To compare the effect of Brāhmī Ghṛta with piracetam (a reference standard chemical) in amnesia.
Materials and Methods:
Brāhmī Ghṛta contained Brāhmī (Bacopa monneri), Vacā (Acorus calamus), Kuṣṭha (Sassurea lappa), Śaṅkhapuṣpī (Convolvulos pluricalis), and Purāṇa Ghṛta, prepared as per snehapāka process. Antiamnesic activity of Brāhmī Ghṛta (400 and 800 mg/kg, p.o.) was evaluated in scopolamine (1 mg/kg, s.c.) induced amnesia in Charles Foster rats using elevated plus maze, passive avoidance, and active avoidance tests. Piracetam (500 mg/kg, p.o.) was used as standard drug. This effect was compared with standard chemical used in experimental study.
Brāhmī Ghṛta - (in both doses) and piracetam-treated rats significantly reversed the effect of scopolamine in modified elevated plus maze, passive avoidance, and active avoidance tests. But there were no significant differences observed in antiamnesic activity of Brāhmī Ghṛta and standard drug.
Brāhmī Ghṛta and piracetam produced significant beneficial effect on scopolamine-induced amnesic effect, but no significant difference was observed in between them.
Brāhmī Ghṛta; modified elevated plus maze test; scopolamine
Ruta graveolens L., is a odoriferous herb belonging to the family Rutaceae. It is the source of Rue or Rue oil, called as Sadab or Satab in Hindi. It is distributed throughout the world and cultivated as a medicinal and ornamental herb. The ancient Greeks and Romans, held the plant in high esteem. It is used in Ayurveda, Homoeopathy and Unani. Phytochemical constituents and pharmacological properties were studied in depth. In 14 species of genus Ruta, R. graveolens and R. chalepensis are available in India and also cultivated in gardens. Taxonomical characters to identify the Indian plants are very clear with fringed and or non-fringed petals. However, references to it are confused in the traditional literature. Due to sharing of regional language name, its identity is confused with Euphorbia dracunculoides. Morphological and anatomical characters were described. Pharmacognostic studies with microscopic characters were also published. Upon reviewing the anatomical characters and pharmacognostic characters one finds that it is highly confused and conflicting. The characters described are opposite of each other and authenticity of the market sample of R. graveolens cannot be guaranteed and able to be differentiated from R. chalepensis. Present work is to describe the pharmacognostic characters of R. graveolens to differentiate it from R. chalepensis. It is concluded that morphologically, R. graveolens can be identified with its non-fringed petals and blunted apices of fruit lobes. Whereas, in R. chalepensis petals are fringed or ciliated and apices of the fruit lobes are sharp and projected. Microscopically, in stem of R. graveolens pericyclic fibers have wide lumen. Whereas, in R. chalepensis, it is narrow. The published pharmacognosy reports do not pertain to authentic plant or some of the characteristic features like glandular trichomes are not observed in our samples.
Pharmacognosy; ruta chalepensis; ruta graveolens; rutaceae
Seed of Guñjā (Abrus precatorius Linn.), a known poisonous drug, is used extensively in various ayurvedic formulations with great therapeutic significance. Ayurveda recommends the administration of Guñjā in diseases like Indralupta (alopecia), Śotha (edema), Kṛmi (helminthes), Kuṣṭha (skin diseases), Kaṇḍu (itching), Prameha (urinary disorders) etc., after being treated with specific Śodhana (purification) procedures.
To assess the antimicrobial action of of raw and Śhodhita (Processed) Guñjā seeds
Guñjā seeds after being processed with Godugdha (cow's milk), Nimbu swarasa (Lemon juice), Kāñjī (Sour gruel) and water, as the media, were evaluated for its antibacterial effect against clinically important bacterial strains using agar well diffusion method.
