Artemisia pallens Wall. ex DC commonly known as “Davana” in Kannada and Artemisia abrotanum Linn. known as “Southernwood” (Asteraceae) are aromatic herbs, erect in habit, upto 60 cm tall, leaves are very small, much divided, bluish green. These plants find use in traditional systems of medicine viz., anthelmintic, tonic and antipyretic properties. Since, these species have not been scientifically evaluated; the present study was aimed to bring these plants under a suitable pharmacognostical scheme.
The analgesic activity of ethanolic extract of Justicia beddome leaves (Family: Acanthaceae) was evaluated in albino rats using Eddy's hot plate method. The extract at 50 and 100 mg/ kg, (i.p), showed significant analgesic activity at 90 minutes of administration. The analgesic effect of the extract was comparable to that of morphine sulphate.
Diabetes Mellitus is characterized by elevated plasma glucose concentrations resulting from insufficient insulin. The present study was aimed to investigate the hypolipidemic effect of Coccinia indica aqueous leaf extract in alloxan induced diabetic rats. The results of this study revealed that a continuous administration of Coccinia indica extract for 21 days prevents the elevation of the level of serum lipids secondary to the diabetes state
Diabetes mellitus; Coccinia indica
The aqueous and successive extracts of the fruit pulp of Emblica officinalis and fresh leaves and stems of Ocimum sanctum were prepared and evaluated for antimicrobial activity. The successive extracts such as petroleum ether,chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol were prepared by successive solvent extraction method and aqueous extract by maceration process and screened for antimicrobial activity against gram positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus, gram negative bacteria E.coli and fungal strains of Candida species by using agar cup plate method. The extracts showed different degree of activity against pathogenic microbes. The results obtained were compared with standard drugs Amoxicillin (10μg) and Amphotericin B(10μg). The methanolic extract of Emblica officinalis was found to be more effective than the leaf and stem extracts of Ocimum sanctum in inhibiting all the microbial strains.
The antidiabetic effect of an aqueous seed extract of Syzygium calophyllifolium Walp. was studied in alloxan induced diabetic rats. Changes in serum and tissue AST, ALT LDH, ACP and ALP, enzymes activities in alloxan induced rats were studied and found to be reversed by the oral administration of S.calophyllifolium seed extract.
Netra Darpanamu is the only book written exclusively on Eye diseases in Telugu. This Ayurvedic book, which is famous in Andhra Pradesh, was first published in 1908 in Eluru. The book is written in chaste Telugu poetry, comprising the types of treatment followed by 36 recipes. This book contains names of various eye diseases, treatment procedures like bandages, plasters, collyriums and regimen of food and behaviour. This article aims to highlight the importance of this book in treating various eye diseases.
The use of metals and minerals is predominant in siddha system of medicine. As per siddha concept, peptic ulcer is known as Valigunmam, the basic abnormality appears to be the derangement of metabolism in the stomach and duodenum resulting in malfunctioning of the secretory process of gastric mucosa. Chendooram is a group of siddha drugs which is used for anemia, obesity, rheumatic diseases; abdominal tumours etc.During the present study standardized Kantha chendooram was selected and evaluated for its anti-ulcer activity, which could not be attempted by researchers earlier.
Siddha drug Kantha Chendooram Anti-ulcer activity
The present study was carried out to understand the antioxidant and protective effect of Semecarpus anacardium against lead acetate induced toxicity. This was done by analyzing the phytochemicals (Flavanoids, alkaloids, resins, tannins, carbohydrates, proteins, etc.) present in the plant and by assessing the hepatoprotective efficacy of the plant against lead acetate induced albino rats. Histopathological examination was also carried out to have a supporting evidence for the study. It was observed that the nut milk extract contains flavanoids, phenols and carbohydrates and the drug was effective against lead acetate induced toxicity. The levels of the marker enzymes were increased in the lead acetate induced rats and after the treatment of Semecarpus anacardium the liver damage decreased.
Lead acetate; Male albino rats; Semecarpus anacardium; Hepatotoxicity
The aborigines exploit medicinal virtues of tubers, roots fruits, seeds, flowers, leaves etc. from the forest and use in a variety of ways. The are used in the form of juice, decoction, oil, paste, extract, infusion and powder. Fresh parts are also used and the substances like sugar, sugarcandy, groundnut oil, milk and cow-ghee are used as additives. The native uses of medicinal plants are employed to better stomachcomplaints, rheumatic pains, spermatorrhoea, tooth-ache, head-ache, ear-ache, weakness, urinal troubles, fresh cuts, tumors, fever, mouth ulcer, bone fracture and few other human diseases. Total 47 species are being reported for the aforesaid ailments of these, applications of 32 species are unknown or little known. These are, however, desired for further scientific assessments for obvious reasons.
