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1.  Standardization of Rajanyādi cūrṇa: An ayurvedic preparation 
Ancient Science of Life  2014;33(3):146-150.
Background:
Rajanyādi cūrṇa (RC) is an ayurvedic classical preparation used in the treatment of digestive disorders, fever, jaundice, anemia, and asthma. We seek to standardize this drug to ensure its quality.
Objective:
The current investigation was aimed at the preparation of cūrṇa in three batches so as to standardize it.
Materials and Methods:
The cūrṇa was prepared in-house in three different batches according to directions given in The Ayurvedic Formulary of India. The cūrṇa was evaluated based on organoleptic characters, physical characteristics, and physico-chemical parameters. High performance thin layer chromatography was carried out for the quantification of curcumin.
Results:
The parameters were found to be comparable and sufficient for the evaluation of the cūrṇa.
Conclusion:
Ayurvedic medicine, RC has been standardized using the various parameters and can be incorporated while developing the pharmacopoeial standards.
doi:10.4103/0257-7941.144617
PMCID: PMC4264301  PMID: 25538348
High performance thin layer chromatography; physicochemical; Rajanyādi cūrṇa; standardization
2.  Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of Ocimum basilicum L. (sweet basil) from Western Ghats of North West Karnataka, India 
Ancient Science of Life  2014;33(3):151-156.
Context:
Ocimum basilicum L. (Lamiaceae) commonly known as sweet basil, has been used as a traditional medicinal plant for the treatment of headaches, coughs, diarrhea, constipation, warts, worms, and kidney malfunctions.
Materials and Methods:
The essential oil of the flowering aerial parts of O. basilicum growing in the Western Ghats region of North West Karnataka, India, was obtained by hydro-distillation and analyzed by gas chromatography equipped with flame ionization detector and gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC–MS). The oil was tested against six Gram-positive, eight Gram-negative bacteria, and three fungi by the tube-dilution method at a concentration range of 5.00-0.009 mg/mL.
Results:
Twenty-five constituents were identified in the essential oil of O. basilicum. The major constituents were identified as methyl eugenol (39.3%) and methyl chavicol (38.3%), accounting for 98.6% of the total oil. The oil was found to be active against Gram-positive, Gram-negative bacteria, and fungi with minimal bactericidal concentration values in the range of 0.143 ± 0.031 to 0.572 ± 0.127 mg/mL, 0.781 ± 0.382 to 1.875 ± 0.684 mg/mL, and 0.312 ± 0.171 to 0.442 ± 0.207 mg/mL, respectively.
Conclusion:
The essential oil of O. basilicum of this region contains methyl eugenol/methyl chavicol chemotype and has bactericidal properties.
doi:10.4103/0257-7941.144618
PMCID: PMC4264302  PMID: 25538349
Bactericidal property; essential oil composition; gas chromatography-mass spectrometry; Lamiaceae; methyl chavicol; methyl eugenol; Ocimum basilicum L.
3.  Detoxification of Croton tiglium L. seeds by Ayurvedic process of Śodhana 
Ancient Science of Life  2014;33(3):157-161.
Objective:
Croton tiglium seeds, known as Jamālgoṭa in Hindi, Marathi, and Urdu is well-known for its toxicity (severe purgative action). In Ayurvedic texts, the plant is known as Kumbhinī and is used for the treatment of constipation after Śodhana (detoxification process) of the seeds with Godugdha (cow milk).
Material and Methods:
In the present study, C. tiglium seeds were purified with cow milk as reported in Ayurvedic classics. Phorbol esters equivalent to phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA) and crotonic acid contents were quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography method in the seeds of C. tiglium before and after the purification process.
Results:
The content of the phorbol ester equivalent to PMA in unpurified and purified sample was found to be 5.2 mg/100 g and 1.8 mg/100 g of dried seeds of C. tiglium, respectively. The quantity of crotonic acid in unpurified seeds of C. tiglium was found to be 0.102 mg/100 g of dried seeds while it was absent in the purified seed extract of C. tiglium.
Conclusion:
The toxicity of C. tiglium seeds may be due to the presence of phorbol esters and crotonic acid along with other constituents. These constituents are oil soluble and may be removed by cow milk during the process of Śodhana. Reduction in the level of these constituents after the purification decreases the toxicity of C. tiglium seeds. Reduction in the oily content from the seeds of C. tiglium during the purification process is also supported by the results obtained from the physiochemical parameters.
doi:10.4103/0257-7941.144619
PMCID: PMC4264303  PMID: 25538350
Croton tiglium; crotonic acid; phorbol ester; purification
4.  In vitro thrombolytic potential of root extracts of four medicinal plants available in Bangladesh 
Ancient Science of Life  2014;33(3):162-164.
Context:
Thrombus formation inside the blood vessels obstructs blood flow through the circulatory system leading hypertension, stroke to the heart, anoxia, and so on. Thrombolytic drugs are widely used for the management of cerebral venous sinus thrombosis patients, but they have certain limitations. Medicinal plants and their components possessing antithrombotic activity have been reported before. However, plants that could be used for thrombolysis has not been reported so far.
Aims:
This study's aim was to evaluate the thrombolytic potential of selected plants’ root extracts.
Settings and Design:
Plants were collected, dried, powdered and extracted by methanol and then fractionated by n-hexane for getting the sample root extracts. Venous blood samples were drawn from 10 healthy volunteers for the purposes of investigation.
Subjects and Methods:
An in vitro thrombolytic model was used to check the clot lysis potential of four n-hexane soluble roots extracts viz., Acacia nilotica, Justicia adhatoda, Azadirachta indica, and Lagerstroemia speciosa along with streptokinase as a positive control and saline water as a negative control.