Aqueous extracts of raw seeds of Guñjā exert its antibacterial effect on both Gram positive, as well as Gram negative bacteria but none of the Śodhita Guñjā seeds showed any bactericidal effect on any bacterial strains. Chloroform extracts of all the Śodhita Guñjā seed extracts could inhibit bacterial growth but with variations
The study displayed that chloroform extracts of raw and śodhita samples for bacterial study were much sensitive than the aqueous extracts.
Abrin; Abrus precatorius Linn; anti-bacterial; Guñjā; Śhodhana
Present work was designed to investigate antioxidant activity of polyherbal formulation in search for new, safe and inexpensive antioxidant. Clerodendrum serratum, Hedychium spicatum and Inula racemosa, were extensively used in ayurvedic medicine and were investigated together in the form of polyherbal compound (Bhāraṅgyādi) for their antioxidant potential.
Materials and Methods:
Hydroalcoholic extract was prepared from the above samples and was tested for total reducing power and in vitro antioxidant activity by ABTS+ assay, Superoxide anion scavenging activity assay and lipid per-oxidation assay.
Reducing power shows dose depended increase in concentration maximum absorption of 0.677 ± 0.017 at 1000 μg/ml compared with standard Quercetin 0.856±0.020. ABTS+ assay shows maximum inhibition of 64.2 ± 0.86 with EC50 675.31 ± 4.24. Superoxide free radical shows maximum scavenging activity of 62.45 ± 1.86 with EC50 774.70 ± 5.45. Anti-lipidperoxidation free radicals scavenge maximum absorption of 67.25± 1.89 with EC50 is 700.08 ± 6.81. Ascorbic acid was used as standard with IC50 value is 4.6 μg/ml. The result suggests polyherbal formulation to be a good potential for antioxidant activity. Oxidative stress results from imbalance between free radical-generation and radical scavenging systems. This will lead to tissue damage and oxidative stress.
In conclusion, we strongly suggest that Polyherbal compounds are source of potential antioxidant for radical scavenging. The highly positive correlation of antiradical scavenging activity and total polyphenolic content in Polyherbal compounds indicates that polyphenols are important components which could be used for the free radical scavenging activity. Further study is needed for isolation and characterization of the active moiety responsible for biological activity and to treat in various stress condition.
ABTS+; antioxidants; clerodendrum serratum; Hedychium spicatum; Inula racemosa; lipid per oxidation; superoxide free radicals
This manuscript covers a detailed pharmacognostic evaluation of Scoparia dulcis Linn. whole plant (Scrophulariaceae), including morphology, microscopy, physicochemical, and phytochemical screening. Microscopy of different plant part was done by performing transverse sections and longitudinal sections, which were identified by the different staining reagents and dyes. Physicochemical constants were done for whole plant; it includes ash value, extractive value and moisture content. Phytochemical screening was done for aqueous and methanolic extract in maceration and soxhletion, results revealed the presence of alkaloids, glycosides, carbohydrates, phenolic compound, flavonoids, saponins, proteins, and amino acids. These study includes parameters to establish the authenticity of S. dulcis and can possibly help to differentiate the drug from its other species.
Microscopy; physicochemical and phytochemical; transverse section
Āmalaki (Embelica officinalis Gaertn.) is one of the most celebrated herbs in the Indian system of traditional medicine. It is one of the best Rasāyana-s (health promoting) drug. In Dugdhāmalakyādi yoga, Āmalaki (Embelica officinalis Gaertn.) powder is administered along with milk in case of svarabhaṅga (hoarseness of voice). Here an attempt is made to convert this formulation into chewable tablet without altering its property to improve its palatability, shelf life and fixation of proper therapeutic dose.
Chewable tablets were prepared by wet granulation method. Here, Āmalaki powder was prepared initially and it was mixed with additives and preservatives. Granules were prepared from this mixture by adding binding agent, finally compressed in to tablets.