Ethnomedicine; Nandurbar district; Maharashtra
Nyctanthes arbortristis Linn. is a well documented plant. The present study is done to establish the diuretic activity of the water-soluble portions of the ethanolic extracts of its flowers, barks, seeds and leaves. In toxicity study, the extracts were seen to be safe up to the dose of 2.0 gm/kg. For the estimation of diuretic activity, the parameters studied were total urine volume and urine concentration of Na+, K+ and Cl-. The ethanolic extracts of different plant parts of Nyctanthes arbortristis L. possess significant diuretic activity as reflected by rise in urine volume with cation excretion. The ethanolic extracts of the seeds and leaves at their higher doses exhibited higher electrolyte excretion.
Nyctanthes arbortristis L.; diuretic activity
The major diagnostic characters and histological studies on the leaf, root and stem of Cressa cretica L. has been reported in this paper. Literature survey showed the absence of any systematic authentication of this plant.
The acetone extracts of Radix paeoniae (Paeonaceae) root (100 and 200 mg/kg orally) were tested in brewer's yeast-induced pyrexia in rats to assess their antipyretic activity. The pyrexia in rats was reduced significantly (P < 0.05) compared to that of control. These results indicate that the extracts possess antipyretic properties. The root extract showed significant reduction in normal body temperature and yeast-provoked elevated temperature comparable to that of standard antipyretic drug paracetamol. The antipyretic effect was started at 1h and extended for at least 4h after the drug administration.
Radix paeoniae; Antipyretic activity and brewer's yeast-induced pyrexia
The aqueous extract of Phyllanthus amarus Schum & Thorn, was selected for preliminary phytochemical and antibacterial activity against human pathogens. Minimum inhibitory concentration was performed by broth dilution method and the zone of inhibition was studied by agar disc diffusion method at concentrations of 10 and 20 mg/ml in DMSO (Dimethyl Sulfoxide). The results revealed the antimicrobial activity of extract against the the strains of microorganisms concentrations in ranges of 60 and 500 μg/ml. Aqueous extract of leaves and roots of Phyllanthus amarus exhibited significant antibacterial activity against eight test bacteria like Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus albus, Streptococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Proteus vulgaris. The plant under study revealed the presence of alkaloids, phytosterols, phenolic compounds and tannins, proteins and amino acids , lignins and saponins.
Antimicrobial activity; Alkaloids; Human pathogen; Phyllanthus amarus; Phytochemical
The ethanolic extract of the root of Tephrosia purpurea was screened for in vitro antioxidant properties using standard procedures. The ethanolic extract exhibited IC50 values of 132.31±8.79 and 405.22±15.09 respectively in DPPH and nitric acid radical inhibition assay. These values were slightly more than those obtained for ascorbic acid and rutin used as standard. The findings justify the therapeutic application of the plant in the indigenous system of medicine, augmenting its therapeutic value.
Tephrosia purpurea; DPPH; Nitric oxide; Free radical scavenging
In addition to the dominance of indigenous plant species, the grasslands of Nilgiris harbour a considerable number of exotic plants with sizeable number of individuals. In the present study in four major grasslands of Nilgiris, out of 12 exotic species present, 10 are recognized as medicinally important. The family, Asteraceae contributed a higher number of 6 medicinal species to the grassland community. The density of exotics in the studied grasslands is varied between 4 and 66/ha. In order to conserve the native species, the frequent harvesting of useful parts of exotics is suggested. In addition cultivation of these exotics in the degraded grasslands and other suitable habitats in Nilgiris may also reduce the pressure upon the native species and at the same time it will also meet the demand.
Exotic medicinal plants; grasslands; Nilgiris
L-Dopa is the drug of choice in the treatment of Parkinson's disease but it has dose related adverse effects such as nausea, vomiting, orthostatic hypotension, end of dose deterioration, on off phenomena and on chronic therapy motor complications synonymous to parkinsonism. Mucuna pruriens (M.P) commonly known as velvet beans or cowitch are used in case of spasms associated with Parkins onism. Clinical efficacy of seeds of this plant was confirmed and the efficacy was contributed to its L-Dopa content. M.P extract showed twice the antiparkinsonism activity compared with synthetic L-Dopa. There is sufficient L-Dopa in broad bean (Vicia faba) pods. One study proved its efficacy in Parkinsonism. Ginkgo biloba extract showed protective effect in vivo and invitro. 50% ethanolic extract of Plumbago zeylanica was effective in rats. The following plants were reported to have L-Dopa but their protective effect is yet to be established in animal models. Vigna aconitifolia, Vigna unguiculata, Vigna vexillata, Prosopis chilensis, Pileostigma malabarica, Phanera vahlis, Parkinsonia acculeata, Macuna urens, Canvavalia glandiata, Cassia floribanda, Casia hirsute and Dalbergia retusa etc.
