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Journals
Year of Publication
16.  A Diabetes Camp as the Service-Learning Capstone Experience in a Diabetes Concentration 
Objectives
To assess the effectiveness of a service-learning advanced pharmacy practice experience (APPE) in a diabetes camp to improve student confidence in diabetes knowledge and related skills
Design
Pharmacy students assisted medical staff during a week-long diabetes camp for children. Students participated in all aspects of diabetes care, as well as wrote pre- and post-camp reflection papers, completed online quizzes, presented an educational training session, and completed pre- and post-camp survey instruments.
Assessment
Students' confidence in their diabetes knowledge and patient care skills increased as a result of participating in the camp.
Conclusion
A diabetes camp APPE improved students' confidence in their knowledge and ability to manage diabetes, and allowed them to gain experience working with an interdisciplinary team in a unique real-world environment.
PMCID: PMC2690915  PMID: 19503703
service-learning; diabetes; camp; advanced pharmacy practice experience
17.  A Service-Learning Elective in Native American Culture, Health and Professional Practice 
Objectives
To evaluate the success of an elective course in Native American culture, health, and service-learning in fostering interest in experiences and careers with the USPHS Indian Health Service (IHS), and in shaping reflective practitioners.
Design
Students conducted readings, kept reflective journals, and engaged in discussions with Native American and non-Native American speakers. Students orally presented a Native American health issue and spent their fall break in Chinle, Ariz, providing social and healthcare services to the Diné under the supervision of IHS pharmacists. Opportunities for additional IHS experiences were discussed, as was discerning the Creator's call to a professional life of service.
Assessment
Thirteen of 15 students who had completed the service-learning course by January 2007 responded to a brief survey indicating that not only were the course objectives met, but the experiences had a lasting impact on professional mindset and career plans.
Conclusion
The course had a lasting impact on students' understanding of Native American social and health care issues, and on how they will practice their profession and live their lives.
PMCID: PMC2690930  PMID: 19503711
Indian Health Service; Native American; service-learning; reflection; cultural competence; USPHS
18.  Sharing Our Wealth 
PMCID: PMC2690928  PMID: 19503698
19.  Pharmacy Students' Approaches to Learning in an Australian University 
Objectives
To investigate how pharmacy students' approaches to learning change over the duration of a bachelor of pharmacy degree program.
Methods
Data were obtained from a cross-sectional, repeated measures design, using a validated self-report survey instrument. Areas examined included processing and regulation strategies, motivational preferences for learning, and the relationship between approaches to learning and academic performance.
Results
Pharmacy students were strongly vocationally oriented in their studies across all year groups. This approach had a significant relationship to academic performance. Overall, students indicated a preference for external regulation strategies. There was little evidence of maturation in approaches to learning as students progressed through the curriculum.
Conclusions
Students' preference for vocationally related strategies can be harnessed to increase both adoption of self-regulation behaviors and motivation for mastery of material. Comparison of our results with other studies indicates that approaches to learning may be influenced more by the learning environment than the discipline of study.
PMCID: PMC2690923  PMID: 19503704
learning, bachelor of pharmacy degree; Vermunt's Inventory of Learning Styles
21.  Research-related Coursework and Research Experiences in Doctor of Pharmacy Programs 
Objectives
To evaluate the research-related coursework and research experiences in doctor of pharmacy programs and compare the findings to those of 2 previous studies.
Methods
A questionnaire was mailed to 88 colleges and schools of pharmacy in the United States and Puerto Rico. The survey instrument sought information on formal research-related coursework; required and elective research experiences; and perceptions of student-conducted research.
Results
Seventy-nine colleges and schools completed the questionnaire for a response rate of 88%. Most colleges (>90%) required students to study/complete courses in biostatistics and drug information/literature evaluation; approximately half required research methods coursework. Twenty-five percent required some form of project and requirements were not influenced by class size. Students could often work in teams to complete projects. Respondents generally thought participation in research had some value for motivated students.
Conclusions
This study demonstrates the variability in extent of research-related coursework and research experiences in PharmD programs across the country.
