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1.  Pes anserinus and anserine bursa: anatomical study 
Anatomy & Cell Biology  2014;47(2):127-131.
This study investigated the boundary of anserine bursa with the recommended injection site and shape on the insertion area of pes anserinus (PA), with the aim of improving clinical practice. Eighty six legs from 45 Korean cadavers were investigated. The mixed gelatin solution was injected to identify the shape of anserine bursa, and then the insertion site of the PA tendons was exposed completely and carefully dissected to identify the shape of the PA. The sartorius was inserted into the superficial layer and gracilis, and the semitendinosus was inserted into the deep layer on the medial surface of the tibia. The number of the semitendinosus tendons at the insertion site varied: 1 in 66% of specimens, 2 in 31%, and 3 in 3%. The gracilis and semitendinosus tendons were connected to the deep fascia of leg. Overall, the shape of the anserine bursa was irregularly circular. Most of the anserine bursa specimens reached the proximal line of the tibia, and some of the specimens reached above the proximal line of the tibia. In the medial view of the tibia, the anserine bursa was located posteriorly and superiorly from the tibia's midline, and it followed the lines of the sartorius muscle. The injection site for anserine bursa should be carried out at 20┬░ from the vertical line medially and inferiorly, 15 or 20 mm deeply, and at the point of about 20 mm medial and 12 mm superior from inferomedial point of tibial tuberosity.
PMCID: PMC4076419  PMID: 24987549
Cadaver; Anserine bursa; Pes anserinus; Bursa injection
2.  TBR2-immunopsitive unipolar brush cells are associated with ectopic zebrin II-immunoreactive Purkinje cell clusters in the cerebellum of scrambler mice 
Anatomy & Cell Biology  2010;43(1):72-77.
Unipolar brush cells (UBCs) are excitatory interneurons with their somata located in the granular layer. Recently, T-brain factor 2 (Tbr2) was shown to be expressed in a subset of UBCs in mouse cerebellum. Scrambler mice exhibit severe cerebellum abnormalities, including the failure of embryonic Purkinje cell dispersal and a complete absence of foliation due to a mutation in the disabled-1 adaptor protein. Since most UBC markers are expressed postnatally, it has proven difficult to identify the relationship between developing Purkinje cell clusters and migrating UBCs. Because scrambler mice closely mimic normal embryonic day 18 cerebellum, we examined whether Tbr2-positive UBCs are associated with Purkinje cell cluster markers such as zebrin II, which is the most studied compartmentation marker in the cerebellum. We investigated the distribution of Tbr2-positive UBCs in this mutant by using anti-Tbr2 immunocytochemistry. The data revealed that Tbr2 immunoreactivity was exclusively present in the nucleus of UBCs in scrambler cerebellum. Based on expression data, a Tbr2-positive UBC map was constructed. In addition, Tbr2-positive UBCs are found associated with ectopic zebrin II-immunoreactive Purkinje cell clusters in scrambler cerebellum. These data suggest that UBCs use Purkinje cell compartmentation to migrate into their final position through interactions with the embryonic array of specific Purkinje cell subtypes.
PMCID: PMC2998775  PMID: 21190007
Tbr2; unipolar brush cell; scrambler; zebrin; cerebellum
3.  Early cerebellar granule cell migration in the mouse embryonic development 
Anatomy & Cell Biology  2010;43(1):86-95.
Pax6, a paired homeobox DNA binding protein, has been found to be expressed in the cerebellum in both granule cells and their precursors in the external granular layer (EGL). In this study we have traced Pax6 expression through embryonic development in mice by using a polyclonal antibody against Pax6 and used it to study the cellular dispersal pattern of the EGL. During dispersal the EGL was thicker and Pax6 expression was more intense on the rostral side of the lateral corners of the cerebellum. Pax6 immunoreactive cells were found to be migrating from the EGL during the early stage of EGL dispersal, which suggested the early inward migration of granule cells. Double staining with various markers confirmed that the early-migrating cells are not Purkinje cells, interneurons or glia. Although the Pax6 immunoreactive cells within the cerebellum were not apparently proliferating, NeuN, a marker for postmitotic granule cells, was not expressed in these cells until E16. Furthermore, granule cells were observed migrating inwards from the EGL both during and after EGL dispersal. These early migrating granule cells populated the whole cerebellum. These findings offer novel views on specific stages of granule cell dispersal and migration.
PMCID: PMC2998778  PMID: 21190009
Pax6; granule cells; cerebellum; development

Results 1-3 (3)