Results and Conclusion:
The physico-chemical analysis of Āmalaki standard are: Foreign Matter-Nil, Acid insoluble Ash-0.51%w/w, Water soluble Ash-2.01% w/w, Alcoholic Extractives-44.48%, Aqueous Extractives 67.52%, pH-3.1, Moisture content-8.19%. Quality control test for chewable tablet was carried out and found satisfactory with general characteristics of tablet viz. hardness 1.8, disintegration time 15-20 min, friability 0.5%, weight variation +/- 3%. The TLC of Āmalaki powder showed 3 spots with Rf value 0.14, 0.4, and 0.73 and the chewable tablets showed 2 spots with Rf value 0.31 and 0.89 under 254 nm. The adaptation of modern techniques or methods to convert the Ayurvedic formulations without altering its therapeutic property is necessary to made them suitable for the present trends of newer drug delivery dosage forms.
Embelica officinalis Gaertn; chewable tablets; Dugdhāmalakyādi yoga
Habb (Pill) is one of the important dosage forms of Unani system of medicine. A number of effective formulations are manufactured in form of Habb because of its various advantages. Out of these, Habbe Irqun Nisa (HI) is a popular anti-inflammatory formulation used in the treatment of Warame Mafasil (arthritis) and Irqun Nisa (sciatica). Nowadays, with increased incidence of these diseases many non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are being used in their treatment. Owing to the adverse effects of these drugs, the use of herbal medicines is seen as a better alternative. The basic requirement for the development of Unani system of Medicine is the standardization of single and compound drugs. HI is mentioned in National Formulary of Unani Medicne and selected for the present study.
Materials and Methods:
HI was prepared manually with the powder of crude drugs, passed through sieve no. 100 and mixed with 1% w/w of gum acacia in mucilage form. It was then dried at 60°C for 90 min and then tested for its standardization on different physicochemical parameters, e.g. organoleptic properties, pH values, moisture content, ash values, friability, hardness, weight variation, disintegration time, and thin layer chromatography (TLC).
Results and Conclusion:
The data evolved from this study will make it a validated product and will help in the quality control of other finished products in future research.
Anti-inflammatory; Habb; standardization; Unani system of medicine
Mayūrapuccha Bhasma (Calx of peacock feather) is an Ayurvedic animal product prepared from peacock feathers by employing two different methods as mentioned in Siddhayogasaṅgraha and Bhaiṣajya saṁhitā. It is mainly indicated in vomiting, hiccough, and respiratory disorder.
Materials and Methods:
In the present study, Mayūrapuccha Bhasma was prepared by two classical procedures, one by burning on ghee flame and the other by giving Gajapuṭa (burning the peacock feathers at about 1000°C by using a thousand cow dung cakes). The products so obtained were subjected to various physico-chemical studies to find out ash value, pH value, specific gravity, moisture content, preliminary organic analysis, gravimetric analysis, chemical components, and to lay-down the pharmacopeial standards for standardization of Mayūrapuccha Bhasma.
Results and Conclusion:
Both the Bhasmas exhibited marked difference in color, moisture content, and percentage of inorganic compounds. The Bhasma prepared by Gajapuṭa method contains essential and beneficial inorganic elements, electrolytes in larger quantity, and lower moisture content.
Gajapuṭa method; ghee flame method; Mayūrapuccha Bhasma; physico - chemical analysis
Ancient Indian yoga texts have described four mental states. These are caïcalatä (random thinking), ekāgratā (focusing without meditation), dhāraṇā (meditative focusing), and dhyāna (defocused meditative expansiveness). A previous study compared the performance in a cancellation task at the beginning and end of each of the four mental states (practiced for 20 minutes each, on four separate days) showed an increase in the scores after dhāraṇā Hence, the present study was designed to assess the effects of dhāraṇā (meditative focusing) and ekāgratā (focusing without meditation) on two attention tasks (i) d2 test of attention and (ii) digit symbol substitution test.
Materials and Methods:
Sixty normal healthy male volunteers with ages ranging from 17 to 38 years (group mean age ± S.D., 24.87 ± 4.95) were studied. Assessments were made before and after the practice of ekāgratā and dhāraṇā on two separate days.