Statistical Analysis Used:
Dunnett t-test analysis was performed using SPSS is a statistical analysis program developed by IBM Corporation, USA. on Windows.
Results:
Using an in vitro thrombolytic model, A. nilotica, L. speciosa, A. indica, and J. adhatoda at 5 mg extract/ml NaCl solution concentration showed 15.1%, 15.49%, 21.26%, and 19.63% clot lysis activity respectively. The reference streptokinase showed 47.21%, and 24.73% clot lysis for 30,000 IU and 15,000 IU concentrations, respectively whereas 0.9% normal saline showed 5.35% clot lysis.
Conclusions:
The selected extracts of the plant roots possess marked thrombolytic properties that could lyse blood clots in vitro; however, in vivo clot dissolving properties and active components responsible for clot lysis are yet to be discovered.
doi:10.4103/0257-7941.144620
PMCID: PMC4264304  PMID: 25538351
Acacia nilotica; Azadirachta indica; cardiovascular disease; Justicia adhatoda; Lagerstroemia speciosa; streptokinase; thrombolytic potential
5.  Physicochemical standardization, HPTLC profiling, and biological evaluation of Aśvagandhādyariṣṭa: A comparative study of three famous commercial brands 
Ancient Science of Life  2014;33(3):165-171.
Background:
Aśvagandhādyariṣṭa is a polyherbal formulation that is available commercially as an over the counter drug. There are three famous brands that are available in the market. However, there are no comparative reports on the physicochemical, chromatographic, and biological profiles of Aśvagandhādyariṣṭa manufactured by these famous companies.
Aims:
The present study deals with the physicochemical standardization, high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) profiling, and biological evaluation of Aśvagandhādyariṣṭa.
Materials and Methods:
Aśvagandhādyariṣṭa manufactured by three leading companies were purchased from Jalandhar, Punjab. The physicochemical standardization of the samples was carried out in accordance with the Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India (API). Authentified Eisenia foetida were procured from Ujjwal Ujala Vermiculture Group, Amritsar. The anthelmintic activity, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl scavenging, and hydrogen peroxide scavenging ability of Aśvagandhādyariṣṭa was determined.
Statistical Analysis Used:
The data of anthelmintic activity were expressed as mean ± standard error of the mean of six earthworms in each group. The statistical analysis was carried out using one-way analysis of variance, followed by Dunnet t-test. The difference in values at P < 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant.
Results:
Most of the physicochemical standardization parameters mentioned as per the API were found to be within limit. HPTLC profiling showed the presence of withanolide D in commercial samples. Out of three commercial brands, ASA-DAB was the most active as compared to the ASA-BDN and ASA-AVP at the concentration of 200 mg/ml for anthelmintic activity against E. foetida. ASA-DAB showed the best antioxidant activity in both the in vitro assay at the concentration of 100 μg/ml.
Conclusions:
The ability of this formulation to scavenge free radicals supports its medical claim of antistress formulation. The anthelmintic potential of this formulation helps us conclude that it can also be considered as a general tonic because it provides relief from helminths.
doi:10.4103/0257-7941.144621
PMCID: PMC4264305  PMID: 25538352
Anthelmintic; Aśvagandhādyariṣṭa; 1,1-diphenyl-2- picrylhydrazyl; hydrogen peroxide; high-performance thin layer chromatography
6.  Evaluation of implementation status of national policy on Indian systems of medicine and homeopathy 2002: Stakeholders’ perspective 
Ancient Science of Life  2013;33(2):103-108.
Background:
National Policy on Indian systems of medicine and homoeopathy (ISM and H policy) was formulated in 2002 to encourage the development of Ayurveda, Sidhha, Unani, Yoga, Naturopathy and Homoeopathy in India. This study proposes to assess the views of public health experts on current implementation of ISM and H Policy.
Methods:
An online questionnaire was designed to ascertain the views of public health experts on ISM and H Policy and mailed to 100 public health experts. The tool was tested for content validity and a pilot study was done. Results were analyzed with the help of SPSS version 16.
Results and Conclusion:
Response rate was 61%. Majority of experts considered implementation status of ISM and H Policy as poor. Lack of quality education was mentioned as major factor responsible for current scenario of ISM and H Policy by most of experts. Lack of funds and government support were emerged as major bottlenecks in implementation of ISM and H Policy.
doi:10.4103/0257-7941.139048
PMCID: PMC4171850  PMID: 25284943
AYUSH; evaluation; implementation; ISM and H policy
7.  In-vitro antioxidant and antibacterial activities of Xanthium strumarium L. extracts on methicillin-susceptible and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus 
Ancient Science of Life  2013;33(2):109-113.
Background and Aims:
The excessive and repeated use of antibiotics in medicine has led to the development of antibiotic-resistant microbial strains, including Staphylococcus aureus whose emergence of antibiotic-resistant strains has reduced the number of antibiotics available to treat clinical infections caused by this bacterium. In this study, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of methanolic extract of Xanthium strumarium L. leaves were evaluated on methicillin-susceptible and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) spp.
Materials and Methods:
Antiradical and antioxidant activities X. strumarium L. leaf extract were evaluated based on its ability to scavenge the synthetic 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical and by the paired diene method, respectively, whereas the antimicrobial activity was assayed by the disc diffusion method.
Statistical Analysis:
Data were subjected to analysis of variance following an entirely random design to determine the least significant difference at P < 0.05 using SPSS v. 11.5.
