In Ayurveda, a series of pharmaceutical procedures which converts a poisonous drug into a therapeutically very effective medicine for various ailments is termed as Shodhana. Various medias are being used for processing the herbal poisonous drugs, are quite interesting to understand with modern scientific technology. The analysis of media before and after Shodhana (purification /processing) will give clear rationale behind the selection of the particular media for the particular drug. The change that takes place during the Shodhana process can be explored by modern analytical methods. Researchers have proved the presence of strychnine and brucine in milk after Shodhana of Nux-vomica highlighting the role media for Shodhana. Importance of Shodhana, the role of media used for Shodhana process of few poisonous drugs is dealt briefly with scientific view.
Shodhana; Purification; Processing; Poisonous herbs; Media
Various pharmacognostic parameters including macroscopy, microscopy, chemomicroscopy and behaviour of powdered drug on treatment with different chemical reagents were studied on the leaves of Bauhinia purpurea Linn. (Family Caesalpinaceae). Phytochemical screening of the plant part with various solvents revealed the presence of phenolic compounds, tannins, flavonoids, phytosterols, saponins and glycosides in it.
Waje rehm (Dysmenorrhoea) means painful menstruation. Since ancient times, hijamat bila shurt (Dry cupping) is a method of treatment of for this disease. Therefore, objective of this preliminary study was to evaluate the efficacy of hijamat bila shurt on intensity of pain in waje rehm by using Visual Analogue Scale for pain. It was conducted from May 2009 to July 2010 on 25 patients in National Institute of Unani Medicine, Bangalore. Patients suffering from primary and secondary dysmenorrhoea with regular cycles, age group 12-37years were selected. For dry cupping, two glass cup of medium size were applied below the umbilicus for 15 minutes on day land/or day 2 of the menstrual phase for one cycle and pain intensity was assessed by Visual Analogue Scale score for pain before and after the treatment. The Mean and Standard Error Mean for pain intensity before and after the treatment was 6.48 (0.32) and 2.12 (0.32) respectively with P<0.001, considered significant. Thus, hijamat bila shurt was effective in reducing pain intensity in dysmenorrhoea.
Hijamat bila shurt; dry cupping; dysmenorrhoea; Unani System of Medicine; visual analogue scale for pain
This paper reports the ethno-medicinal uses of 30 plants by the Paroja tribes of Koraput, Odisha. All the plants were enumerated with botanical name, family name, local name, short description of the plant and information on ethnic use.
Ayurveda symbolises holistic approach towards treating diseases and better prevention than cure as its one of the main motto.1 In present paper, etiological based survey of 30 patients was carried out to assess dietary and habitual lifestyles of people suffering from hypertension, for this a detailed proforma based on classical etiological factors related to hypertension was used. After the detailed assessment it was found that, more percentage of etiological factors of Raktavaha Srotas (micro channels for the transportation of blood) (78.46%), Rasavaha Srotas (micro channels for the transport of chyme) (53.33%) were found influenced than that ofManovaha Srotas (micro channels for the conveyance of psyche) (27.67%)) and Medovaha Srotas (micro channels transporting of fats) (37.76%). Hence, it can be concluded that avoidance of these etiologies (Nidanaparivarjana) is a first step in the direction of control and management of hypertension.
A case of stricture of membranous urethra was treated with medicated oil used as Uttara Basti (administration of medicated oil through urethra) once daily for seven consecutive days. The treatment was repeated at a monthly interval for two months. The patient obtained remarkable improvement in his condition. This case highlights the fact that it is possible to treat the cases of urethral stricture with Uttara Basti.
urethral stricture; Uttara Basti
‘The History of Hindu Chemistry’ is one of the rare, important books published in twentieth century. Sir Prafulla Chandra Ray, the author of this book, who was a chemist by profession, has contributed greatly to the field of Rasashastra in his own style. The book in two volumes is in English and has achieved international recognition. The work became the cause of enlightening people specially, the Westerners about Indian Alchemy which, they were till then unaware of. In a way, ‘globalization’ of the concepts of Rasashastra has its starting point in the works of Sir P.C.Ray. The author has touched almost every area of Rasashastra of course, from the standpoint of modern Chemistry. A critical analysis of his contributions, the narration of the contents of the book are detailed in the paper.