After both types of focusing, there was a significant improvement in all measures of the d2 test of attention (TN, E, TN-E, E%, and CP). However, the performance in the digit symbol substitution test was better after dhāraṇā but did not change after ekāgratā.
Hence, in summary, dhāraṇā (meditative focusing) and ekāgratā (focusing without meditation) produce nearly comparable results though dhāraṇā (meditative focusing) results in better incidental learning and better accuracy (as assessed by the substitution task).
Attention; concentration; dhāraṇā; ekāgratā; incidental learning
Natural products with medicinal value are gradually gaining importance in clinical research due to their well-known property of no side effects as compared to drugs. Tinospora cordifolia commonly named as “Guduchi” is known for its immense application in the treatment of various diseases in the traditional ayurvedic literature. Recently the discovery of active components from the plant and their biological function in disease control has led to active interest in the plant across the globe. Our present study in this review encompasses (i) the genetic diversity of the plant and (ii) active components isolated from the plant and their biological role in disease targeting. The future scope of the review remains in exploiting the biochemical and signaling pathways affected by the compounds isolated from Tinospora so as to enable new and effective formulation in disease eradication.
Ayurveda; diabetes; natural product
The use of nutrition in medical practice has a long history dating back to 6000 years. The great Persian chemist, physician, and philosopher, Rhazes (865-925 AD), wrote over 200 books in different branches of science. Some of his work drew attention to the notion that nutrition is an important part of treating diseases and health care procedures. Rhazes formulated highly developed concepts of nutrition and wrote several special books about food and diet such as manfe’ al aghzie va mazareha (Benefits of Food and its Harmfulness), teb al moluki (Medicine for Kings), and Ata’me al marza (Food for Patients). His writing included detailed guidance about eating fruit ma iaghdam men al favakeh va al aghzieh va ma yoakhar (Fruit Before or After Meal), and other food types keifiat al eghteza (Temperament and Quality of Foods) and al aghziat al mokhtasareh (Brief Facts about Food). Considering the time that these books were written, they have had a great influence on approaches to nutrition in the history of medicine, so Rhazes can be considered as a pioneer in the scientific field of nutrition.
History; nutrition; Rhazes
Metallic Bhasmas are highly valued and have their own importance in Ayurvedic formulations. To testify the Bhasmas various parameters have been told in Rasashastra classics. Tamra Bhasma (TB) with its different properties is used in the treatment of various diseases is quiet famous among the Ayurvedic physicians (Vaidyas).
The present study was carried out to set up the quality control parameters for the TB by making the use of classical tests along with advanced analytical tools.
Settings and Design:
Copper wire taken for the preparation of Bhasma was first analyzed for its copper content and then subjected to Shodhana, Marana and Amrutikarana procedures as per the classical references. Final product complied with all the classical parameters like Rekhapurnatwa, Varitaratwa etc.
Materials and Methods:
After complying with these tests TB was analyzed by advanced analytical techniques like particle size distribution (PSD) analysis, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and inductive coupled plasma spectrometry (ICP).
PSD analysis of TB showed volumetric mean diameter of 28.70 μm, 50% of the material was below 18.40 μm size. Particle size less than 2μm were seen in SEM. 56.24 wt % of copper and 23.06 wt % of sulphur was found in ICP-AES. Heavy metals like cadmium, selenium were not detected while others like arsenic, lead and mercury were present in traces.
These observations could be specified as the quality control parameters conforming to all the classical tests under the Bhasma Pariksha.
