African Americans (AAs) are predisposed to non-diabetic (non-DM) end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and studies have shown a genetic component to this risk. Rare mutations in ACTN4 (α-actinin-4) an actin binding protein expressed in podocytes cause familial focal segmental glomerulosclerosis.
We assessed the contribution of coding variants in ACTN4 to non-DM ESRD risk in AAs. Nineteen exons, 2800 bases of the promoter and 392 bases of the 3’ untranslated region of ACTN4 were sequenced in 96 AA non-DM ESRD cases and 96 non-nephropathy controls (384 chromosomes). Sixty-seven single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) including 51 novel SNPs were identified. The SNPs comprised 33 intronic, 21 promoter, 12 exonic, and 1 3’ variant. Sixty-two of the SNPs were genotyped in 296 AA non-DM ESRD cases and 358 non-nephropathy controls.
One SNP, rs10404257, was associated with non-DM ESRD (p<1.0E-4, odds ratio (OR)=0.76, confidence interval (CI)=0.59–0.98; additive model). Forty-seven SNPs had minor allele frequencies less than 5%. These SNPs were segregated into risk and protective SNPs and each category was collapsed into a single marker, designated by the presence or absence of any rare allele. The presence of any rare allele at a risk SNP was significantly associated with non-DM ESRD (p = 0.001, dominant model). The SNPs with the strongest evidence for association (n = 20) were genotyped in an independent set of 467 non-DM ESRD cases and 279 controls. Although, rs10404257 was not associated in this replication sample, when the samples were combined rs10404257 was modestly associated (p=0.032, OR=0.78, CI=0.63–0.98; dominant model). SNPs were tested for interaction with markers in the APOL1 gene, previously associated with non-DM ESRD in AAs and rs10404257 was modestly associated (p = 0.0261, additive model).
This detailed evaluation of ACTN4 variation revealed limited evidence of association with non-DM ESRD in AAs.