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1.  Phosphorylation of 14-3-3ζ at serine 58 and neurodegeneration following kainic acid-induced excitotoxicity 
Anatomy & Cell Biology  2010;43(2):150-156.
Oxidative stress-induced cell death leads to phosphorylation of 14-3-3ζ at serine 58. 14-3-3ζ is detected at significant levels in cerebrospinal fluid after kainic acid (KA)-induced seizures. Here we examined temporal changes in 14-3-3ζ phosphorylation in the hippocampus and amygdala of mice after KA treatment. Mice were killed at 2, 6, 24, or 48 h after KA (30 mg/kg) injection. We observed an increase in TUNEL and Fluoro-Jade B (FJB)-stained neurons in the hippocampus and amygdala of KA-treated mice. Phospho (p)-14-3-3ζ and p-JNK expression was increased in the hippocampus 2 and 6 h after KA treatment, respectively. In immunohistochemical analysis, p-14-3-3ζ-positive cells were present in the CA3 region of the hippocampus and the central nucleus of amygdala (CeA) of KA-treated mice. Thus, phosphorylation of 14-3-3ζ at serine 58 may play an important role in KA-induced hippocampal and amygdaloid neuronal damage.
doi:10.5115/acb.2010.43.2.150
PMCID: PMC2998790  PMID: 21189996
Kainic acid; 14-3-3ζ; hippocampus; amygdala; neurodegeneration
2.  Resveratrol activates AMPK and suppresses LPS-induced NF-κB-dependent COX-2 activation in RAW 264.7 macrophage cells 
Anatomy & Cell Biology  2011;44(3):194-203.
AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), an enzyme involved in energy homeostasis, regulates inflammatory responses, but its precise mechanisms are not fully understood. Recent evidence has shown that resveratrol (RES), an AMPK activator, reduces prostaglandin E2 production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated microglia. Here, we examined the effect of RES on nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) dependent cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 activation in LPS-treated RWA 264.7 macrophages. We found that treatment with RES increased AMPK activation. AMPK and acetyl CoA carboxylase phosphorylation were attenuated in cells treated with LPS+RES, compared to cells treated with LPS alone. RES inhibited tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and TNF receptor 1 in LPS-treated cells. Finally, RES inhibited LPS-induced NF-κB translocation into the nucleus and COX-2 expression. Moreover, the effects of 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribose and compound C were consistent with the effects of RES in LPS-treated cells. Taken together, these results suggest that the anti-inflammatory action of RES in RAW 264.7 macrophages is dependent on AMPK activation and is associated with inhibition of the LPS-stimulated NF-κB-dependent COX-2 signaling pathway.
doi:10.5115/acb.2011.44.3.194
PMCID: PMC3195823  PMID: 22025971
Resveratrol; AMP-activated protein kinases; Macrophages
3.  Ethanol down regulates the expression of myelin proteolipid protein in the rat hippocampus 
Anatomy & Cell Biology  2010;43(3):194-200.
It is well known that chronic ethanol treatment affects the synthesis of RNA and protein in the brain and the maintenance and function of nervous system. The changes in myelination-related genes are most prominent in human alcoholics. Previously, our cDNA microarray study showed altered Proteolipid protein (PLP), a major protein of central myelin. The present study aimed to gain more understanding of the expression of PLP after chronic ethanol treatment. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were daily treated with ethanol (15% in saline, 3 g/kg, i.p.) or saline for 14 days. Messenger RNAs from hippocampus of each group were subjected to cDNA expression array hybridization to determine the differential gene expressions. Among many ethanol responsive genes, PLP was negatively regulated by ethanol treatment, which is one of the most abundant proteins in the CNS and has an important role in the stabilization of myelin sheath. Using northern blot and immunohistochemical analysis, we showed the change in expression level of PLP mRNA and protein after ethanol treatment. PLP mRNA and protein were decreased in hippocampus of rat with chronic ethanol exposure, suggesting that ethanol may affect the stabilization of myelin sheath through the modulation of PLP expression and induce the pathophysiology of alcoholic brain.
doi:10.5115/acb.2010.43.3.194
PMCID: PMC3015037  PMID: 21212859
rat; brain; hippocampus; alcohol; proteolipid protein

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