Kidney stone formation or Urolithiasis is a complex process that results from series of several physicochemical events including super-saturation, nucleation, growth, aggregation and retention within the kidneys. Among the treatments include Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy (ESWL) and drug treatment. Even this ESWL treatment may cause acute renal injury, decrease in renal function and increase in stone recurrence. In addition, persistent residual stone fragments and possibility of infection after ESWL represent a serious problem in the treatment of stones. Data from in-vitro, in-vivo and clinical trials reveal that phytotherapeutic agents could be useful as either alternative or an adjunct therapy in the management of Urolithiasis. Medicinal plants /natural products are more acceptable to the body because they promote the repair mechanism in natural way. Various plant species of the genus Bergenia, have been reported to posses antiurolithiatic property. Bergenia ligulata (Wall.) Engl, is one the ingredient of reputed herbal formulation Cy stone for the treatment of kidney stones. In this study alcohol, butanol, ethyl acetate extracts and isolated phenolic compounds from the Ayurvedic and Unani herb, Bergenia ciliata (Haw.) Sternb. leaves (Saxifragaceae) were evaluated for their potential to dissolve experimentally prepared kidney stones-calcium oxalate and calcium phosphate, by an in-vitro model. Phenolic compound P1 isolated from the ethyl acetate fraction of the leaves, demonstrated highest dissolution of both stones when compared to test extracts at 10 mg concentration. However, it was more effective in dissolving calcium phosphate stones (67.74 %) than oxalate (36.95%). Reference standard-formulation Cystone was found to be more effective (48.48%) when compared to compound P1.
Bergenia ciliata; kidney stones; Urolithiatic; Calcium oxalate; Calcium phosphate
Mizaj (Temperament) is one of the basic concepts ofUnani system of medicine upon which diagnosis and line of treatment of a disease are based. Every human being has been furnished a specific Mizaj through which an individual performs his functions properly. If it is disturbed, body becomes more susceptible to develop such diseases having same temperament as that of an individual. Objective of the study was to evaluate the relation of diseases in respect of Mizaj of the patients and to provide some knowledge for prevention of other diseases that may be related to identified Mizaj. Four hundred (400) patients fulfilling the criteria were enrolled in the study followed by their Mizaj were assessed by two pre structured proformas based on objective and subjective parameters given by Eminent Unani physicians. Following assessment of Mizaj of the patients, concordance between their Mizaj; Sue Mizaj Mufrad Sada (simple and single unbalanced temperament), Sue Mizaj Murakkab Sada (simple and compound imbalanced temperament) and Sue Mizaj Maaddi (imbalanced temperament due to humour) and disease was established, and it was observed that only patients of Sue Mizaj Barid (cold imbalanced temperament) and Sue Mizaj Balghami (imbalanced temperament due to phlegm) had significant concordance as compared to the rest. In the present study, non concordance between Mizaj and disease distribution may be attributed to those factors which tend to alter the Mizaj and have potential to produce diseases, like Mizaje Khilqi (congenital temperament), age, Masakin (residence), weather, diets, occupation and habit.
Mizaj; Temperament; Diagnosis; Concordance and Disease of subject
The Anthelmintic activities of different extracts of aerial parts of Cynodon dactylon Pers were evaluated separately on adult Indian earthworm (Pheritima posthuma). It was found that petroleum ether (PECD), chloroform (CECD), ethanol (EECD), aqueous extract (AECD) of C. dactylon showed anthelmintic activities at the concentration of 5 mg/ml of each. The anthelmintic effects of PECD, CECD, EECD and AECD at 10-mg/ml concentrations were comparable with that of the effects produced by the reference standards, albendazole (10 mg/ml) and piperazine citrate (10 mg/ml).
Wild Indigo or Purple Tephrosia or fish poison occurs throughout the Indian subcontinent. It is widely used in the treatment of inflammation, diabetes, rheumatism, asthma, diarrhoea and many other ailments. But so far the pharmacognostic standardization has not been reported for its proper identification. Hence the present study is a pharmacognosy work carried out for the root part. This may help in the identification of the plant species. A thin transverse section, powder microscopy, measurement of the dimensions of cell structures, fluorescence analysis and physico chemical parameters were conducted for the root. From the TS, the secondary xylem fibres and vessels were found to be the tissues of diagnostic importance. The xylem vessels were of two types: narrow and long; broad and short. The important characters in the powdered microscopy were vessel elements, fibres and xylem parenchyma cells. The different fluorescent light shades were obtained under short and long UV light for both powder as well as the extracts of the root. The proximate analysis values were also obtained in a satisfactory way. Combining all these data a suitable root profile for plant can be constructed which may help in the identification of quality of the plant part.
