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1.  A Web-based Interprofessional Diabetes Education Course 
Objective
To develop a comprehensive diabetes management course for pharmacy students that is available to all colleges and schools of pharmacy via the Internet.
Design
DM Educate, a Web-based course consisting of 12 topic modules with video lectures, active-learning exercises, and test questions prepared by nationally recognized experts was developed. The modular design allows use as a standalone, 3-credit course or use of individual module content as a supplement to an existing course.
Assessment
Two pilot studies found the comprehensive, interprofessional nature of the material beneficial for learners. Students showed a significant increase in knowledge of the subject material by correctly answering 26 of 34 questions on the posttest compared to answering only 14 of 34 questions correctly on the pretest (p < 0.001). Student feedback was positive for the flexibility of the Web-based format.
Conclusion
Pilot studies demonstrated the effectiveness of the course, which became available in the 2006-2007 academic year.
PMCID: PMC2064891  PMID: 17998990
Internet; diabetes; distance instruction
2.  Instructor Satisfaction With a Technology-based Resource for Diabetes Education 
Objectives
To evaluate instructor use patterns and satisfaction with DM Educate, a comprehensive, Web-based diabetes course.
Methods
Instructors completed a post-course survey instrument to assess their use of course materials and components, as well as satisfaction with the course content, design, and technology utilized, and to solicit their suggestions for additional content areas.
Results
Thirty-eight percent of respondents utilized DM Educate as a standalone elective and 62% had integrated materials into existing courses. The pharmacotherapy module was the most utilized at 91% and slide sets were the most utilized course components at 63%. All instructors stated that they would use the course again the following year. Suggestions for improvement included incorporation of more active-learning activities and patient cases.
Conclusion
Instructors’ were highly satisfied with the course materials and technology used by DM Educate, a Web-based diabetes education course, and indicated they were able to customize the course materials both to establish new courses and supplement existing courses. All instructors planned to use the course again.
PMCID: PMC2703282  PMID: 19564988
diabetes; distance education; Internet; pharmacotherapy
3.  Educating Students for Practice: Educational Outcomes and Community Experience 
The education of pharmacists in the United States integrates classroom and experiential learning. Two organizations played a key role in determining the current education of pharmacy students. They are the Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education and the American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy. The curriculum offered today provides opportunities for students to learn and achieve ability-based outcomes in both didactic and experiential courses. This review of pharmacy education focuses generally on the national leadership of pharmacy education both past and present and specifically on outcomes of practice that students are expected to achieve. Included in the discussion are recommendations for how preceptors in a community practice model can build on the college curriculum by recognizing and incorporating ability-based outcomes into their activities of the introductory and advanced practice courses.
PMCID: PMC1636890  PMID: 17136161
curriculum; ability-based outcomes; introductory pharmacy practice experience; advanced pharmacy practice experience; community pharmacy
4.  The Status of Women in US Academic Pharmacy 
Objective. To describe the status of women in pharmacy education with particular focus on a 10-year update of a previous study.
Methods. Information was obtained from national databases, published reports, scholarly articles, and association websites. Comparisons were made between men and women regarding degree completion, rank, tenure status, leadership positions, research awards, salaries, and career advancement.
Results. There have been modest gains in the number of women serving as department chairs and deans. Salary disparities were found between men and women at several ranks within pharmacy practice. Men were more apt to be tenured or in tenure-track positions and received 89.4% of the national achievement awards tracked since 1981.
Conclusion. The problem cannot be simply attributed to the pipeline of those entering academia. Barriers to advancement differ between men and women. We recommend that individuals, institutions, and associations implement strategies to decrease barriers and reduce bias against women.
doi:10.5688/ajpe7810178
PMCID: PMC4315200  PMID: 25657365
women; pharmacy education; faculty
7.  Development of an Antimicrobial Stewardship-based Infectious Diseases Elective that Incorporates Human Patient Simulation Technology 
Objective. To design an elective for pharmacy students that facilitates antimicrobial stewardship awareness, knowledge, and skill development by solving clinical cases, using human patient simulation technology.
Design. The elective was designed for PharmD students to describe principles and functions of stewardship programs, select, evaluate, refine, or redesign patient-specific plans for infectious diseases in the context of antimicrobial stewardship, and propose criteria and stewardship management strategies for an antimicrobial class at a health care institution. Teaching methods included active learning and lectures. Cases of bacterial endocarditis and cryptococcal meningitis were developed that incorporated human patient simulation technology.
Assessment. Forty-five pharmacy students completed an antimicrobial stewardship elective between 2010 and 2013. Outcomes were assessed using student perceptions of and performance on rubric-graded assignments.
Conclusion. A PharmD elective using active learning, including novel cases conducted with human patient simulation technology, enabled outcomes consistent with those desired of pharmacists assisting in antimicrobial stewardship programs.
doi:10.5688/ajpe788151
PMCID: PMC4226288  PMID: 25386016
active learning; simulation; technology; antimicrobial stewardship; infectious diseases
10.  An Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experience in Inpatient Medication Education 
Objective
To describe a unique advanced pharmacy practice experience (APPE) in which pharmacy students provided medication education to hospitalized patients.
Design
Students were trained to independently assess patients' needs for education and identify drug-related problems. Students then provided medication education and performed medication therapy management under the supervision of clinical staff pharmacists. To assess the impact of the APPE, the number of hospitalized patients assessed and educated during the 3-month time period prior to student involvement was compared to the first 3 months of the APPE.
Assessment
Student participation increased the number of patients receiving medication education and medication therapy management from the hospital pharmacy. At the end of the APPE, students reported that the experience positively affected their ability to impact patients' care and to critique their own learning and skills.
Conclusion
The inpatient medication education APPE provided students the opportunity to be responsible and accountable for the provision of direct patient care. In addition, the APPE benefitted the hospital, the school of pharmacy, and, most importantly, the patients.
PMCID: PMC2690869  PMID: 19513148
patient education; advanced pharmacy practice experience; medication therapy management; hospital
12.  Preparing Pharmacy Graduates for Traditional and Emerging Career Opportunities 
Educational programs in pharmacy must focus on educating pharmacists of the future who are prepared to serve as competent and confident health care “providers” whose “practice” can occur in any number of current and future settings; and whose expertise is essential to an interprofessional health care team. Graduates must be able to incorporate a scholarly approach to their practice in identifying patient care problems; practicing in an evidence-based manner; and ensuring safe, effective, and appropriate use of medications. It is time for colleges and schools of pharmacy to implement contemporary teaching and assessment strategies that facilitate effective and efficient student learning that is focused at the graduate professional level, to evolve the content around which the curriculum is organized, and clearly articulate the abilities graduates must have to function effectively in the myriad professional roles in which they may find themselves.
PMCID: PMC2828318  PMID: 20221350

Results 1-12 (12)