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1.  Characteristics of Mild Dengue Virus Infection in Thai Children 
A four-year longitudinal cohort and geographic cluster study in rural Thailand was conducted to characterize the clinical spectrum of dengue virus (DENV) infection. Symptomatic DENV infections in the cohort were detected by active school absence–based surveillance that triggered cluster investigations around ill cohort children. Data from 189 cohort children with symptomatic DENV infection and 126 contact children in the clusters with DENV infection were analyzed. Of infected contacts, only 19% were asymptomatic; 81% were symptomatic, but only 65.9% reported fever. Symptom-based case definitions were unreliable for diagnosis. Symptomatic infections in contacts were milder with lower DENV RNA levels than the cohort. Infections in contacts with fever history were more likely to have detectable DENV RNA than infections without fever history. Mild infections identified by cluster investigations account for a major proportion of all DENV infections. These findings are relevant for disease burden assessments, transmission modeling, and determination of vaccine impact.
doi:10.4269/ajtmh.13-0424
PMCID: PMC3854884  PMID: 24127167
2.  Safety and Immunogenicity of a Rederived, Live-Attenuated Dengue Virus Vaccine in Healthy Adults Living in Thailand: A Randomized Trial 
Safety and immunogenicity of two formulations of a live-attenuated tetravalent dengue virus (TDEN) vaccine produced using rederived master seeds from a precursor vaccine were tested against a placebo control in a phase II, randomized, double blind trial (NCT00370682). Two doses were administered 6 months apart to 120 healthy, predominantly flavivirus-primed adults (87.5% and 97.5% in the two vaccine groups and 92.5% in the placebo group). Symptoms and signs reported after vaccination were mild to moderate and transient. There were no vaccine-related serious adverse events or dengue cases reported. Asymptomatic, low-level viremia (dengue virus type 2 [DENV-2], DENV-3, or DENV-4) was detected in 5 of 80 vaccine recipients. One placebo recipient developed a subclinical natural DENV-1 infection. All flavivirus-unprimed subjects and at least 97.1% of flavivirus-primed subjects were seropositive to antibodies against all four DENV types 1 and 3 months post-TDEN dose 2. The TDEN vaccine was immunogenic with an acceptable safety profile in flavivirus-primed adults.
doi:10.4269/ajtmh.13-0452
PMCID: PMC4080550  PMID: 24865677
3.  Kinetics of Chikungunya Infections during an Outbreak in Southern Thailand, 2008–2009 
The Indian Ocean chikungunya epidemic re-emerged in Thailand in August 2008. Forty-five adults with laboratory-confirmed chikungunya in Songkhla province, Thailand were clinically assessed and serially bled throughout the acute and convalescent phase of the disease. Patient symptoms, antibody responses, and viral kinetics were evaluated using observational assessments, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and serological assays. All subjects experienced joint pain with 42 (93%) involving multiple joints; the interphalangeal most commonly affected in 91% of the subjects. The mean duration of joint pain was 5.8 days, 11 (25%) experiencing discomfort through the duration of the study. Rash was observed in 37 (82%) subjects a mean 3.5 days post onset of symptoms. Patents were positive by PCR for a mean of 5.9 days with sustained peak viral load through Day 5. The IgM antibodies appeared on Day 4 and peaked at Day 7 and IgG antibodies first appeared at Day 5 and rose steadily through Day 24.
doi:10.4269/ajtmh.12-0681
PMCID: PMC3945684  PMID: 24493674
4.  A Prospective Assessment of the Accuracy of Commercial IgM ELISAs in Diagnosis of Japanese Encephalitis Virus Infections in Patients with Suspected Central Nervous System Infections in Laos 
Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is a major cause of encephalitis in Asia. We estimated the diagnostic accuracy of two anti-JEV immunoglobulin M (IgM) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) (Panbio and XCyton JEVCheX) compared with a reference standard (AFRIMS JEV MAC ELISA) in a prospective study of the causes of central nervous system infections in Laos. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF; 515 patients) and serum samples (182 patients) from those admitted to Mahosot Hospital, Vientiane, were tested. The CSF from 14.5% of acute encephalitis syndrome (AES) patients and 10.1% from those with AES and meningitis were positive for anti-JEV IgM in the reference ELISA. The sensitivities for CSF were 65.4% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 51–78) (Xcyton), 69.2% (95% CI = 55–81) (Panbio), however 96.2% (95% CI = 87–100) with Panbio Ravi criteria. Specificities were 89–100%. For admission sera from AES patients, sensitivities and specificities of the Panbio ELISA were 85.7% (95% CI = 42–100%) and 92.9% (95% CI = 83–98%), respectively.