Bhasma Pariksha; copper; Rasaushadhi; Tamra; quality control
This study was conducted to evaluate the protective effect of Abhraka Bhasma on spermatogenesis in heat-damaged testis. A histological analysis over the sukravaha srotomula (testes) of male albino Wistar rat was carried out in order to examine the potency of the test drug in preventing the organ from heat damage. The current experiment was carried out on 32 healthy adult male albino Wistar rats divided into four groups. Sahastraputi Abhraka Bhasma, subjected to 1000 putas, was used as the test drug. On sacrificing the animals after 30 days, it was observed that control animals (G1) had normal spermatogenesis and drug-induced animals (G2) showed hyperactive tubules. Testicular hyperthermia occurred in few (G3) animals, who were subjected to 43°C for 1 h daily for four consecutive weeks, resulting in degeneration of tubules with inspissated spermatozoa (25%) leading to atrophy of the organ. 3% tubules showed disintegration, 23% were in the recovery stage while 71% tubules exhibited enhanced proliferation of germinal epithelium leading to hypertrophy and hyperplasia. The present study reveals that the test drug can correct heat-induced male infertility and provides us with the possibility of treatment of human heat-induced oligozoospermia and azoospermia. Hence, this ayurvedic maharasa (primary mineral) can be a promising formulation as an anti-impotency fecundity drug.
Sukravaha srotomula (testis); hyperthermia; hypertrophy; hyperplasia; fecundity
In ethno-medicinal practices, the roots of Cissampelos pareira(Patha) are used in the treatment of various ailments related to urinary problems and skin infections, and in tumorinhibitor activity, antibacterial, antimalarial, diuretic activity,anticonvulsant activity etc., The main problem encountered in standardization of Ayurvedic drugs is proper identification of the source plant.
Materials and Methods:
The macroscopic features of each anatomical component have been observed by a high-resolution camera. The moisture content, total ash, acid-insoluble ash, and water—alcohol and ether extractive values of the powdered sampleswere determined by the method as per WHO guidelines. The phytochemical investigation of the methanolic extract of Cissampelos pareira root was performed by the standard chemical ltests and by TLC on silica gel G using solvent systems proposed by Harborne.
The microscopic characteristics showed the wavy epidermis with unicellular trichomes. Lignified xylem vessels, radial medullary rays, and prismatic calcium oxalate crystals had also been found. Phytochemical screening revealed that the Cissampelos pareira root extract contains terpenoids, alkaloids, tannins, amino acid proteins, and carbohydrates. Alkaloids and essential oil were detected in TLC of the Cissampelos pareira root extract developed using blends of methanol:concentrated ammonia (200:3) and n-butanol:acetone:water (3:1:1) and benzene:ethyl acetate:formic acid(9:7:4) as solvent systems for alkaloid whereas chloroform(100%), benzene (100%), chloroform:benzene(1:1),and ether:benzene(1:1) as solvent systems for essential oil.
These findings will be useful toward establishing pharmacognostic standards on identification, purity,quality, and classification of the plant, which is gaining relevance in plant drug research.
Cissampelos pareira; pharmacognostic standards; pharmacognostical and phytochemical investigation
The purpose of this study was evaluation of green Ocimum basilicum (sweet basil) hydroalcoholic extract on memory retention and retrieval of mice by using passive avoidance apparatus. For this purpose, after weighting, coding and classifying the mice, they were grouped (n = 8) as follow as: test groups (electric shock plus sweet basil extract by doses: 100, 200, 400 and 800 mg/kg, i.p.), control group (Only electric shock) and blank group (electric shock plus normal saline). In all mentioned groups delay time of leaving the platform for both retention and retrieval test of memory was measured. In retention test, sweet basil extract was administered immediately after receiving electric shock and in retrieval test it was administered 24 hours after receiving electric shock. The results indicated that hydroalcoholic extract of green Ocimum basilicum significantly (P < 0.05) increased memory retention. The best response was achieved with 400 mg/Kg of the extract. Also, results showed that sweet basil extract significantly (P < 0.05) increased memory retrieval and the best result was achieved with 400 mg/Kg too. It can be concluded that memory enhancing effects of green Ocimum basilicum is because of antioxidant activity of flavonoids, tannins and terpenoids.