Tephrosia purpurea; rotenone; transverse section; fluorescence analysis; vessel elements
The one of the oldest system of medicine, Ayurveda is momentous in audience of worldwide on virtue of its holistic approach of life. Formulations of Ayurveda consist of substances of herbal, mineral/metal and animal origin which are processed pharmaceutical to have therapeutic effects. This is attribute of processes of Shodhan (purification/potentiation), Bhavana (impregation /levigation) and Marana (incineration/calcinations) of Rasa Shastra which acclimatize these toxic industrial matter to a effective remedies known as herbo mineral formulations (Rasaoushadhies) of Ayurveda. In recent past there is prevalence of some doubt on safety and efficacy of these medicines. In this review paper we tried to justify application of these medicines as these are time tested and showed wonderful clinical adaptability. We also attempted to establish new facts of figures of core science in explanation of these medicines.
Shodhan ’a-MaranaBhasma; Nanotechnology; Metallopharmaceuticals
Capsicum annum L. (Family: Solanaceae) and Hemidesmus indicus (Linn.) R.Br. (Family: Asclepiadaceae) are commonly used in Tamilnadufor treating various ailments in the native system of medicine. The hydroalcoholic extracts of both plants at dose level of 100 mg/kg body weight showed demonstrable anti-inflammatory activity in the carrageenan-induced hind paw model in rats. Nevertheless, the overall anti-inflammatory activity exhibited by the extracts are found to be less as compared with that of standard drug Indometacin. Preliminary physico-phytochemical analysis of the plants in question were attempted. The results are highlighted and discussed.
Capsicum annum L.; Hemidesmus indicus (Linn.)R.Br; Physico-phytochemical characters; anti-inflammatory activity; carrageenan-induced hind paw edema rat model; ethnomedicine
Bhasmas are potent Ayurvedic medicaments, biologically active and powerful healing preparations in all aspects. Properly prepared Bhasmas have not reported any serious untoward effects in clinical practice. Vanga Bhasma is an effective Ayurvedic medicine among various Bhasmas which are classically explained and advised specially in genitourinary disorders. XRD peaks of Vanga Bhasma are identified to be as Tindioxide (SnO2)
Vanga; Shodhana; Dhalana; Jarana; Marana; Vanga Bhasma; XRD of Vanga Bhasma
The ethanolic fruit extract of Pedalium murex to ethylene glycol intoxicated rats reverted the levels of the liver and kidney markers to near normal levels protecting liver and renal tissues from damage and also prevents the crystal retention in tissues. The levels of ACP, ALP, AST, ALT in serum andurine were significantly increased due to the damaged structural integrity of renal and hepatic cells causing the enzymes which are located in the cytoplasm to be released into the circulation. The levels of ACP and ALP, AST, ALT in renal and hepatic tissues of ethylene glycol induced rats might be due to leakage of the enzyme into the general circulation from the collateral circulation. LDH levels in serum, urine and tissues were increased on ethylene glycol intoxication is due to the oxalate induced renal and hepatic cellular damage.
Marker enzymes; urolithiasis; ethylene glycol; Pedalium murex
The present study expresses the Age Old Traditional Treatments for Snake Bites in Chittoor district of Andhra Pradesh. Tribal people of this area have authentic information about antidotes for poisonous bites. They have been using different plant parts like leaves, fruits, flowers, seeds, stem bark, tubers and roots as antidotes in the form of paste, powder, juice, infusion, decoction, and in crude form. These plant parts are sometimes mixed with other additives like goat milk, butter milk and urine of infants. The present study brought to light the unrevealed age old treatments for poisonous snake bites in general and some particular snake bites. This study consist 32 species belonging to 23 families.
