In this study, we explored the regulation and the role of up-regulated microRNAs in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), a progressive interstitial lung disease of unknown origin. We analyzed the expression of microRNAs in IPF lungs and identified 43 significantly up-regulated microRNAs. Twenty-four of the 43 increased microRNAs were localized to the chromosome 14q32 microRNA cluster. We validated the increased expression of miR-154, miR-134, miR-299–5p, miR-410, miR-382, miR-409–3p, miR-487b, miR-31, and miR-127 by quantitative RT-PCR and determined that they were similarly expressed in embryonic lungs. We did not find evidence for differential methylation in this region, but analysis of transcription factor binding sites identified multiple SMAD3-binding elements in the 14q32 microRNA cluster. TGF-β1 stimulation of normal human lung fibroblasts (NHLF) caused up-regulation of microRNAs on chr14q32 that were also increased in IPF lungs. Chromatin immunoprecipitation confirmed binding of SMAD3 to the putative promoter of miR-154. Mir-154 was increased in IPF fibroblasts, and transfection of NHLF with miR-154 caused significant increases in cell proliferation and migration. The increase in proliferation induced by TGF-β was not observed when NHLF or IPF fibroblasts were transfected with a mir-154 inhibitor. Transfection with miR-154 caused activation of the WNT pathway in NHLF. ICG-001 and XAV939, inhibitors of the WNT/β-catenin pathway, reduced the proliferative effect of miR-154. The potential role of miR-154, one of multiple chr14q32 microRNA cluster members up-regulated in IPF and a regulator of fibroblast migration and proliferation, should be further explored in IPF.
idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis; microRNA; TGF-β; WNT/β-catenin; developmental pathways
The genetic basis for the underlying individual susceptibility to chlorine-induced acute lung injury is unknown. To uncover the genetic basis and pathophysiological processes that could provide additional homeostatic capacities during lung injury, 40 inbred murine strains were exposed to chlorine, and haplotype association mapping was performed. The identified single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) associations were evaluated through transcriptomic and metabolomic profiling. Using ≥ 10% allelic frequency and ≥ 10% phenotype explained as threshold criteria, promoter SNPs that could eliminate putative transcriptional factor recognition sites in candidate genes were assessed by determining transcript levels through microarray and reverse real-time PCR during chlorine exposure. The mean survival time varied by approximately 5-fold among strains, and SNP associations were identified for 13 candidate genes on chromosomes 1, 4, 5, 9, and 15. Microarrays revealed several differentially enriched pathways, including protein transport (decreased more in the sensitive C57BLKS/J lung) and protein catabolic process (increased more in the resistant C57BL/10J lung). Lung metabolomic profiling revealed 95 of the 280 metabolites measured were altered by chlorine exposure, and included alanine, which decreased more in the C57BLKS/J than in the C57BL/10J strain, and glutamine, which increased more in the C57BL/10J than in the C57BLKS/J strain. Genetic associations from haplotype mapping were strengthened by an integrated assessment using transcriptomic and metabolomic profiling. The leading candidate genes associated with increased susceptibility to acute lung injury in mice included Klf4, Sema7a, Tns1, Aacs, and a gene that encodes an amino acid carrier, Slc38a4.
ARDS; countermeasures; glutamine; genetics; metabolomics
Primary human distal lung/parenchymal fibroblasts (DLFs) exhibit a different phenotype from airway fibroblasts (AFs), including the expression of high levels of α–smooth muscle actin (α-SMA). The scope of the differences between these anatomically differentiated fibroblasts, or the mechanisms driving them, has remained unknown. To determine whether the different characteristics of regional fibroblasts are predicted by distinct genomic differences in AFs versus DLFs, matched human fibroblast pairs were isolated from proximal and distal lung tissue and evaluated. Microarray analysis was performed on 12 matched fibroblast pairs (four normal and eight asthmatic samples) and validated by quantitative real-time PCR. The potential functional implications of these differences were analyzed using computational approaches. Four hundred seventy-four transcripts were up-regulated in AFs, and 611 were up-regulated in DLFs via microarray analysis. No differences in normal and asthmatic fibroblasts were evident, and the data were combined for subsequent analyses. Gene ontology and network analyses suggested distinct patterns of pathway activation between AFs and DLFs. The up-regulation of extracellular matrix–associated molecules in AFs was observed, whereas genes associated with actin binding and cytoskeletal organization were up-regulated in DLFs. The up-regulation of activated/total SMAD3 and c-Jun N-terminal kinase in DLFs may partly explain these myofibroblast-like characteristics in DLFs. Thus, marked genomic differences exist between these two populations of regional lung fibroblasts. These striking differences may help identify potential mechanisms by which AFs and DLFs differ in their responses to injury, regeneration, and remodeling in the lung.
