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1.  Vitamin C modulates lead excretion in rats 
Anatomy & Cell Biology  2013;46(4):239-245.
Lead, one of the most toxic heavy metals, takes longer time to be excreted from the body than other heavy metals. The purpose of this study is, by measuring lead excretion via urine and feces, to find out the effect of vitamin C in lead chelation. Thirty-six rats were randomly assorted into four groups. All 33 rats except for the control group were administered with lead, before orally administered with different doses of vitamin C per kilogram of body weight. The lead excretion levels in urine and feces as well as the survival rate were then measured for each group. The rats with lead administrations (10/13, 76.9%) with lead administrations only, 10/11 rats (90.9%) with lead administrations and low dose of vitamin C, 9/9 rats (100%) with lead administrations and high dose of vitamin C survived. Among the 29 surviving rats, low vitamin C intake group exhibited higher urinary excretion than the lead only group. The urinary excretion level in high dose vitamin C intakegroup was significantly higher than the lead only group. In addition, fecal lead excretion seemed to be increased in the high dose vitamin C intake group, compared to the group with lead administrations only with statistical significance. Through animal experiment, it was found out that administrating high dose of vitamin C accelerated the excretion of lead in body compared to low dose of vitamin C.
PMCID: PMC3875841  PMID: 24386596
Lead; Vitamin C; Chelation; Excretion
2.  Control of neuronal migration through rostral migratory stream in mice 
Anatomy & Cell Biology  2010;43(4):269-279.
During the nervous system development, immature neuroblasts have a strong potential to migrate toward their destination. In the adult brain, new neurons are continuously generated in the neurogenic niche located near the ventricle, and the newly generated cells actively migrate toward their destination, olfactory bulb, via highly specialized migratory route called rostral migratory stream (RMS). Neuroblasts in the RMS form chains by their homophilic interactions, and the neuroblasts in chains continually migrate through the tunnels formed by meshwork of astrocytes, glial tube. This review focuses on the development and structure of RMS and the regulation of neuroblast migration in the RMS. Better understanding of RMS migration may be crucial for improving functional replacement therapy by supplying endogenous neuronal cells to the injury sites more efficiently.
PMCID: PMC3026178  PMID: 21267400
Neuronal migration; Rostral migratory stream; Neuroblasts; Adult neurogenesis
3.  Differential regulation of Purkinje cell dendritic spines in rolling mouse Nagoya (tgrol/tgrol), P/Q type calcium channel (╬▒1A/Cav2.1) mutant 
Anatomy & Cell Biology  2010;43(3):211-217.
Voltage dependent calcium channels (VDCC) participate in regulation of neuronal Ca2+. The Rolling mouse Nagoya (Cacna1atg-rol) is a spontaneous P/Q type VDCC mutant, which has been suggested as an animal model for some human neurological diseases such as autosomal dominant cerebellar ataxia (SCA6), familial hemiplegic migraine and episodic ataxia type-2. Morphology of Purkinje cell (PC) dendritic spine is suggested to be regulated by signal molecules such as Ca2+ and by interactions with afferent inputs. The amplitude of excitatory postsynaptic current was decreased in parallel fiber (PF) to PC synapses, whereas apparently increased in climbing fiber (CF) to PC synapses in rolling mice Nagoya. We have studied synaptic morphology changes in cerebella of this mutant strain. We previously found altered synapses between PF varicosity and PC dendritic spines. To study dendritic spine plasticity of PC in the condition of insufficient P/Q type VDCC function, we used high voltage electron microscopy (HVEM). We measured the density and length of PC dendritic spines at tertiary braches. We observed statistically a significant decrease in spine density as well as shorter spine length in rolling mice compared to wild type mice at tertiary dendritic braches. In proximal PC dendrites, however, there were more numerous dendritic spines in rolling mice Nagoya. The differential regulation of rolling PC spines at tertiary and proximal dendrites in rolling mice Nagoya suggests that two major excitatory afferent systems may be regulated reciprocally in the cerebellum of rolling mouse Nagoya.
PMCID: PMC3015039  PMID: 21212861
Ataxia; Dendritic spine; High voltage electron microscope; Purkinje cell; Voltage dependent calcium channel

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