Results and Conclusions:
The IC50 values of the extract were 0.02 mg/mL and 0.09 mg/mL for the antioxidant and DPPH-scavenging capacity, respectively. X. strumarium extract affected both methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus and MRSA, though antibacterial activity was more effective on methicillin-susceptible S. aureus spp. The antibacterial and antioxidant activities exhibited by the methanol extract may justify the traditional use of this plant as a folk remedy worldwide.
doi:10.4103/0257-7941.139050
PMCID: PMC4171851  PMID: 25284944
1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl; antioxidant activity; methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus; methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus; Staphylococcus aureus; Xanthium strumarium L
8.  Studies on in vitro interaction of ampicillin and fresh garlic extract against Staphylococcus aureus by checkerboard method 
Ancient Science of Life  2013;33(2):114-118.
Objective:
Staphylococcus aureus has largely developed resistance to the multiple antimicrobial agents. Garlic (Allium sativum) is claimed to retard development of resistance and produce synergy with conventional antimicrobial agents. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of combination of ampicillin with fresh garlic extract (FGE) against S. aureus by using in vitro method.
Materials and Methods:
Antimicrobial activity of FGE was studied by well diffusion and broth dilution methods. The effect of combination of ampicillin with FGE was studied by using checkerboard method against the clinical isolates of S. aureus. The organisms were exposed to individual antimicrobial as well the different combinations of the two agents and minimum inhibitory concentration was measured.
Results:
Synergistic interaction was observed by the combination of FGE with ampicillin for all the strains of S. aureus. Mean minimum inhibitor concentration (MIC) of ampicillin per se was 24 μg/ml. Addition of 30-60 mg/ml of FGE reduced MIC of ampicillin to <2 μg/ml.
Conclusion:
This in vitro study indicates synergism between FGE and ampicillin against S. aureus. Evaluation of these combinations in vivo may be warranted.
doi:10.4103/0257-7941.139053
PMCID: PMC4171852  PMID: 25284945
Ampicillin; checkerboard method; fresh garlic extract; Staphylococcus aureus
9.  Evaluation of a Unani polyherbal formulation (Tiryaqe wabai) as an immunostimulator in elderly persons 
Ancient Science of Life  2013;33(2):119-122.
Background and Aims:
Elderly subjects have a dysregulation of immune response mainly due to the changes in cell - mediated immunity. Due to their weakened immune response, the elderly are at increased risk of infection and related complications. In Unani medicine Tiryaq wabai was used for the prevention of epidemic diseases during outbreaks, but it has not been explored scientifically so far. The study was aimed to evaluate the immune-stimulating effect of Tiryaq wabai in elderly.
Materials and Methods:
A randomized placebo controlled trial was conducted at National Institute of Unani Medicine Hospital, Bangalore. Thirty immunocompromised elderly persons were selected on the basis of clinical examination considering parameters like history of recurrent infection, unexplained weight loss, persistent diarrhea etc. They were randomly assigned, 20 in test and 10 in the control group. Tiryaq wabai was given to test group 500 mg orally thrice in a week for 45 days. Placebo was given orally to the control group at a dose of 500 mg thrice in a week for 45 days. Response was assessed by total leucocyte count (TLC), lymphocyte percentage, absolute lymphocyte count (ALC), CD4 and CD8 count. The results were analyzed statistically using Graph Pad InStat 3.
Results:
The test drug showed statistically significant increase in TLC (P < 0.001), lymphocyte percentage (P < 0.001),ALC (P < 0.001), CD4 count (P < 0.001) in comparison to control group, but increase in CD8 count was not statistically significant. No major adverse effect was observed throughout the study.
Conclusion:
The findings outlined above indicate immune- stimulating activity of Tiryaq wabai and supports its use in conditions where immunostimulation is required and thus is suggestive of therapeutic usefulness.
doi:10.4103/0257-7941.139054
PMCID: PMC4171853  PMID: 25284946
Aging; immune-senescence; T-lymphocytes; Unani medicine
10.  Evaluation of Brāhmī ghṛtam in children suffering from Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder 
Ancient Science of Life  2013;33(2):123-130.
Introduction:
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is characterized by a persistent pattern of inattention and/or hyperactivity-impulsivity. In view of the adverse effects associated with psycho-stimulants used for the treatment of this disorder, efficacy of Brāhmī ghṛtam was evaluated in this condition.
Materials and Methods:
After following due ethical considerations, children of either sex between the age group of 6 and 12 years diagnosed to be suffering from mixed variety of ADHD as per The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) IV criteria irrespective of other co-morbid psychiatric illnesses were recruited in the study. Initially a pilot study (n = 10) was carried out to confirm the efficacy of the identified dose of Brāhmī ghṛtam. Using this dose, further therapeutic confirmatory study (n = 27) was carried out, wherein Brāhmī ghṛtam was compared with methylphenidate. Effect on ADHD symptoms was assessed using the Dupaul ADHD rating scale and this was the main efficacy parameter.
Results:
In the pilot exploratory study, Brāhmī ghṛtam showed 66% decrease in total ADHD score. In the therapeutic confirmatory study, only 16% improvement was seen with Brāhmī ghṛtam, which was similar to methylphenidate, standard treatment for ADHD that was used as a comparator in the present study. No side-effects were reported in both studies.
Conclusion:
Our study thus has adequately demonstrated efficacy and safety of Brāhmī ghṛtam in ADHD.
doi:10.4103/0257-7941.139057
PMCID: PMC4171854  PMID: 25284947
Dupaul Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder rating scale; psychometry
11.  In vitro cytotoxic activity of menispermaceae plants against HeLa cell line 
Ancient Science of Life  2013;33(2):81-84.
