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1.  Multispectral visualization of surgical safety-margins using fluorescent marker seeds 
Optical guidance provided by luminescent marker seeds may be suitable for intraoperative determination of appropriate resection margins. In phantom studies we compared the tissue penetration of several organic dyes and inorganic particles (quantum dots; QDs) after incorporation in experimental marker seeds. The tissue penetration of (near infra-) red organic dyes was much better than the penetration of dyes and QDs with an emission in the visible range. By combining 3 dyes in a single marker seed we were able to distinguish four depth ranges. The difference in tissue penetration between the dyes and QDS enabled depth estimation via a ‘traffic light’ approach.
PMCID: PMC3477729  PMID: 23133810
Surgical guidance; fluorescence; tissue penetration; phantom studies; marker seeds
2.  Non-invasive longitudinal imaging of tumor progression using an 111indium labeled CXCR4 peptide antagonist 
The chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) is a biomarker that is over-expressed in ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS). Hence, CXCR4-targeted (molecular) imaging approaches may have diagnostic value in such a challenging, premalignant lesion. The indium labeled CXCR4 peptide-antagonist, 111In-DTPA-Ac-TZ14011, was used to visualize CXCR4-expression in a mammary intraepithelial neoplastic outgrowth (MIN-O) mouse tumor model resembling human DCIS. MIN-O lesion development was longitudinally monitored using SPET/CT and tracer uptake was compared to uptake in control lesions. Expression of CXCR4 was validated using immunohistochemistry and flow cytometric analysis. The uptake of 111In-DTPA-Ac-TZ14011 was related to tumor angiogenesis using 111In-cDTPA-[RGDfK]. Twenty-four hours after tracer injection, MIN-O lesions could be discriminated from low CXCR4-expressing control tumors, while the degree of angiogenesis based on the αvβ3 integrin expression in both tumor types was similar. The uptake of 111In-DTPA-Ac-TZ14011 in early MIN-O lesions was significantly lower than in larger intermediate and late-stage lesions, two-and-a-half-times (p=0.03) and seven-times (p=0.002), respectively. Intermediate and late stage lesions show a higher degree of membranous CXCR4-staining at immunohistochemistry and flow cytometric analysis. From this study we can conclude that 111In-DTPA-Ac-TZ14011 can be used to visualize the CXCR4-expression in MIN-O lesions longitudinally.
PMCID: PMC3478110  PMID: 23133805
Chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4); ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS); single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT); mouse model; tumor progression; longitudinal imaging

Results 1-2 (2)