doi:10.4269/ajtmh.2012.11-0729
PMCID: PMC3391045  PMID: 22764310
5.  Serologic Study of Pig-Associated Viral Zoonoses in Laos 
We conducted a serologic survey of four high-priority pig-associated viral zoonoses, Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), hepatitis E virus (HEV), Nipah virus (NiV), and swine influenza virus (SIV), in Laos. We collected blood from pigs at slaughter during May 2008–January 2009 in four northern provinces. Japanese encephalitis virus hemagglutination inhibition seroprevalence was 74.7% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 71.5–77.9%), JEV IgM seroprevalence was 2.3% (95% CI = 1.2–3.2%), and HEV seroprevalence was 21.1% (95% CI = 18.1–24.0%). Antibodies to SIV were detected in 1.8% (95% CI = 0.8–2.8%) of pigs by screening enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and only subtype H3N2 was detected by hemagglutination inhibition in two animals with an inconclusive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay result. No NiV antibody–positive pigs were detected. Our evidence indicates that peak JEV and HEV transmission coincides with the start of the monsoonal wet season and poses the greatest risk for human infection.
doi:10.4269/ajtmh.2012.11-0195
PMCID: PMC3366526  PMID: 22665622
6.  Safety and Immunogenicity of a Tetravalent Live-Attenuated Dengue Vaccine in Flavivirus-Naive Infants 
A Phase I/II observer-blind, randomized, controlled trial evaluated the safety and immunogenicity of a dengue virus (DENV) vaccine candidate in healthy Thai infants (aged 12–15 months) without measurable pre-vaccination neutralizing antibodies to DENV and Japanese encephalitis virus. Fifty-one subjects received two doses of either DENV (N = 34; four received 1/10th dose) or control vaccine (N = 17; dose 1, live varicella; dose 2, Haemophilus influenzae type b). After each vaccine dose, adverse events (AEs) were solicited for 21 days, and non-serious AEs were solicited for 30 days; serious AEs (SAEs) were recorded throughout the study. Laboratory safety assessments were performed at 10 and 30 days; neutralizing antibodies were measured at 30 days. The DENV vaccine was well-tolerated without any related SAEs. After the second dose, 85.7% of full-dose DENV vaccinees developed at least trivalent and 53.6% developed tetravalent neutralizing antibodies ≥ 1:10 to DENV (control group = 0%). This vaccine candidate, therefore, warrants continued development in this age group (NCT00322049; clinicaltrials.gov).
doi:10.4269/ajtmh.2011.10-0501
PMCID: PMC3144835  PMID: 21813857
7.  Factors Influencing Dengue Virus Isolation by C6/36 Cell Culture and Mosquito Inoculation of Nested PCR-Positive Clinical Samples 
Dengue viral isolation is necessary for definitive diagnosis, pathogenesis and evolutionary research, vaccine candidates, and diagnostic materials. Using standardized techniques, we analyzed isolation rates of 1,544 randomly selected polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-positive samples, representing all four dengue serotypes, from patients with serologically confirmed dengue infections and evaluated whether clinical and laboratory results could be predictive of isolation using standard and mosquito isolation techniques. Viruses were isolated from 62.5% of the samples by direct application to C6/36 cells and increased to 79.4% when amplifying C6/36 negative samples by intrathorasic inoculation in Toxyrhynchites splendens mosquitoes. High viremia, measured by reverse transcriptase (RT)-PCR, was a strong predictor for viral isolation by either method. Isolation was most successful in samples collected early in the disease, had low antibody levels, temperatures greater than 38°C, and had a final clinical diagnosis of dengue fever. Dengue serotypes also played a role in the success of viral isolation.
doi:10.4269/ajtmh.2011.09-0798
PMCID: PMC3029170  PMID: 21292887
8.  The Incidence, Characteristics, and Presentation of Dengue Virus Infections during Infancy 
Infants are a vulnerable and unique population at risk for dengue in endemic areas. This report describes the incidence and presenting clinical features of infant dengue virus (DENV) infections from a prospective community-based study performed between January 2007 and May 2009 in the Philippines. DENV3 was the predominant infecting serotype over a wide spectrum of disease severity, ranging from inapparent infection to dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF). In 2007, the incidence of inapparent DENV infections during infancy was 103 per 1,000 persons person-years and 6-fold higher than symptomatic dengue. The age-specific incidence of infant DHF was 0.5 per 1,000 persons over the age of 3–8 months, and it disappeared by age 9 months. A febrile seizure, macular rash, petechiae, and lower platelet count were presenting clinical features associated with DENV infection among infants with acute undifferentiated febrile illnesses. Community-based studies can help to delineate the incidence rates, disease spectrum, and clinical features of DENV infections during infancy.
doi:10.4269/ajtmh.2010.09-0542
PMCID: PMC2813177  PMID: 20134013

Results 1-8 (8)