Background:
Menispermaceae, a family of flowering plants, is a medium-sized family of 70 genera totaling 420 extant species, mostly of climbing plants. It has various medicinal properties, which are used in the Ayurvedic system of medicine. Plants belonging to this family are rich in alkaloids, especially bisbenzylisoquinoline type. The hypothesis of this study is that the bisbenzylisoquinoline alkaloids present in the selected plants may exhibit in vitro cytotoxic property.
Aim:
The present study is aimed at estimating the total alkaloidal content of methanolic extract of Cocculus hirsutus and Cissampelos pareira and evaluating the in vitro cytotoxic activity of both the extracts on the HeLa cell line.
Settings and Design:
Methanolic extracts of both the plants in the concentrations of 500, 250, 125, 62.5, and 31.25 μg/ml were assessed for its cytotoxic activity by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay.
Materials and Methods:
Total alkaloidal content was studied for both the plants using ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy method. Methanol extracts of both the plants were tested for its inhibitory effect on HeLa cell line. Cytotoxicity of the plant extracts was evaluated by MTT assay. Nonlinear regression graph was plotted between % cell inhibition and Log10 concentration, and IC50 was determined using GraphPad Prism software.
Results:
Preliminary phytochemical studies confirm the presence of alkaloids in both the plants. The total alkaloids present in C. hirsutus and C. pareira were found to be 0.252%w/w and 0.1656%w/w respectively. The IC50 values of C. hirsutus and C. pareria were found to be 111 μg/ml and 129.3 μg/ml respectively.
Conclusion:
From this study, it is observed that C. hirsutus and C. pareira have in vitro cytotoxic activity against HeLa cell line.
doi:10.4103/0257-7941.139040
PMCID: PMC4171858  PMID: 25284939
3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2; 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay; Cissampelos pareira; Cocculus hirsutus; cytotoxic
12.  A self-rating scale to measure tridoṣas in children 
Ancient Science of Life  2013;33(2):85-91.
Background:
Self – rating inventories to assess the Prakṛti (constitution) and personality have been developed and validated for adults. To analyze the effect of personality development programs on Prakṛti of the children, standardized scale is not available. Hence, present study was carried out to develop and standardize Caraka Child Personality inventory (CCPI).
Materials and Methods:
The 77- item CCPI scale was developed on the basis of translation of Sanskrit verses describing vātaja (a), pittaja (b) and kaphaja prakṛti (c) characteristics described in Ayurveda texts and by taking the opinions of 5 Ayurveda experts and psychologists. The scale was administered on children of the age group 8-12 years in New Generation National public school, Bangalore.
Results:
This inventory was named CCPI and showed excellent internal consistency. The Cronbach's alpha for A, B and C scales were 0.54, 0.64 and 0.64 respectively. The Split - Half reliability scores for A, B and C subscales were 0.64. 0.60 and 0.66 respectively. Factor validity coefficient Scores on each item was above 0.4. Scores on vātaja, pittaja and kaphaja scales were inversely correlated. Test-retest reliability scores for A,B and C scales were 0.87,0.88 and 0.89 respectively. The result of CCPI was compared with a parent rating scale Ayurveda Child Personality Inventory (ACPI). Subscales of CCPI correlated significantly highly (above 0.80) with subscales of ACPI which was done for the purpose of cross-validation with respect to ACPI.
Conclusions:
The prakṛti of the children can be measured consistently by this scale. Correlations with ACPI pointed toward concurrent validity.
doi:10.4103/0257-7941.139042
PMCID: PMC4171859  PMID: 25284940
Tridosha; prakriti; vāta; pitta; kapha; Ayurveda
13.  The folklore medicinal orchids of Sikkim 
Ancient Science of Life  2013;33(2):92-96.
Background:
Orchids are well-known for decorative and aromatic values than its medicinal properties. Jīvantī, Jīvaka, Ṛṣabhaka, Rāsnā, Mānakanda, Pañcagula are used in Ayurveda are said to be orchids. There are 50 species of orchids in medicine. Sikkim has identified 523 species of wild orchids so far.
Aim:
The aim of this study is to determine the folklore medicinal use of orchids in Sikkim.
Materials and Methods:
To assess the traditional medicinal uses of orchid species, close contacts were made with native people particularly, traditional healers, religious leaders, nursery growers and villagers of Sikkim. The information was gathered with the help of the questionnaire and personal interviews with various knowledgeable respondents during the field visit in between August 2009 and December 2011.
Results and Conclusion:
We found that 36 species of orchids are used as medicines for different purposes of health. The botanical and ayurvedic name, phenology, parts used and medicinal uses of 36 orchids are presented in this paper along with its local distribution.
doi:10.4103/0257-7941.139043
PMCID: PMC4171860  PMID: 25284941
Analgesic; aphrodisiac; folklore medicine; orchids in medicine; orchids of Sikkim; wound healing
14.  Pharmaceutical standardization of Svarṇa vaṅga 
Ancient Science of Life  2013;33(2):97-102.
Background:
Kūpīpakva Rasāyana is a category of Rasauṣadhis (herbomineral medicines) prepared by unique pharmaceutical process explained in Rasaśāstra. Svarṇa Vanga (SV) is one such medicament indicated mainly in diseases such as Madhumeha (diabetes mellitus), Śvāsa (respiratory disorders), Pradara (menorrhagia), and as a Vrṣya (aphrodisiac).
Aims and Objectives:
The aim of this study is to establish the standard manufacturing process for SV and analyze its organoleptic and physicochemical properties.
Design:
Pharmaceutical standardization.