PMCID: PMC2690916  PMID: 19503697
research education; education; pharmacy research
22.  Improving Pharmacy Students' Understanding and Long-term Retention of Acid-Base Chemistry 
Despite repeated exposure to the principles underlying the behavior of organic acids and bases in aqueous solution, some pharmacy students remain confused about the topic of acid-base chemistry. Since a majority of organic drug molecules have acid-base character, the ability to predict their reactivity and the extent to which they will ionize in a given medium is paramount to students' understanding of essentially all aspects of drug action in vivo and in vitro. This manuscript presents a medicinal chemistry lesson in the fundamentals of acid-base chemistry that many pharmacy students have found enlightening and clarifying
PMCID: PMC2690908  PMID: 19503706
medicinal chemistry; acid-base chemistry; acid-base equilibria; Henderson-Hasselbalch equation
23.  Medicinal Chemistry and Therapeutic Relevance of Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors 
Chemical Basis of Drug Action (PHA337 and PHA447) is a required 2-semester course sequence taught to second-professional year pharmacy students at Creighton University in both the campus and distance-education pathways. The course emphasizes integration of previous content, critical thinking, and therapeutic relevance. The content and learning experiences are organized to transition the students' thinking through a constructive process that provides ample opportunities to recall and integrate previous knowledge, learn and apply new knowledge, establish a logical connection between the science and its therapeutic relevance, and finally to apply the science knowledge to predict clinical activity and clinical outcomes as can be expected in a patient. This manuscript is based on the angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors as an illustration of how our course objectives are accomplished.
PMCID: PMC2690933  PMID: 19503707
medicinal chemistry; angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs); therapeutics, critical thinking
24.  An Interdisciplinary Oral History Initiative 
To achieve a significant educational experience that offered effective and lasting change in students' attitudes about expertise and collaboration, the authors designed an interdisciplinary project that purposefully linked students from history of pharmacy and communication studies courses. Over 3 successive semesters, 60 students formed interdisciplinary teams to design, conduct, and transcribe area pharmacists' oral histories. This project challenged students to overcome stereotypes, address anxiety about working with people outside traditional peer groups, and recognize specialized knowledge and skills they offered to the interdisciplinary partnership. Fifty-seven students wrote individual reflective self analyses that examined their own attitudes and experiences prior to, during, and after the project. Qualitative and quantitative analyses of the students' accounts provided substantial insight into the value of the interdisciplinary and intergenerational experience as well as students' recognition of disciplinary expertise, both in and outside of their respective majors.
PMCID: PMC2690934  PMID: 19503708
interdisciplinary education; oral history
25.  Perception of Pharmacy Students in Malaysia on the Use of Objective Structured Clinical Examinations to Evaluate Competence 
Objectives
To assess bachelor of pharmacy students' overall perception and acceptance of an objective structured clinical examination (OSCE), a new method of clinical competence assessment in pharmacy undergraduate curriculum at our Faculty, and to explore its strengths and weaknesses through feedback.
Methods
A cross-sectional survey was conducted via a validated 49-item questionnaire, administered immediately after all students completed the examination. The questionnaire comprised of questions to evaluate the content and structure of the examination, perception of OSCE validity and reliability, and rating of OSCE in relation to other assessment methods. Open-ended follow-up questions were included to generate qualitative data.
Results
Over 80% of the students found the OSCE to be helpful in highlighting areas of weaknesses in their clinical competencies. Seventy-eight percent agreed that it was comprehensive and 66% believed it was fair. About 46% felt that the 15 minutes allocated per station was inadequate. Most importantly, about half of the students raised concerns that personality, ethnicity, and/or gender, as well as interpatient and interassessor variability were potential sources of bias that could affect their scores. However, an overwhelming proportion of the students (90%) agreed that the OSCE provided a useful and practical learning experience.
Conclusions
Students' perceptions and acceptance of the new method of assessment were positive. The survey further highlighted for future refinement the strengths and weaknesses associated with the development and implementation of an OSCE in the International Islamic University Malaysia's pharmacy curriculum.
PMCID: PMC2690929  PMID: 19503702
clinical competence; objective structured clinical examination (OSCE); bachelor of pharmacy degree; assessment

Results 1-25 (146)