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1.  Intravenous administration of diazepam significantly reduces brown fat activity on 18F-FDG PET/CT 
Background
Brown adipose tissue (BAT) activity on 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET/CT can introduce an undesirable element of complexity when attempting to discern physiologic activity from more ominous entities. Recent studies have demonstrated several methods to reduce BAT FDG uptake. Benzodiazepines, however, have yet to been proven effective against BAT.
Methods
Twenty-five patients with increased BAT FDG uptake were selected retrospectively from our PET/CT database between November 2004 and January 2011. These patients had been asked to return on a different day for repeat scanning with 5mg of intravenous diazepam, administered ten minutes prior to FDG. Two patients underwent this procedure on a second occasion (for a follow-up scan at a later date), thus resulting in a total of twenty-seven scans from twenty five patients. FDG uptake in BAT was recorded using the maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax).
Results
The mean basal BAT SUVmax was 10.1 ± 4.6 compared to a mean SUVmax of 2.8 ± 3.3 post IV diazepam (p < 0.0001). Approximately 89% (24 of 27) of scans had no significant residual BAT activity. The three remaining scans had a reduction in SUVmax ranging from 23-64% following diazepam administration. No adverse effects were noted.
Conclusion
We observed a significant reduction in brown fat activity in para-spinal, cervical, mediastinal, para-adrenal, and supra- and infra-clavicular regions on PET/CT following premedication with intravenous diazepam. We feel that IV benzodiazepines should be considered a pharmacologic option for reducing BAT FDG uptake, which in turn, will aid in distinguishing physiologic metabolic activity from pathology.
PMCID: PMC3477718  PMID: 23133792
Brown adipose tissue; diazepam; 18F-FDG PET

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