity to project refractometry as an effective tool in diagnosing the diabetic level of a patient by making use of a simple calibration curve of increment in refractive index ‘Δn, as a function of level of the disease.
Refractive index; spectrometer; abbe refractometer; Diabetes
Diabetes mellitus, a metabolic disorder, is characterized by hyperglycemia and altered metabolism. The administration of D-Nil plus (a polyherbal drug) showed effective treatment for alloxan induced diabetes in rats. In diabetic rats, haematological profiles namely RBC, WBC, platlet count and haemoglobin were decreased whereas ESR was increased. Similarly biochemical parameters creatinine, urea and protein were decreased but cholesterol level was increased. After the treatment with D-Nil plus, haematological parameters and biochemical parameters were reversed. The results suggest that the D-Nil plus can be used for the treatment of diabetes.
D-Nil plus; diabetes; haematological; biochemical parameters
The roots of Ichnocarpus frutescens (L) R.Br. (Apocynaceae) are used in indigenous system of medicine. The present study on phytochemical characteristics of root powder, namely behavior with different chemical reagents, fluorescent behaviour, extractive values, colour and consistency and qualitative phytochemical studies are useful for identification and conformation of its authenticity.
Cnicus wallichi DC belonging to the family Asteraceae, was studied to fix the parameters for pharmacognostical standards in order to ensure the use of only genuine and uniform materials of such herbal remedies, work on standardization assumes vital significance. Pharmacognostical study has therefore, been carried out, covering detailed morphological and anatomical characters, features of the powdered drug including leaf constants like Vein islet number, Vein termination number, Stomatal number, Stomatal index, Palisade ratio, Powder microscopy of the leaf and stem. Physical constants like ash values and extractive values.
The extract of Chloroxylon sweitenia (Family: Rutaceae) leaves were investigated for its anti-inflammatory activity at the different doses in the standard animal models. The experimental paradigms used were carrageenan induced rat paw oedema (acute), and cotton pellet induced granuloma (chronic) models in rats for anti-inflammatory activity. In rats the toxicity was also performed for the extract by oral administration. The chloroform extract of Chloroxylon sweitenia (CECS) exhibited significant anti-inflammatory effect at the dose 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg. Maximum inhibition (55.32 %) was noted at the dose of 200 mg/kg after 3 h of drug treatment in carrageenan induced paw oedema, whereas the Diclofenac (standard drug) produced 61.33 % of inhibition. In the chronic model (cotton pellet induced granuloma) the CECS (200 mg/kg) and standard drug showed decreased formation of granuloma tissue by 52.32 % and 56.32 % (p < 0.001) respectively. The CECS further evaluated for their toxicity effect at the doses of 100 mg/kg administered for 14 days to orally in rats. At the end of experiments the blood, liver function and kidney metabolism was observed. The effect of CECS was assessed by the change in the body weight, lipid peroxidation and glutathione content (GSH) activities were measured from hepatic tissues. The hematological profile and different biochemical parameters such as SGOT, SGPT, and ALP were also estimated. Thus, the present study revealed that the chloroform extract of Chloroxylon sweitenia exhibited significant anti-inflammatory activity in the tested models Toxicity study indicates that the extract is non-toxic at the tested doses.
Chloroxylon sweitenia; carrageenan; cotton pellet induced granuloma; anti-inflammatory activity
Haridra Khanda, an important polyherbomineral Ayurvedic formulation was analyzed by employing various parameters which included physicochemical parameters, quantitative estimation of sugar and T.L.C. profile. The evolved parameters will be useful for quality control of Haridra Khanda.
Haridra Khanda; Physicochemical analysis; Sugar content; TLC studies
The methanolic extract of Sida retusa Linn.(Malvaceae),Urena lobata Linn.(Malvaceae)and Triumfetta rhomboidea Jacq.(Teliaceae) roots were found to inhibit lipid peroxidation, scavenge hydroxyl and superoxide radicals in vitro. The quantity of S.retusa root extract required for 50% inhibition of lipid peroxidation, scavenging hydroxyl radical and superoxide radical was 1130.24 ug/ml respectively. IC 50 of root extract of U.lobata was 470.60 ug/ml, 1627.35ug/ml and 1109.24 ug/ml for superoxide radical scavenging, hydroxyl radical scavenging and lipid peroxidation respectively. T.rhomboidea root extract required for IC 50 was 336.65 ug/ml, 1346.03 ug/ml and 1004.22 ug/ml for superoxide scavenging, hydroxyl radical scavenging and lipid peroxidation respectively. The present investigation indicated that S. retusa, U.lobata and T.rhomboidea possessed significant antioxidant activity.
Sida retusa; Urena lobata; Triumfetta rhomboidea; antioxidant
The Ethanolic extract of whole plant of Euphorbia hirta was screened for burn wound healing activity in rats as 2% W/W cream. The study was carried out based on the assessment of percentage reduction in original wound. It showed significant burn wound healing activity.