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1.  Evidence of early involvement of apoptosis inducing factor-induced neuronal death in Alzheimer brain 
Anatomy & Cell Biology  2012;45(1):26-37.
Apoptosis inducing factor (AIF) has been proposed to act as a putative reactive oxygen species scavenger in mitochondria. When apoptotic cell death is triggered, AIF translocates to the nucleus, where it leads to nuclear chromatin condensation and large-scale DNA fragmentation which result in caspase-independent neuronal death. We performed this study to investigate the possibility that, in addition to caspase-dependent neuronal death, AIF induced neuronal death could be a cause of neuronal death in Alzheimer's disease (AD). We have found that AIF immunoreactivity was increased in the hippocampal pyramidal neurons in the Alzheimer brains compared to those of healthy, age-matched control brains. Nuclear AIF immunoreactivity was detected in the apoptotic pyramidal CA1 neurons at the early stage of AD and CA2 at the advanced stage. Nuclear AIF positive neurons were also observed in the amygdala and cholinergic neurons of the basal forebrain (BFCN) from the early stages of AD. The results of this study imply that AIF-induced apoptosis may contribute to neuronal death within the hippocampus, amygdala, and BFCN in early of AD.
doi:10.5115/acb.2012.45.1.26
PMCID: PMC3328738  PMID: 22536549
Alzheimer disease; Apoptosis inducing factor; Caspase-independent neuronal death; Human brain
2.  Expression of ErbB4 in the neurons of Alzheimer's disease brain and APP/PS1 mice, a model of Alzheimer's disease 
Anatomy & Cell Biology  2011;44(2):116-127.
Neuregulin-1 (NRG1) plays important roles in the development and plasticity of the brain, and has also been reported to exhibit potent neuroprotective properties. Although ErbB4, a key NRG1 receptor, is expressed in multiple regions in the adult animal brain, little is known about its role in Alzheimer's disease (AD). AD is characterized by progressive impairment of cognition and behavioral disturbance that strongly correlate with degeneration and death of neurons in the cerebral cortex and limbic brain areas, such as the hippocampus and the amygdala. Here, we show that the ErbB4 and phospho-ErbB4 immunoreactivities were higher intensity in the neurons of the CA1-2 transitional field of AD brains as compared to age-matched controls. Also, ErbB4 expression was increased in the neurons of the cortico medial nucleus amygdala, human basal forebrain and superior frontal gyrus of AD brains. In cerebral cortex and hippocampus of amyloid precursor protein/presenilin 1 double transgenic mice, ErbB4 immunoreactivity significantly increased in comparison to age-matched wild type control. These results suggest that up-regulating of ErbB4 immunoreactivity may involve in the progression of pathology of AD.
doi:10.5115/acb.2011.44.2.116
PMCID: PMC3145840  PMID: 21829755
Alzheimer disease; ErbB4 receptor; Limbic structures; Neurodegeneration
3.  Expression of ErbB4 in the apoptotic neurons of Alzheimer's disease brain 
Anatomy & Cell Biology  2010;43(4):332-339.
Neuregulin-1 (NRG1) signaling participates in the synaptic plasticity, maintenance or regulation of adult brain. Although ErbB4, a key NRG1 receptor, is expressed in multiple regions in the adult animal brain, little is known about its localization in Alzheimer's disease (AD) brains. We previously reported that ErbB4 immunoreactivity showed regional difference in the hippocampus of age-matched control. In the present paper, immunohistochemical characterization of the distribution of ErbB4 receptor in the hippocampus relative to pathology staging were performed in age-matched control (Braak stage 0, n=6) and AD (Braak stage I/V, n=10). Here, we found that ErbB4 immunoreactivity was significantly increased in apoptotic hippocampal pyramidal neurons in the brains of AD patients, compared to those of age-matched control subjects. In AD brains, ErbB4 immunoreactivity was demonstrated to colocalize with the apoptotic signal Bax in apoptotic hippocampal pyramidal neurons. These results suggest that up-regulation of ErbB4 immunoreactivity in apoptotic neuron may involve in the progression of pathology of AD.
doi:10.5115/acb.2010.43.4.332
PMCID: PMC3026186  PMID: 21267408
Alzheimer's disease; ErbB4 receptor; Bax; Apoptosis; Neurodegeneration

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