Memory retention; memory retrieval; mice; green Ocimum basilicum; passive avoidance
Gmelina asiatica Linn (G. parvifolia Roxb.) is a large shrub or a small tree. Roots and aerial parts are used in Ayurvedic medicine and also have ethno-medical uses. Root is reported as adulterant to G. arborea roxb roots. Pharmacognostical characters of root were reported. Owing to the shortage of genuine drug and ever-increasing demands in market, it becomes necessary to search an alternative with equal efficacy without compromising the therapeutic value. Nowadays, it becomes a common practice of using stem. In case of roots phytochemical and pharmacological analysis of stem was reported. However, there is no report on the pharmacognostical characters of stem and to differentiate it from roots. The present report describes the botanical pharmacognostical characters of stem and a note to differentiate it from root. Hollow pith, faint annual rings in cut ends, alternatively arranged macrosclereids and bundle cap fibers, and presence of abundant starch grains and calcium oxalates in pith and in ray cells are the diagnostic microscopic characters of stem. Stem pieces can be differentiated from roots by absence of tylosis.
Botanical pharmacognosy; ethnobotany; Gmelina arborea; Gmelina asiatica; pharmacognosy; root; stem
Nelsonia canescens (Lam.) Spreng. (Acanthaceae), a well-known plant in traditional systems of medicine, known as “Bada Rasna” by the traditional practitioners of Odisha, is being used as Rasna for managing pain and inflammation. The detailed macroscopic and microscopic characters of the plant, except its root, are lacking. Hence, it was thought worth to study the leaves of the plant for its detailed morphological and microscopical characters, by following the standard pharmacognostical procedures. The study shows the presence of diacytic stomata in the lower epidermis of lamina, microsphenoidal and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate in the mesophyll cells, simple and glandular trichomes. The observed major diagnostic characters of the leaf may find useful for its standardization.
Anti-inflammatory; Gandhamardana Hills; Nelsonia canescens (Lam.) Spreng. Leaf; pharmacognosy; Rasna
Herbal formulation standardization by adopting newer technique is need of the hour in the field of Ayurvedic pharmaceutical industry. As very few reports exist. These kind of studies would certainly widen the herbal research area. Chitrakadivati is one such popular herbal formulation used in Ayurveda. Many of its ingredients are known for presence of alkaloids.
Presence of alkaloid was tested qualitatively by Dragondroff's method then subjected to quantitative estimation by UV-Spectrophotometer. This method is based on the reaction between alkaloid and bromocresol green (BCG).
Results and Conclusion:
Study discloses that out of 16 ingredients, 9 contain alkaloid. Chitrakadivati has shown 0.16% of concentration of alkaloid and which is significantly higher than it's individual ingredients.
Bromocresol green; chitrakadivati; total alkaloid; UV-Spectrophotometer; ayurveda
Achyranthes aspera is known as Chirchita (Hindi), Apamarga (Sanskrit), Aghedi (Gujarati), Apang (Bengali), Nayurivi (Tamil), Kalalat (Malyalam) and Agadha (Marathi) in our country. It possesses valuable medicinal properties and used in treatment of cough, bronchitis and rheumatism, malarial fever, dysentery, asthma, hypertension and diabetes in Indian folklore. Present study was designed to evaluate anti-inflammatory activity of an aqueous extracts of Achyranthes aspera (AEAA).
Materials and Methods:
AEAA leaves and whole plant (i.e. Aqueous extracts of Achyranthes aspera leaves (AEAAL)/Aqueous extracts of A. aspera whole plant (AEAAW) were studied in albino mice using carrageenan induced left hind paw edema. Both extracts were subjected to preliminary phytochemical analysis and acute toxicity of the extracts was also studied using Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development OECD guidelines 423.
Acute toxicity study confirmed toxic dose of AEAA to be more than 2,000 mg/kg. Flavonoids, alkaloids, saponins and triterpenoids were the major constituents found in extracts. AEAA reduced the edema induced by carrageenan by 35.71-54.76% on intraperitoneally administration of 400 mg/kg and 800 mg/kg as compared to the untreated control group. Diclofenac sodium at 10 mg/kg inhibited the edema volume by 42.85%. The results indicated that the AEAA 800 mg/kg body weight shows more significant (P < 0.01, P < 0.001) anti-inflammatory activity when compared with the standard and untreated control respectively.
