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1.  Active-Learning Assignments to Integrate Basic Science and Clinical Course Material 
Objective
To develop, implement, and evaluate active-learning exercises requiring the integration and application of pathophysiology, medicinal chemistry, pharmacology, and therapeutics knowledge of osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis to formulate therapeutic recommendations for patients with musculoskeletal disorders.
Design
Two team-based case study exercises, one evaluating a patient with osteoarthritis and the second, a patient with rheumatoid arthritis, were developed, incorporating material and questions from pathophysiology, medicinal chemistry, pharmacology, and therapeutics. The learning assignments were implemented in a required pharmacotherapy module.
Assessment
Student learning was evaluated using performance on the team-based case study exercises and on 2 examinations. A standard student course evaluation was used to assess students' impressions of the learning activity. The mean student grades for the osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis activities were 9.1 and 8.9, respectively, on a 10-point scale. The majority of students indicated that the learning exercises were more than adequate to excellent in helping students learn.
Conclusion
The addition of active-learning activities was successful in teaching pharmacy students the knowledge needed to formulate therapeutic recommendations for patients with musculoskeletal disorders.
PMCID: PMC2972513  PMID: 21088724
team-based learning; case-based learning; active learning; osteoarthritis; rheumatoid arthritis; integrated courses
2.  Pharmacy Students' Participation in a Research Experience Culminating in Journal Publication 
Objectives
To examine factors that influenced doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) students to collaborate with faculty members, preceptors, or others on scholarly activities that resulted in publication of an article in a pharmacy journal, and whether this experience influenced their consideration of a career in academic pharmacy.
Methods
A 17-question survey instrument was e-mailed to student authors of papers published between 2004 and 2008 in 6 pharmacy journals. Responses were analyzed to determine factors influencing student participation in research and whether the experience led them to consider a career in academic pharmacy.
Results
Factors about their participation in the scholarly activity that respondents found valuable included personal fulfillment and making a contribution to the literature. Respondents indicated they were more interested in a career in academic pharmacy after their participation in the scholarly experience (p < 0.001).
Conclusions
Participation in scholarly activities and student authorship of a peer-reviewed journal manuscript during pharmacy school may lead to increased interest in a career in academic pharmacy.
PMCID: PMC2865413  PMID: 20498740
pharmacy student; publication; scholarship; faculty recruitment; journal
3.  Perceived Stress and Quality of Life Among Doctor of Pharmacy Students 
Objectives
To examine stress and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) among third-year doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) students.
Methods
Stress and HRQOL were determined using Perceived Stress and SF-12 HRQOL survey instruments. A questionnaire was administered to determine factors students believed produced and eliminated stress.
Results
Eighty percent of third-year students participated (n=109) in this pilot study. Mental HRQOL scores were significantly below US mean score for individuals aged 20-34 years (p<0.0001). As stress increased, mental HRQOL decreased and a significant negative correlation was found between the 2 measures (p<0.001). Family and relationships, examinations and scheduling, outside-of-class assignments, and finances were the most common stress triggers reported by students, while exercising, spending time with friends/family, sleeping, watching TV, and drinking alcohol were the most commonly reported stress-alleviating activities.
Conclusion
Third-year PharmD students reported relatively high levels of stress and low mental HRQOL. Students employed mostly positive, but some negative, lifestyle choices to alleviate stress. Further investigation into the effectiveness of students' coping strategies is needed.
PMCID: PMC2661164  PMID: 19325957
health-related quality of life; doctor of pharmacy students; mental health; emotional health
4.  An Active-Learning Assignment Using Nonprescription Medicines 
Objective
To create and implement a web-based written assignment to evaluate student's abilities to select appropriate nonprescription medications and recommend therapy.
Design
Each student developed a patient case study from an assigned condition, made treatment recommendations, and provided patient counseling information using at least 2 nonprescription medicines. The active-learning exercise required students to apply information previously presented in a large classroom setting.
Assessment
Cases most commonly submitted included therapy for burns, acne, conjunctivitis, lacerations, and poison ivy. One-hundred five students completed a 5-item questionnaire regarding the assignment. The majority of the respondents (51.9%) felt the assignment helped to reinforce course content and 58.1% felt it made them more comfortable with making product recommendations.
Conclusion
The Personal Pharmacy assignment was an effective learning activity for enhancing student's understanding and appropriate selection of nonprescription medicines.
PMCID: PMC2254249  PMID: 18322581
active learning; nonprescription medicines; self-care

Results 1-4 (4)