Materials and Methods:
Śodhita Vaṅga was melted and triturated with purified Pārada (mercury) to form an amalgam. The amalgam so formed was mixed with Saindhava Lavaṇa and levigated with Nimbu Svarasa (Citrus medica Var.) and washed until blackness of the mixture disappeared. On drying, śuddha Gandhaka (Sulfur) and Navasadara (Ammonium chloride) were added and ground into a fine powder. The powder thus formed was filled in the Kupī and processed in an electrical muffle furnace for 18 h. On cooling, the product formed at the bottom of the Kūpī was collected. Organoleptic and physicochemical parameters of SV were analyzed and tabulated.
Results and Conclusion:
SV is a Talastha Kūpīpakva Rasāyana. It requires Mṛdu (<250 C) and Madhyama Agni (250-500 C) for a period of 9 h each to prepare SV with 42.9% yield and having 63.2 and 34.4% tin and sulfur, respectively.
doi:10.4103/0257-7941.139046
PMCID: PMC4171861  PMID: 25284942
Ayurveda; Kupipakva Rasayana; standardization; Swarna Vanga
15.  Quality parameters, fatty acid profiling and estimation of umbelliferone in grahaṇimihira tailam: An ayurvedic oil preparation 
Ancient Science of Life  2013;33(1):10-14.
Background:
Grahaṇimihira tailam is an unexplored ayurvedic oil preparation which consists of 34 ingredients. The efficacy of this traditional ayurvedic medicine is undisputable. Proper clinical standardization of this formulation will go a long way in securing greater recognition for it. The main objective of this study was to develop standardization parameters for the formulation in a multidisciplinary way.
Materials and Methods:
A simple and efficient method for the quantification of umbelliferone by high performance thin layer chromatography was developed and validated. Presence of the major fatty acids and their percentage were assessed by using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Various physio-chemical parameters, microbiological load, aflatoxins and mineral oil were also evaluated. Spread plate method was used for checking microbial contamination.
Results:
The results were validated as per standard protocols. Quantitative estimation revealed the percentage of umbelliferone to be in the range of 0.88-0.98 (w/w). GC-MS analysis of sample led to the identification of 14 fatty acids, in which linoleic acid was obtained as the major fatty acid. Microbes, aflatoxins and mineral oils were found to be absent in the tailam.
Conclusion:
The results which give the quantitative estimates of various physico-chemical parameters can be adopted to establish new standards for analysis of batch-to-batch variation and this data will facilitate shelf life studies in the future.
doi:10.4103/0257-7941.134557
PMCID: PMC4140015  PMID: 25161324
Fatty acids; gas chromatography-mass spectrometry; grahanimihira tailam; high performance thin layer chromatography; physico-chemical parameters; umbelliferone
16.  Pharmacognostical evaluation of Cardiospermum halicacabum Linn. leaf and stem 
Ancient Science of Life  2013;33(1):15-21.
Background:
Cardiospermum halicacabum Linn (Sapindaceae) is an important medicinal plant in the traditional system of medicine, known as karṇasphoṭa. The root of it is officially included in Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia for its therapeutic uses such as jvara, kuṣṭha, pāṇḍu, kṣaya and sandhivāta etc. As no detailed analysis of macroscopy, microscopy characters of the plant, except root, have been carried out till date, it was thought worth to carry out the detailed macroscopic and microscopic study of leaves and stem, following standard pharmacognostical procedures.
Materials and Methods:
Pharmacognostic studies of C. halicacabum were carried out, and in this, the macroscopic, microscopic, physicochemical, fluorescence and phytochemical analyses were done. Physicochemical parameters such as total ash, moisture content, extractive values were determined by World Health Organization guidelines. The microscopic features of leaf and stem components were observed.
Results:
Macroscopically the leaves are bi-ternate, ovate-lanceolate in shape with dentate margin. Microscopically, leaf shows prominent midrib and thin dorsiventral lamina. The midrib shows the presence of epidermal layers, angular collenchyma, palisade cells and vascular strands comprised of thin walled xylem and thick walled phloem elements. The lamina shows prominent, narrow and cylindrical upper epidermis. The upper epidermal cells are large and contain mucilage, whereas lower epidermis possesses thin, small and elliptical epidermal cells. The mesophyll was differentiated into two zones upper and lower. The upper zones show narrow cylindrical palisade cells and lower zone shows 2-3 layers of loosely arranged spongy parenchyma cells. In the Paradermal section of the lamina we observe anomocytic stomata. The transverse section of stem shows a pentagonal appearance with five short blunt ridges and prominent cuticle. Parenchymatous cells, cortical sclerenchyma, lignified xylem fibers, phloem and pit were also found. In the powder microscopy of whole plant, glandular trichomes, non-glandular trichomes, fragments of lamina, xylem elements, parenchyma cells and fibers are observed. Phytochemical screening reveals that the C. halicacabum extract contains glycosides, carbohydrates, flavonoids, phytosterols, phenolic compounds and saponin.
Conclusion:
Various pharmacognostic characters observed in this study help in identification, quality, purity and standardization of C. halicacabum.
doi:10.4103/0257-7941.134561
PMCID: PMC4140016  PMID: 25161325
Cardiospermum halicacabum; fluorescence analysis; macroscopy; microscopy; physicochemical; phytochemical
17.  Treatment with aquatic plants by a Bagdi tribal healer of Rajbari District, Bangladesh 
Ancient Science of Life  2013;33(1):22-26.
Context:
Tribal healers mainly use land plants in their medicinal formulations; use of aquatic plants has been scarcely reported.
Aims:
The aim of the present study was to conduct an ethnomedicinal survey working with a Bagdi tribal healer of Rajbari District, Bangladesh.
Settings and Design:
The survey was carried out working with a Bagdi healer, who lived alone in the wetlands of Rajbari District and used primarily aquatic plants for treatment.
