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1.  Bilateral asymmetric supernumerary heads of biceps brachii 
Anatomy & Cell Biology  2011;44(3):238-240.
Anatomical variations of the biceps brachii have been described by various authors, but the occurrence of bilateral asymmetric supernumerary heads is rare and has not been reported. We found three accessory heads of the biceps brachii muscle on right arm and an anomalous third head of biceps brachii on left arm. The third, fourth, and fifth heads of right arm originated from the body of humerus at the insertion site of coracobrachialis and inserted into the distal part of biceps brachii short head in order. The third head of left arm originated from humerus at the insertion site of coracobrachialis and combined with the distal part of biceps brachii and continued to the proximal part of common biceps tendon. Understanding the existence of bilateral asymmetric supernumerary heads of biceps brachii may influence preoperative diagnosis and surgery on the upper limbs.
doi:10.5115/acb.2011.44.3.238
PMCID: PMC3195828  PMID: 22025976
Biceps brachii; Asymmetry; Supernumerary heads; Variation
2.  Gene expression profiling of mouse aborted uterus induced by lipopolysac charide 
Anatomy & Cell Biology  2011;44(2):98-105.
To identify genes that participate in the abortion process, normal pregnant uteri were compared to lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced abortion uteri. At day 6 of pregnancy, mice were treated with LPS at various time points to induce an abortion. Total RNAs were applied to a cDNA microarray to analyze genes with altered expression. At the early stage (2 hours) of LPS-induced abortion, upregulated genes were mainly composed of immune responsive genes, including Ccl4, Ccl2, Cxcl13, Gbp3, Gbp2, Mx2, H2-Eb1, Irf1 and Ifi203. Genes related to toll-like receptor signaling were also overexpressed. At late stages of abortion (12-24 hours), many genes were suppressed rather than activated, and these were mainly related to the extracellular matrix, cytoskeleton, and anti-apoptosis. Altered expression of several selected genes was confirmed by real time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. The results demonstrated that many known genes were altered in the LPS-treated pregnant uterus, implying that the molecular mechanisms of the genes involved in LPS-induced abortion are complicated. Further analysis of this expression profile will help our understanding of the pathophysiological basis for abortion.
doi:10.5115/acb.2011.44.2.98
PMCID: PMC3145848  PMID: 21829753
Abortion; Lipopolysaccharide; Microarray; Mouse
3.  HOXB13 is co-localized with androgen receptor to suppress androgen-stimulated prostate-specific antigen expression 
Anatomy & Cell Biology  2010;43(4):284-293.
During the prostate cancer (PCa) development and its progression into hormone independency, androgen receptor (AR) signals play a central role by triggering the regulation of target genes, including prostate-specific antigen. However, the regulation of these AR-mediated target genes is not fully understood. We have previously demonstrated a unique role of HOXB13 homeodomain protein as an AR repressor. Expression of HOXB13 was highly restricted to the prostate and its suppression dramatically increased hormone-activated AR transactivation, suggesting that prostate-specific HOXB13 was a highly potent transcriptional regulator. In this report, we demonstrated the action mechanism of HOXB13 as an AR repressor. HOXB13 suppressed androgen-stimulated AR activity by interacting with AR. HOXB13 did neither bind to AR responsive elements nor disturb nuclear translocation of AR in response to androgen. In PCa specimen, we also observed mutual expression pattern of HOXB13 and AR. These results suggest that HOXB13 not only serve as a DNA-bound transcription factor but play an important role as an AR-interacting repressor to modulate hormone-activated androgen receptor signals. Further extensive studies will uncover a novel mechanism for regulating AR-signaling pathway to lead to expose new role of HOXB13 as a non-DNA-binding transcriptional repressor.
doi:10.5115/acb.2010.43.4.284
PMCID: PMC3026180  PMID: 21267402
HOX; HOXB13; Androgen receptor; Prostate cancer

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