human lung fibroblasts; α–smooth muscle actin; microarray; SMAD; JNK; MAPK8
Chronic lung diseases are marked by excessive inflammation and epithelial remodeling. Reduced Clara cell secretory function and corresponding decreases in the abundance of the major Clara cell secretory protein (CCSP) are characteristically seen in these disease states. We sought to define the impact of Clara cell and CCSP depletion on regulation of the lung inflammatory response. We used chemical and genetic mouse models of Clara cell and CCSP deficiency (CCSP−/−) coupled with Pseudomonas aeruginosa LPS elicited inflammation. Exposure of Clara cell–depleted or CCSP−/− mice to LPS resulted in augmented inflammation as assessed by polymorphonuclear leukocyte recruitment to the airspace. Gene expression analysis and pathway modeling of the CCSP−/− inflammatory response implicated increased TNF-α signaling. Consistent with this model was the demonstration of significantly elevated TNF-α in airway fluid of LPS-stimulated CCSP−/− mice compared with similarly exposed wild-type mice. Increased LPS-elicited TNF-α production was also observed in cultured lung macrophages from CCSP−/− mice compared with wild-type mice. We demonstrate that macrophages from Clara cell–depleted and CCSP−/− mice displayed increased Toll-like receptor 4 surface expression. Our results provide evidence that Clara cells can attenuate inflammation through regulation of macrophage behavior, and suggest that epithelial remodeling leading to reduced Clara cell secretory function is an important factor that increases the intensity of lung inflammation in chronic lung disease.
Clara cell; Clara cell secretory protein; inflammation; LPS; macrophage
Usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) is a specific histopathologic pattern of interstitial lung fibrosis that may be idiopathic or secondary to autoimmune diseases and environmental exposures. In this study, we compared gene expression patterns in primary fibroblasts isolated from lung tissues with UIP histology and fibroblasts isolated from lung tissues with normal histology using expression microarrays. We found that WNT5A was significantly increased in fibroblasts obtained from UIP lung tissues compared with normal lung fibroblasts, an observation verified by quantitative real-time RT-PCR and Western blot. Because the role of WNT5A in UIP is unknown, we treated normal lung fibroblasts or UIP lung fibroblasts with WNT5A, and found that WNT5A increased proliferation as well as relative resistance to H2O2-induced apoptosis. This effect was not mediated through the canonical WNT/β-catenin pathway, as WNT5A induced a decrease in β-catenin levels in the same cells. In addition, WNT5A induced increases in fibronectin and α5-integrin in normal lung fibroblasts. Collectively, our data suggest that WNT5A may play a role in fibroblast expansion and survival characteristics of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and other fibrotic interstitial lung diseases that exhibit UIP histological patterns.
gene expression; idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis; cell growth; apoptosis; extracellular matrix
Carbon monoxide (CO) is a biologically active molecule produced in the body by the stress-inducible enzyme, heme oxygenase. We have previously shown that CO suppresses fibrosis in a murine bleomycin model. To investigate the mechanisms by which CO opposes fibrogenesis, we performed gene expression profiling of fibroblasts treated with transforming growth factor-β1 and CO. The most highly differentially expressed categories of genes included those related to muscular system development and the small proline-rich family of proteins. We confirmed in vitro, and in an in vivo bleomycin model of lung fibrosis, that CO suppresses α–smooth muscle actin expression and enhances small proline-rich protein-1a expression. We further show that these effects of CO depend upon signaling via the extracellular signal–regulated kinase pathway. Our results demonstrate novel transcriptional targets for CO and further elucidate the mechanism by which CO suppresses fibrosis.
carbon monoxide; heme oxygenase-1; lung fibrosis; small proline-rich protein; α-smooth muscle actin
Bronchiolar Clara cells undergo phenotypic changes during development and in disease. These changes are poorly described due to a paucity of molecular markers. We used chemical and transgenic approaches to ablate Clara cells, allowing identification of their unique gene expression profile. Flavin monooxygenase 3 (Fmo3), paraoxonase 1 (Pon1), aldehyde oxidase 3 (Aox3), and claudin 10 (Cldn10) were identified as novel Clara cell markers. New and existing Clara cell marker genes were categorized into three classes based on their unique developmental expression pattern. Cldn10 was uniformly expressed in the epithelium at Embryonic Day (E)14.5 and became restricted to secretory cells at E18.5. This transition was defined by induction of CCSP. Maturation of secretory cells was associated with progressive increases in the expression of Fmo3, Pon1, Aox3, and Cyp2f2 between late embryonic and postnatal periods. Messenger RNA abundance of all categories of genes was dramatically decreased after naphthalene-induced airway injury, and displayed a sequence of temporal induction during repair that suggested sequential secretory cell maturation. We have defined a broader repertoire of Clara cell–specific genes that allows staging of epithelial maturation during development and repair.
Clara; Claudin-10; bronchiole; differentiation; lung development
The prevalence and morbidity of asthma, a chronic inflammatory airway disease, is increasing. Animal models provide a meaningful but limited view of the mechanisms of asthma in humans. A systems-level view of asthma that integrates multiple levels of molecular and functional information is needed. For this, we compiled a gene expression compendium from five publicly available mouse microarray datasets and a gene knowledge base of 4,305 gene annotation sets. Using this collection we generated a high-level map of the functional themes that characterize animal models of asthma, dominated by innate and adaptive immune response. We used Module Networks analysis to identify co-regulated gene modules. The resulting modules reflect four distinct responses to treatment, including early response, general induction, repression, and IL-13–dependent response. One module with a persistent induction in response to treatment is mainly composed of genes with suggested roles in asthma, suggesting a similar role for other module members. Analysis of IL-13–dependent response using protein interaction networks highlights a role for TGF-β1 as a key regulator of asthma. Our analysis demonstrates the discovery potential of systems-level approaches and provides a framework for applying such approaches to asthma.
house dust mite; IL-13; ovalbumin; systems biology; TGF-β