Materials and Methods:
Interview of the healer was carried out with the help of a semi-structured questionnaire and the guided field-walk method.
Results:
The Bagdi healer was observed to use seven different aquatic plant species coming from five plant families for treatment of ailments such as hemorrhoids, tonsillitis, heart disorders, burning sensations and pain in hands or legs, blurred vision, debility, sexual weakness in males, chronic dysentery, infertility in women, constipation, chronic leucorrhea, blackness and foul odor of menstrual blood, hair loss, graying of hair and to keep the head cool. One plant was used to treat what the healer mentioned as “evil eye”, this refers to their belief in black-magic.
Conclusions:
This is the first reported instance of a Bagdi healer who primarily uses aquatic plants for treatment. Ethnomedicinal uses of a number of the plants used by the Bagdi healer have been reported for other places in India and Pakistan. Taken together, the various uses of the different plant species opens up scientific possibilities of new drug discoveries from the plants.
doi:10.4103/0257-7941.134562
PMCID: PMC4140017  PMID: 25161326
Aquatic plants; Bagdi; Bangladesh; ethnomedicine; Rajbari
18.  Validation of standard manufacturing procedure of Guḍūcī sattva (aqueous extract of Tinospora cordifolia (Willd.) Miers) and its tablets 
Ancient Science of Life  2013;33(1):27-34.
Introduction:
Guḍūci Sattva is a highly valued formulation among ayurvedic physicians, commonly recommended in conditions such as Jvara (fever), Dāha (burning sensation) and other conditions of Pitta predominance. In spite of its numerous medicinal attributes, no published work is available until date on manufacturing guidelines along with its quality control parameters.
Aims and Objectives:
The aim of this study is to develop the standard manufacturing procedure for preparation of Guḍūci Sattva and its tablets.
Materials and Methods:
A total of 15 batches of Guḍūci Sattva were prepared in the laboratory. During its preparation, pharmaceutical findings and observations were systematically recorded. To maintain quality control, Guḍūci Sattva tablets were further subjected to analysis such as shape, diameter, width, hardness, weight variation, disintegration time (DT) and friability. Qualitative analysis to detect the presence of various functional groups and high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) profile were also carried out.
Results and Conclusion:
The average percentage of dried Sattva obtained was 3.8%. The tablets were prepared by direct compression method as per pharmacopoeal specifications. Optimum hardness, weight of tablets, DT and friability of Guḍūci Sattva tablets were found complying with official standards. Alkaloids, carbohydrates and starch were found present in Sattva tablets. Number of peaks obtained in HPTLC also corresponds to this finding. Data obtained by present study may be considered as standard for future studies.
Conclusion:
The average percentage of dried Sattva obtained was 3.8%. The tablets were prepared by direct compression method as per pharmacopoeal specifications. Optimum hardness, weight of tablets, DT and friability of Guḍūci Sattva tablets were found complying with official standards. Alkaloids, carbohydrates and starch were found present in Sattva tablets. Number of peaks obtained in HPTLC also corresponds to this finding. Data obtained by present study may be considered as standard for future studies.
doi:10.4103/0257-7941.134564
PMCID: PMC4140018  PMID: 25161327
Guḍūci; Sattva; standard manufacturing procedure; tablets
19.  The In vitro anti-acne activity of two unani drugs 
Ancient Science of Life  2013;33(1):35-38.
Background:
Acne is the most common disorder treated by dermatologists. As many as 80-90% of all adolescents have some type of acne and 30% of them require medical treatment. It is an inflammatory disease of the pilosebaceous unit characterized by the formation of open and closed comedones, papules, pustules, nodules, and cysts.
Aims:
The present study was conducted to investigate the in vitro anti-acne activity of two Unani single drugs Darchini (Cinnamomum zeylanicum Bl.) and Tukhm Khashkhash (Papaver somniferum L. seeds).
Materials and Methods:
The antibacterial activity of aqueous, ethanolic and hydroalcoholic extracts of both drugs were investigated against two acne causing bacteria, i.e., Propionibacterium acne and Staphylococcus epidermidis using well diffusion method.
Results:
The result showed that both drugs were active against the two bacteria. Against P. acne aqueous and ethanolic extract of Darchini and Tukhm Khashkhash showed the zone of inhibition of 18 ± 1.02 mm and 18 ± 1.6 mm and 13 ± 1.04 mm and 14 ± 1.8 mm, respectively. Against S. epidermidis aqueous, hydroalcoholic and ethanolic extracts of Darchini showed 22 ± 1.7 mm, 22 ± 1.2 mm and 15 ± 1.8 mm zone of inhibition respectively. Hydroalcoholic and ethanolic extracts of Tukhm Khashkhash showed 15 ± 1.09 mm and 13 ± 1.6 mm zone of inhibition respectively.
Conclusion:
This suggests that C. zeylanicum and P. somniferum have potential against acne causing bacteria and hence they can be used in topical anti-acne preparations and may address the antibiotic resistance of the bacteria.
doi:10.4103/0257-7941.134594
PMCID: PMC4140019  PMID: 25161328
Acne; Propionibacterium acnes; Staphylococcus epidermidis; Unani
20.  Pharmacognostic and phytochemical investigation of the leaves of Malvastrum coromandelianum (L.) Garcke 
Ancient Science of Life  2013;33(1):39-44.
Background:
Malvastrum coromandelianum belongs to the family Malvaceae, commonly known as false mallow. Ethnobotanical survey revealed that it is used to treat various disorders. Pharmacological screening revealed that the plant possess antinoceceptive, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antibacterial activities. Lack of standardization parameters for herbal raw material is a great hindrance in ensuring the purity of M. coromandelianum. The present work was taken up to with a focus to set standardization parameters for M. coromandelianum.