Both AEAA exhibit promising anti-inflammatory activity attributed to flavonoids, alkaloids, saponins and triterpenoids phytoconstituents.
Achyranthes aspera; anti-inflammatory; high Performance thin layer chromatogram HPTLC; plethysmographic method
Leea asiatica, a folk medicinal plant of India, is used in the treatment of worm infection and other oxidative stress-related disorders, traditionally. In the present study, the in vitro anthelmintic and in vitro antioxidant activity of different fractions of the methanol extract from the Leea asiatica leaves were evaluated. The fraction displayed significant anthelmintic activity against Indian adult earthworms (Pheretima posthuma). The ethyl acetate fraction showed a better paralysis activity (13.99 ± 0.59), while the methanol fraction showed a better death time (63.76 ± 0.73 minutes), when compared with other fractions, at a dose of 50 mg/ml concentration. The anthelmintic activity of methanol and the ethyl acetate fraction were almost similar and comparable to the standard drug, piperazine citrate. The petroleum ether fraction did not produce a potent anthelmintic effect compared to the standard. The in vitro antioxidant activity was evaluated by using the diphenyl-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay, nitric oxide radical scavenging assay, lipid peroxidation assay, and the ferric thiocyanate method. The ethyl acetate fraction showed better antioxidant activity in all tested methods. The IC50 value of the ethyl acetate fraction in the DPPH radical, nitric oxide radical scavenging assay, and lipid peroxidation assay were 9.5, 13.0, and 57.0 μg/ml, respectively. The fractions significantly (P < 0.05) inhibited the peroxidation of linoleic acid. The results confirmed the folk use of Leea asiatica in warm infection and the plant could be viewed as a potential source of natural anthelmintic and antioxidant compound.
Anthelmintic; antioxidant; ethyl acetate fraction; leaves; Leea asiatica
Standardization of a compound Ayurvedic formulation is a critical and essential issue to be considered in assuring the therapeutic efficacy and safety and to rationalize their use in the health care. Sitopaladi churna is a reputed polyherbal formulation of Ayurveda. It is prescribed for the treatment of pleurodynia, intercostal neuralgia, cold, cough associated with bronchitis, pneumonia, tuberculosis, viral respiratory infection, and in pharyngeal and chest congestion.
The present study aimed at physico-chemical standardization of in-house and two marketed brands of Sitopaladi churna.
Materials and Methods:
In our investigation, in-house churna and two commercial brands of Sitopaladi churna were standardized based on powder microscopy, physico-chemical evaluations, thin layer chromatography (TLC) and high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) finger printing as per standard procedures.
The set parameters were sufficient to evaluate the churna based on various physico-chemical parameters.
The data evolved can be adopted for laying down the standards for the manufacturing units of Sitopaladi churna.
High performance thin layer chromatography; physico-chemical; Sitopaladi churna; standardization
Hedychium spicatum (Ham-ex-Smith), known as Shati in Ayurvedic classics, is documented for the treatment of cough, hiccough, fever and asthma. The present study includes the evaluation of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of the dried rhizome of H. spicatum for anti-histaminic and ulcer-protective activities in guinea pig (GP), anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities in rat and acute toxicity in mouse. The extracts were administered orally, daily as suspension, in 1% carboxymethyl cellulose either for 7 days in GP studies or 60 min before or just before experiment in rats and mice. An initial dose-dependent anti-histaminic action of both the extracts (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg) was performed against histamine-induced bronchospasm in GPs. The 200 mg/ kg dose of aqueous and ethanolic extracts was selected both in GP and rat for further studies. GPs treated with aqueous and ethanolic extracts showed gastric ulcer protection against histamine-induced gastric ulcer compared with the control group. Both the extracts also showed an anti-inflammatory effect against carrageenan-induced paw edema in rats from 1 h onwards, and this was maximum at 3 h. Analgesic effect was determined by using hot plate and tail flick tests in rats, and both the extracts at 200 mg/kg showed a significant increase in the latent period from 30 min onwards till 120 min of their study period. Both the extracts did not show any toxic effect like increased motor activity, salivation, clonic convulsion, coma and death in mice even at the 2000 mg/kg dose (nearly 10 times of the optimal effective dose), indicating the safety of the extracts. The result confirms the indigenous use of this plant in respiratory disorders.