Antiparkinsonism; L-dopa; alternative medicine; herbs
The anthelmintic activity of the Imethanolic extract of the root bark of Carissa carandas was evaluated on adult Indian earthworm (Pheretima posthuma) using albendazole as a reference standard. The extract caused paralysis followed by the death of worm at the tested dose level. The extract at the highest tested concentration has anthelmintic activity comparable with that of standard drug albendazole.
Medicinal plants play a key role in human health care. Pterocarpus marsupium is one of the plants used in treatment of diabetes mellitus and the present study was aimed to assess hepatoprotective effect of the plant against CCl4 induced hepatotoxicity. Wistar albino rats were divided into four groups. Group I was normal control group; Group II, the hepatotoxic group was given CCl4 (2ml/kg body weight intraperitoneally); Groups III received CC14 + Plant extract (100 mg/kg b.w orally); Group IV received only the plant extract. Liver markers were assayed in serum and liver tissue. Levels of marker enzymes such as alanine transminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and bilirubin were increased significantly in Group II. These enzymes were significantly decreased in Group III treated with plant extracts. The present investigation suggest that the plant had a good protective effect on CCl4 induced hepatic injury.
The effect of Achyranthes aspera on lipid peroxidation were studied in rats fed with Sesame Oil. Increase in the levels of LPO in sesame oil treated groups returned towards normalcy in the plant extract treated groups revealing the antioxidant potential of the plant. Phytochemical studies revealed the presence of secondary metabolites. According to the results obtained Achyranthes aspera inhibited Ferrous Ascorbate stimulated LPO.
Achyranthes aspera; Sesame oil; LPO; Ferrous; Ascorbate; Secondary metabolites
Traditional medicinal uses for various human diseases of 54 angiospermic species from Shegaon, Sangrampur, Jalgaon (Jamod), Malkapur, Nandura, Motala and Khamgaon tehsils of Buldhana district (Maharashtra) are reported. Of these, applications of 36 species are unknown or little known. The folk medicines consist of a sole drug or a principal drug in combination with other drugs. The recent botanical name, local plant name, recipe, mode of administration, doses etc. are communicated as collected from the tribal and rural folks of the district. It is desirable to screen these species on modern scientific lines.
Ethnomedicine; Buldhana district; Maharashtra
Lycianthes bigeminata Bitter (Solanaceae) is an important medicinal herb distributed in the sholas of Nilgiris and chiefly used for curing ulcer. It is reported that the species is present in the sholas with poor population size in comparison to other constituent species. Owing to the demand and subsequent exploitation, it is predicted that it may occupy still poor association in the sholas of Nilgiris in course of time. Hence in vitro regeneration through employing tissue culture technique is needed. The preliminary attempt in the present study reports that the MS medium supplemented with Benzyl Amino Purine (BAP) and Naphthalene Amino Acid (NAA) at 0.5 mg/l each, induced effective callus formation. However further studies on hardening is suggested to know the survivability of this species.
Lycianthes bigeminata; callus; in vitro organogenesis
Hypolipidemic effect of Samai (.i.e. Panicum miliare) on selected fifty cardiovascular patients were studied for a period of sixty days (25 control; 25 supplemented with Samai). Lipid profiles were analyzed before and after supplementation period for both control and experimental group. It was heartwarming to note that all the lipid values with the exception of HDL – cholesterol had reduced after supplementation with Samai and the reductions were statistically significant at 1 per cent level. There was a mild increase in the HDL cholesterol level, which was desirable.
Prevalence; cardio vascular disease; supplementation; panicum miliare; lipid profile
Nerium indicum [Family:Apocynaceae] is commonly known as Arali [Tam] found throughout India, and has been used in the treatment of cancer, cardiotonic, leprosy and skin diseases. Plant parts such as root, bark and leaves are used. The present study is therefore undertaken to analyse its phyto chemical constituents in solvents like Benene, Chloroform and Alcohol and to screen its antibacterial activity. The dried leaf sample is extracted with solvents by cold maceration. The phytochemical analysis showed the presence of Alkaloids, Terpenoids, Cardiac glycosides, Saponins, Tannins & Carbohydrates in all the solvents. All the extracts were screened for antibacterial activity by Disc Diffusion Method. Out of the cultures used Staphylococccus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Salmonella typhimurium showed better zone of inhibition which is 10mm, 9mm & 7 mm respectively.
The antibiogram activity of ethanolic and aqueous extract of E.hirta was studied. Ethanol extract of the plant showed the maximal antibacterial activity and G.C Analysis showed the presence of citronellal. The extract showed inhibited the growth of E.coli, S.aureus, P.aeruginosa, Proteus etc.,
Euphorbia hirta; Antibiogram; Gas Chromatography
The microscopic and macroscopic characters of the rhizome of Curcuma domestica Val. were studied. The behavior of the powdered drug in the presence of various chemicals was also studied. Preliminary phytochemical screening on the various extracts of the rhizome was done in order to ascertain the various chemical constituents present. These studies were carried out to identify this plant for future research work.