Materials and Methods:
The plant was subjected to macroscopic and microscopic studies. Physicochemical parameters such as ash value and extractive value were determined by standard procedures. Different extracts were screened for the presence of secondary metabolites. Phenolic and flavonoid contents were estimated. Plant was subjected for high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) analysis using standard chromatographic procedure.
Result:
The microscopic characteristics showed the dorsiventral nature of leaf. Two types of trichomes were observed: Covering, unicellular, uniseriate, and bi-cellular head sessile glandular. Vascular bundle was surrounded by spongy parenchyma. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence alkaloids, tannins, amino acid proteins, and carbohydrates. The phenolic and flavonoid content estimation revealed the presence of appreciable amount of these constituents, while HPTLC analysis showed the presence of β-sitosterol in petroleum ether extract.
Conclusion:
These findings will be useful for the establishment of standardization parameters for M. coromandelianum.
doi:10.4103/0257-7941.134596
PMCID: PMC4140020  PMID: 25161329
β-sitosterol; high performance thin layer chromatography analysis; Malvastrum coromandelianum; phytochemical screening; total flavonoid; total phenolic
21.  Effect of aqueous leaves extract of Costus afer Ker Gawl (Zingiberaceae) on the liver and kidney of male albino Wistar rat 
Ancient Science of Life  2013;33(1):4-9.
Background:
The use of medicinal plants in Nigeria has significantly increased over recent years as it is easily accessible, cheap and the strong belief that herbal remedies are natural and therefore non toxic.
Aims:
This study aims to investigate the sub-chronic toxicity (28-day) of the aqueous extract of Costus afer Ker Gawl leaves on the liver and kidney of male albino Wistar rats.
Materials and Methods:
A total of 20 male albino Wistar rats (113-205 g) divided into four groups of five weight-matched animals each, were used for the study. Group 1 received standard feed and water ad libitium and served as the control. Group 2, 3 and 4 received 375, 750 and 1125 mg/kg of aqueous extract of C. afer leaves respectively. The animals were sacrificed under ether anesthesia and the organs were harvested, weighed and histopathological studies carried out. The effect of C. afer on the hepatic biomarkers aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT); alkaline phosphatase (ALP); triglyceride (TG); total bilirubin (TB); conjugated bilirubin (CB); albumin (ALB) and kidney biomarkers urea, creatinine, sodium, potassium and bicarbonate were investigated.
Statistical Analysis:
Data were evaluated using Mann Whitney. If P ≤ 0.05 groups were considered to be significantly different.
Results:
C. afer contained alkaloids, saponins, flavonoids, anthraquinones, cardiac glycosides, terpenoids, phenolic compounds and tannins. The average body, organ, relative weights, feed and fluid intake showed no significant changes (P > 0.05) when compared to the control. The liver function tests (ALT, ALP, AST, CB, TB and ALB) showed significant differences (P < 0.05) in the test groups when compared with the control while TG showed no statistical difference (P > 0.05). The kidney function tests (urea, creatinine, sodium, potassium and bicarbonate) showed no significant differences (P > 0.05) in the test groups when compared to the control.
Conclusion:
Costus afer may be hepatotoxic but non-toxic to the kidney.
doi:10.4103/0257-7941.134554
PMCID: PMC4140021  PMID: 25161323
Biomarkers; kidney; liver; organ toxicity; phytomedicine
22.  Pharmacognostical studies of leaves of Combretum albidum G. Don 
Ancient Science of Life  2013;32(4):187-192.
Background:
Combretum albidum Don belonging to family Combretaceae is an unexplored medicinal plant in the Indian medicinal system. According to ethnobotanical information, the leaves are used in the treatment of peptic ulcer and its fruits are used in diarrhoea and dysentery. Stem bark is used in the treatment of jaundice and skin diseases. The problem encountered in standardisation of this medicinal plant is its identification by source.
Materials and Methods:
The pharmacognostical studies were carried out in terms of organoleptic, macroscopic, microscopic, physicochemical, florescence and phytochemical analysis. Physicochemical parameters such as total ash, moisture content and extractive values are determined by World Health Organization guidelines. The microscopic features of leaf components are observed with Nikon lab photo device with microscopic units.
Results:
Macroscopically, the leaves are simple, obovate in shape, acuminate apex, entire margin and smooth surface. Microscopically, the leaves showed a large vascular strand that consists of thick walled xylem elements mixed with xylem fibres and phloem which is present in a thin layer along inner and outer portions of xylem. External to the xylem occur a thin line of sclerenchyma. Powder microscopy revealed glandular trichomes in the adaxial epidermal peelings also shows the non-glandular trichomes fairly common in powder and epidermis with anisocytic stomata. Vessels elements are narrow, long, cylindrical and dense multi-seriate bordered pits. Xylem fibres are thin and long, with thick walls, which are lignified. Preliminary phytochemical screening showed the presence of carbohydrate, glycoside, saponin, flavonoid, phytosterols and phenolic compounds.
Conclusions:
The results of the study can serve as a valuable source of pharmacognostic information as suitable standards for identification of this plant material in future investigations and applications.
doi:10.4103/0257-7941.131969
PMCID: PMC4078467  PMID: 24991065
Combretum albidum; fluorescence analysis; macroscopy; microscopy; physicochemical; phytochemical
23.  Study of antihyperglycaemic activity of medicinal plant extracts in alloxan induced diabetic rats 
Ancient Science of Life  2013;32(4):193-198.