Analgesic; antihistaminic; anti-inflammatory; Hedychium spicatum; respiratory disorders; ulcer protective
Rasasindura (RS) is one of the unique mercurial preparations commonly used in Ayurveda therapeutics. The traditional procedure followed for preparing RS in the classical furnace has several drawbacks, such as difficulty in controlling temperature, consumption of large quantity of fuel, and excess human effort.
Aims & Objective:
The present study was conducted to evaluate an alternate method to prepare RS by using an electrical muffle furnace (EMF) and to standardize this method.
Materials and Methods:
RS was prepared by adapting similar temperature pattern in both the traditional and EMF methods, and observations were recorded. Obtained product was subjected to orgennoleptic and physico-chemical analysis.
No remarkable differences were seen in observations of both preparations, except the melting of Kajjali, appearance of flame, and appearance of desired characteristics of product formation, which were observed at 190, 496, and 567°C in the traditional method and at 180, 473, and 560°C in EMF, respectively. Yield of the traditional method was 53.5% whereas in EMF, it was 50.83%. Organoleptic and physicochemical analysis revealed no significant deviation in values.
The present study reveals that the traditional method of preparing RS can be effectively replaced by the EMF with some added advantages.
Electrical muffle furnace; Rasasindura; traditional furnace
Academic excellence is essential to provide opportunities for students to work together to improve their understanding of concepts in their academic core. Academic excellence helps students to teach problem-solving and collaborative learning strategies.
The objective of this study was to assess Guna (personality traits) in students undergoing Yoga Instructor's Course (YIC).
Materials and Methods:
In all, 68 YIC students with a mean age of 28.03 ± 9.38 years participated in this single group pre–post study. The Personality Inventory data were collected before (pre) and after (post) the YIC.
Means, standard deviations, Kolmogorov–Smirnov test, and Wilcoxon signed rank test were used for analyzing the data with the help of SPSS 16.
The data analysis showed 11.33% decrease (P < 0.01) in Tamas Guna (dull personality trait), 0.68% decrease (P =0.819) in Rajas Guna (violent personality trait), and 10.34% increase (P <0.01) in Sattva Guna (balanced personality trait) scores.
This study suggests that YIC can result in the improvement of Sattva Guna (balance personality trait) among students, thus paving the way for their academic excellence.
Academic excellence; ancient science of yogic life; university students
The effect of Gomutra ark (GoA) on experimental alloxan-induced diabetes in rats was studied. For this purpose, Wistar albino rats of either sex weighing 200-250 g were used. The biochemical parameters like blood sugar, vitamin C, and malondialdehyde release were measured. The safety profile of GoA was evaluated using acute and chronic toxicity studies. GoA significantly lowers blood glucose in diabetic rats although the observed effect was found to be less than glibenclamide. It significantly lowers the level of malondialdehyde and vitamin C in diabetic rats. No toxicity was observed even when cow urine was given 32 times of the study dose in acute toxicity and no significant changes were seen when it was used chronically, which suggests that cow urine is having a very high therapeutic index. This study supports the traditional use of GoA in diabetes and is having a high therapeutic index and is safe for chronic use. However, further studies are needed to elucidate the mechanism of action of Gomutra ark.
Alloxan; antidiabetic; antioxidant; glibenclamide; Gomutra ark