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1.  Healthy Behaviors, Risk Factor Control and Awareness of Chronic Kidney Disease 
American journal of nephrology  2013;37(2):135-143.
Background/Aims
The association between chronic kidney disease (CKD) awareness and healthy behaviors is unknown. We examined whether CKD self-recognition is associated with healthy behaviors and achieving risk-reduction targets known to decrease risk of cardiovascular morbidity and CKD progression.
Methods
CKD awareness, defined as a “yes” response to “Has a doctor or other health professional ever told you that you had kidney disease?”, was examined among adults with CKD (eGFR < 60 ml/min/1.73 m2) who participated in the REasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke study. Odds of participation in healthy behaviors (tobacco avoidance, avoidance of regular NSAID use, physical activity) and achievement of risk reduction targets (ACEI/ARB use, systolic blood pressure (SBP) control and glycemic control among those with diabetes) among those aware vs. unaware of their CKD were determined by logistic regression, controlling for socio-demographics, access to care and co-morbid conditions. SBP control was defined as < 130 mmHg (primary definition) or < 140 mmHg (secondary definition).
Results
Of 2,615 participants, only 6% (n=166) were aware of having CKD. Those who were aware had 82% higher odds of tobacco avoidance compared to those unaware [adjusted odds ratio =1.82, 95% CI (1.02–3.24)]. CKD awareness was not associated other healthy behaviors or achievement of risk-reduction targets.
Conclusions
Awareness of CKD was only associated with participation in one healthy behavior and was not associated with achievement of risk-reduction targets. To encourage adoption of healthy behaviors, a better understanding of barriers to participation in CKD-healthy behaviors is needed. Keywords: chronic kidney disease, awareness, behaviors, self-management
doi:10.1159/000346712
PMCID: PMC3649001  PMID: 23392070
Chronic kidney disease; awareness; self-management; behaviors
2.  Poverty and Racial Disparities in Kidney Disease: The REGARDS Study 
American Journal of Nephrology  2010;32(1):38-46.
There are pronounced disparities among black compared to white Americans for risk of end-stage renal disease. This study examines whether similar relationships exist between poverty and racial disparities in chronic kidney disease (CKD) prevalence.
Methods
We studied 22,538 participants in the REasons for Geographic And Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) cohort study. We defined individual poverty as family income below USD 15,000 and a neighborhood as poor if 25% or more of the households were below the federal poverty level.
Results
As the estimated glomerular filtration rate (GFR) declined from 50–59 to 10–19 ml/min/ 1.73 m2, the black:white odds ratio (OR) for impaired kidney function increased from 0.74 (95% CI 0.66, 0.84) to 2.96 (95% CI 1.96, 5.57). Controlling for individual income below poverty, community poverty, demographic and comorbid characteristics attenuated the black:white prevalence to an OR of 0.65 (95% CI 0.57, 0.74) among individuals with a GFR of 59–50 ml/min/1.73 m2 and an OR of 2.21 (95% CI 1.25, 3.93) among individuals with a GFR between 10 and 19 ml/min/ 1.73 m2.
Conclusion
Household, but not community poverty, was independently associated with CKD and attenuated but did not fully account for differences in CKD prevalence between whites and blacks.
doi:10.1159/000313883
PMCID: PMC2914392  PMID: 20516678
Chronic kidney disease; Poverty; Racial disparities
3.  Physical and Psychological Burden of Chronic Kidney Disease among Older Adults 
American Journal of Nephrology  2010;31(4):309-317.
Introduction
The purpose of the study is to determine if functional status and quality of life (QoL) vary with glomerular filtration rate (GFR) among older adults.
Methods
We studied adults aged 45 years and older participating in the REasons for Geographic And Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) cohort study. Data included demographic and health information, serum creatinine and hemoglobin, the 4-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D-4), the 4-item Cohen's Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-4), reported health status and inactivity and the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form-12 (SF-12) QoL scores.
Results
CKD (GFR <60 ml/min/1.73 m2) was present in 11.6% of the subjects. As GFR declined, the SF-12 physical component score, adjusted for other participant attributes, declined from 38.9 to 35.9 (p = 0.0001). After adjustment for other risk factors, poorer personal health scores (p < 0.0001) and decreased physical activity (p < 0.0001) were reported as GFR declined. In contrast, after adjusting for other participant characteristics, depression scores and stress scores and the mental component score of the SF-12 were not associated with kidney function.
Conclusion
Older individuals with CKD in the US population experience an increased prevalence of impaired QoL that cannot be fully explained by other individual characteristics.
doi:10.1159/000285113
PMCID: PMC2859227  PMID: 20164652
Functional status; Quality of life; Chronic kidney disease; End-stage renal disease; Glomerular filtration rate; REGARDS cohort study; Medical Outcomes Study Short Form-12

Results 1-3 (3)