Mandura (Iron rust) is known by names lohkitta, malayas, ayomala, meaning waste of iron. Among different formulations prescribed for Parinamashoola (Peptic ulcer), in Ayurvedic classics Kshiramandura (Preparation of Iron rust in Milk) is one. Ancient authorities have given similar recipes of Mandura and these medicines are being successfully administered in the management of Peptic ulcer. In Parinamashoola (Peptic ulcer), Acharya Chakradatta mentioned Kshiramandura, as a formulation prepared by taking 384gms of Mandura Bhasma (Incinerated Iron rust), 3 Kg 73 gm of cow's urine and 768gms of cow's milk, boiled and administered in a dose of 500mg. To establish Physical and Chemical factors present in Mandura before and after purification and incineration, the preparation ofKshira mandura was attempted by adopting Quantitative and Qualitative methods. The drugwas identified by the qualities as described in the classics, viz., unctuous, heavy, hard and black in color and absence of hollow space. Mandura was heated in burning charcoal (600-800° c) and dipped in 5 liters of Cow's urine. This process was repeated 7 times, till the Mandura broke. This purified Mandura was then powdered and triturated with decoction ofTerminalia chebula, Terminalia belerica and Emblica officinalis (Triphala kashaya). Thereafter pellets were prepared and dried. The pellets were then sealed in crucibles and heated 30 times in a special type of furnace with temperature of 1000°c (Gajaputa method) to incinerate Mandura and prepare its ash (Bhasma). Cow's urine and milk were added to this Mandura Bhasma and Kshiramandura was prepared. When analyzed it showed 68.3 5% Ferric oxide, 0.66%MgCO3 and 1.32% CaCO3.
Mandura; Parinama shoola; Triphala Kvatha; Gaja puta; Kshira Mandura; Tridosa
Field survey was conducted in rural areas of Varanasi district of Uttar Pradesh including Ramnagar, Manduadih and surrounding areas to identify and collect information on undocumented medicinal plants (Anukta Dravya) by direct interaction with folklore people through field survey and indirect means by means of comprehensive survey of available literature. Local names of undocumented medicinal plants along with other relevant information were collected, after recording local names of medicinal plants, their botanical identification was done by comprehensive survey of literature, and the plants were identified according to Bentham & Hooker's system of classification using local floristic works. Expert opinion of plant taxonomists was also sought for cross checking and confirmation on identity. The freshly collected specimens were photographed for visual identification of the species. After identification, nomenclature of 10 Anukta Dravya was done as per the criteria of nomenclature mentioned in Nighantus.
Undocumented medicinal plants; Anukta Dravya; Botanical identification; nomenclature
Metals have had a long history in Ayurvedic system of medicine. Mercury (Parada), gold (Swarna), silver (Rajata), copper (Tamra), iron (Lauha), tin (Vanga), lead (Naga), and zinc (Yasada) are used in therapeutics in an incinerated (Bhasma) form. The pharmacological actions, therapeutic indications, adverse effects and management of adverse effects of these metals are described and emphasis has been given to the proper preparation, rational dose and duration during clinical practice in the classics of Ayurveda. Most important observation is, there are no contraindications of these Bhasmas, indicating universal applicability to all age levels with suitable adjuvant, proper dose and duration.
Ayurveda; Bhasma; Marana; Shodhana; Dosha
Tamaka Shvasa which has been mentioned in Ayurvedic classics shares multiple similarities with Bronchial Asthma. Symptom of breathlessness is the main complaint in Bronchial Asthma which can be assessed objectively by Pulmonary Function Test (PFT).The assessment of respiratory function is now a routine part of clinical practice. The expiratory flow rates- Forced Expiratory Volume in first second (FEV), Forced Vital Capacity (FVC) and Peak Expiratory Flow Rate (PEFR) are assessed by an Electronic Spirometer (Kent, England). Six weeks treatment with a compound preparation of herbs including - Sati (Hedichum spicatum, Rose), Puskaramoola (Innula racemosa, Linn), and Amalaki (Emblica officinalis, Gaertn) powder showed a significant effect of increase in Pulmonary Function values. The mean grade score plus standard deviation before trial of FEV, FVC, and PEFR were 62.6±15.06, 2.03±o.53 and 189±44.05 respectively. After six weeks of treatment with Puskaramooladi choorna FEV, FVC and PEFR showed highly significant results with values 63.45±15.9, 2.81±0.33 and 199.6±41.58 respectively. Puskaramooladi choorna can be used as one of the potent medicine in the treatment of the Bronchial Asthma.
Taxus baccata (L) known as Sthauneyaka in Sanskrit1 has wide range of biological activities including analgesic, anti-malarial, anti-rheumatic, sedative, anti-spasmodic, aphrodisiac and anti-asthmatic. In the present study, the dried and powdered bark of Taxus baccata (L) was extracted with 95% ethanol and ether at room temperature and screened for their anti--inflammatory activity by Carrageenan-induced paw edema method in rat. 95% ethanol extract exhibits potent anti-inflammatory activity at 200mg/kg four hours after administration in comparison with ether extract, as well reference standard, Aspirin. The observed pharmacological activities provide a scientific basis for the folklore use of the plant in treating acute inflammation.
Taxus baccata; Anti-inflammatory; Anti-rheumatic; Carrageenan