Background:
Diabetes mellitus, for a long time, has been treated with plant derived medicines in Sri Lanka.
Aim:
The aim of this study is to determine the efficacy and dose response of oral antihyperglycaemic activity of eight Sri Lankan medicinal plant extracts, which are used to treat diabetes in traditional medicine in diabetic rats.
Materials and Methods:
Medicinal plants selected for the study on the basis of documented effectiveness and wide use among traditional Ayurveda physicians in the Southern region of Sri Lanka for the treatment of diabetes mellitus. The effect of different doses of aqueous stem bark extracts of Spondias pinnata (Anacardiaceae), Kokoona zeylanica (Celastraceae), Syzygium caryophyllatum (Myrtaceae), Gmelina arborea (Verbenaceae), aerial part extracts of Scoparia dulcis (Scrophulariaceae), Sida alnifolia (Malvaceae), leaf extract of Coccinia grandis (Cucurbitaceae) and root extract of Languas galanga (Zingiberaceae) on oral glucose tolerance test was evaluated. A single dose of 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1.00, 1.25, 2.00 g/kg of plant extract was administered orally to alloxan induced (150 mg/kg, ip) diabetic Wistar rats (n = 6). Glibenclamide (0.50 mg/kg) was used as the standard drug. The acute effect was evaluated over a 4 h period using area under the oral glucose tolerance curve.
Statistical Analysis:
The results were evaluated by analysis of variance followed by Dunnett's test.
Results:
The eight plant extracts showed statistically significant dose dependent improvement on glucose tolerance (P < 0.05). The optimum effective dose on glucose tolerance for six extracts was found to be 1.00 g/kg in diabetic rats with the exception of C. grandis: 0.75 g/kg and L. galanga: 1.25 g/kg.
Conclusion:
The aqueous extract of G. arborea, S. pinnata, K. zeylanica, S. caryophyllatum, S. dulcis, S. alnifolia, L. galanga and C. grandis possess potent acute antihyperglycaemic activity in alloxan induced diabetic rats.
doi:10.4103/0257-7941.131970
PMCID: PMC4078468  PMID: 24991066
Antihyperglycaemic activity; blood glucose; diabetes mellitus; oral glucose tolerance test
24.  Physico-chemical study of Vaikrānta bhasma 
Ancient Science of Life  2013;32(4):199-204.
Background:
Vaikrānta has very important place in Rasa śāstra and is placed under Mahārasa and Upratna group. It has been mentioned that vaikrānta can be used in the place of diamond, which is a very precious stone and whose use is beyond the limit of the common man. Vaikrānta possesses pharmacological and therapeutic properties similar to diamond, but still very few researchers have worked on it.
Aims and Objectives:
The main aim of the present study is to analyze vaikrānta bhasma by employing various organoleptic methods mentioned in Ayurvedic science along with analysis as per tools available today.
Settings and Design:
In the present study, vaikrānta bhasma was prepared according to method mentioned in Rasa Ratna Samuccaya. Final product is prepared according to classical parameters described in Ayurvedic science.
Materials and Methods:
Ayurvedic scholars have described various parameters for the qualitative evaluation of vaikrānta bhasma, but all those are subjective in nature and cannot be evaluated numerically for reproducibility of the result. With this in mind, in the present study, tests as per Ayurvedic science and analytical parameters such as scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma spectrometry were adopted to analyze the final product.
Results and Conclusions:
Data suggests that vaikrānta bhasma is a multi-mineral compound, which contains iron and silica as major constituents and others are present as trace elements. The data obtained in this study suggest that quality specifications for vaikrānta bhasma can be developed using tests described in Ayurvedic science along with analytical tools available today.
doi:10.4103/0257-7941.131971
PMCID: PMC4078469  PMID: 24991067
Analysis; physico-chemical; Vaikranta bhasma
25.  Lemongrass essential oil gel as a local drug delivery agent for the treatment of periodontitis 
Ancient Science of Life  2013;32(4):205-211.
Background:
It has been long recognized that periodontal diseases are infections of the periodontium, comprising the bacterial etiology, an immune response, and tissue destruction. Treatment strategies aiming primarily at suppressing or eliminating specific periodontal pathogens include adjunct use of local and systemic antibiotics as part of nonsurgical periodontal therapy. Unwanted side effects and resistance of microorganisms toward antibiotics due to their widespread use have modified the general perception about their efficacy. Research in phytosciences has revealed various medicinal plants offering a new choice of optional antimicrobial therapy. Cymbopogon citratus, Stapf. (lemongrass) is a popular medicinal plant. At a concentration ≤2%, lemongrass essential oil inhibits the growth of several kinds of microorganisms including periodontal pathogens, especially the reference strains Actinomyces naeslundii and Porphyromonas gingivalis, which were resistant to tetracycline hydrochloride.
Aims:
To evaluate the efficacy of locally delivered 2% lemongrass essential oil in gel form as an adjunct to scaling and root planing, as compared to scaling and root planing alone for the treatment of chronic periodontitis.
Materials and Methods:
2% Lemongrass essential oil gel was prepared and placed in moderate to deep periodontal pockets after scaling and root planing.
Results:
Statistically significant reduction in probing depth and gingival index and gain in relative attachment level were noted in the experimental group as compared to the control group at 1 and 3 months.
Conclusion:
Locally delivered 2% lemongrass essential oil gel offers a new choice of safe and effective adjunct to scaling and root planing in periodontal therapy.
doi:10.4103/0257-7941.131973
PMCID: PMC4078470  PMID: 24991068
Lemongrass essential oil gel; local drug delivery; nonsurgical periodontal therapy; periodontitis; phytoscience

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